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Undertaken by Balliol College and the University 
Press, under the editorship of j. A. SMITH and SIR 
DAVID ROSS, and latterly carried on under the sole 
editorship of SIR DAVID ROSS. The translations are by 



volumes, corre? *ding in content with Bekker's 8vo 
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W. D. ROSS M.A. 




11 V 



Oxford University Press, Ely House, London W. i 









IQ4Q, 1956, 1962, 1967 


IT was the desire of the late Master of Balliol, Dr. Ben- 
jamin Jowett, as formulated in his will, that the proceeds 
from the sale of his works, the copyright in which he 
bequeathed to Balliol College, should be used to promote the 
study of Greek Literature, especially by the publication of 
new translations and editions of Greek authors. In a codicil 
to his will he expressed the hope that the translation of 
Aristotle's works begun by his own translation of the Politics 
should be proceeded with as speedily as possible. The 
College resolved that the funds thus accruing to them should, 
in memory of his services to the College and to Greek 
letters, be applied to the subvention of a series of translations 
of the works of Aristotle. Through the co-operation, financial 
and other, of the Delegates of the University Press it has now 
become possible to begin the realization of this design. By 
agreement between the College and the Delegates of the Press 
the present editors were appointed to superintend the carrying 
out of the scheme. The series is published at the joint 
expense and risk of the College and the Delegates of the 

The editors have secured the co-operation of various 
scholars in the task of translation. The translations make 
no claim to finality, but aim at being such as a scholar might 
construct in preparation for a critical edition and commentary. 
Wherever new readings are proposed the fact will be indi- 
cated, but notes justificatory of conjectural emendations 
or defensive of novel interpretations will, where admitted, be 
reduced to the' smallest compass. 

iii a 2 


The editors, while retaining a general right of revision and 
annotation, will leave the responsibility for each translation to 
its author. 

J. A. S. 
W. D. R. 

This book has been compiled at various times and at long 
intervals during very many years. The translation, which 
owes much to my father's helping hand in years long gone 
by, is based upon the text of Bekker ; but in subsequent 
revisions I have included all that seemed to me most useful 
and appropriate from the texts or textual annotations of 
Schneider, Aubert and Wimmer. Piccolos, and Dittmeyer, To 
the emendations proposed by these commentators I have 
added some few of my own, which will be found brought 
together in a brief appendix. Many of these suggestions of 
mine are admittedly venturesome, and but very few of them 
have been adopted in my translation ; but they all relate to 
passages where the text as it at present stands is in my 
opinion faulty,, and where conjecture may be a help towards 
further consideration and ultimate emendation. 

The so-called Tenth Book of the His tor ia Animalium has 
not been translated. It is spurious beyond question, and its 
contents have neither general nor particular interest. 

My editors have been liberal in allowing me greater scope 
of annotation than was contemplated in the outset for the 
volumes of this series ; but nevertheless I have felt constrained 
to omit much that I had written, especially on the zoological 
side of my commentary. To annotate, illustrate, and criticize 
Aristotle's knowledge of natural history is a task without an 

Many friends and colleagues have given me abundantly of 
their knowledge and advice, and my editors have been 
assiduous in all manner of help and counsel. 

D. W. T. 










IN the following notes I have taken little account of matters of 
geography, but it seems worth while to call attention to the frequent 
reference in this book, and in certain other Aristotelian writings, to 
the island of Lesbos and to places in and near it (cf. Strabo xiii. 2). 
Thus, for instance, we have mention made of Lesbos (H. A. 62i b 22, 
G.A. 763 b I), Antissa (Probl. 1303* 34, Oecon. I347 a 25), Arginussa 
(H.A. 578 b 27), Lectum(/f.,4. 547*5), Mitylene (Pol. 1304*4, I3ii b 26, 
Vent. 973* H, fr. I52i b 3), Pordoselene (H.A. 6o5 b 29), Proconnesus 
(Vent. 973* 20, fr. I52i b 13), Pyrrha (G. A. 763 b i), and the Pyrrhaean 
Euripus (H.A. 544* 21, 548* 9, 603* 21, 62i b 12, P. A. 68o b i) ; and 
I think it, further, not improbable that Ma\'n (H. A. 548 b 25) should 
be MuAi'a, the south-eastern promontory of Lesbos. 

We know that Aristotle spent two years in Mitylene, when he was 
about forty years old : that is to say, some three years after the death 
of Plato, just after his sojourn with Hermias of Atarneus, just prior to 
his residence at the court of Philip, and some ten years before he 
returned to Athens to begin teaching in the Lyceum (Dion. Hal. Ep. I 
ad Ammaeum, p. 727 R). Throughout the Natural History references 
to places in Greece are few, while they are comparatively frequent to 
places in Macedonia and to places on the coast of Asia Minor, all the 
way from the Bosphorus to the Carian coast. I think it can be shown 
that Aristotle's natural history studies were carried on, or mainly 
carried on, in his middle age, between his two periods of residence in 
Athens ; that the calm, landlocked lagoon at Pyrrha was one of his 
favourite hunting-grounds ; and that his short stay in Euboea, during 
the last days of his life, has left little if any impress on his zoological 

Then it would appear that Aristotle's work in natural history was 
antecedent to his more strictly philosophical work, and it would follow 
that we might proceed legitimately to interpret the latter in the light 
of the former. And remembering that Speusippus also was a naturalist 
(to whose writings on fish and shellfish Athenaeus bears abundant 
testimony), we might permit ourselves to surmise that inquiries into 
natural history were in no small degree to be reckoned with as a cause 
of the modification of Plato's doctrine, alike, though not identically, at 
the hands of Aristotle and of the later Academy. 

vi i 



vii, 1. 6, for Probl. read Pol. 

4873 23, for diver y^atf shearwater 

488 a 31, for always read also 

498 a 26, note 3, for rerpaTToSes read TO. r 

505 b 18, note 3, for Ael. xii. 45 read Ael. ii. 17 

5ig b 23, note 4, /or Ael. iii. 13 read Ael. ii. 13 

525b 30, figure, transpose the numbers i, 2 

526 a 28, note 3, after SiaAeiVouv insert full stop 

528b 33, note, /or Ael. v. 34 mzd Ael. vii. 34 

537 a 1 8, note 2, delete Ael. xi. 43 

538 a 13, note i, delete Plut. Thes. 18 

5673 12, for looks read lows 

5yo a 32, note 3, delete where . . . referred to 

59i a 17, note i, for Epinephilus read Epinephelus 

6oob 12, for O.VTOLS read avals 

6iob 7, /or sarginus rea^/ gar-fish and for gar-fish read pipefish 

6l2 a 34, note I, for aaiBa read am8a 

62 7b 14, for inside read outside 

63o a 20, note 3, for Ael. viii. 3 read Ael. -vii. 3 

List of suggested textual alterations, 498* 26, for ol TtrpdiroSfs read ra 


Argonaut, delete 53 i a 35 
Bee, diseases of , for 622b 16 read 6a6b 16 
Cantharis, for 552b 31 read 552b i 
Cicada, hatching of, for 50 r a 7 read 6oi a 7 
Crustacea, hibernation of delete 599b 29 
Dolphin, hearing of, delete 539b 7 ; teats of, delete 54ob 21 
Murex, M. brandaris, for 5473 18 read 547b 18 
Oyster, delete 53i a 16, 5483 16 
Sea-urchin, /or species ^arf spines 
Trygon, breeding of, delete 540 a 31 



1 . Of parts, simple and composite ; of species and genera ; and of 

differences in form, character, and habits. 

2. Of the organs of alimentation and of excretion. 

-3. Of the organs of the male and female ; of the sense of touch. 
^4. Of the moisture in animals ; of blood and vein. 

5. Of animals viviparous, oviparous, and vermiparous ; of organs of 

locomotion, feet, fins, and wings. 

6. Of the genera of animals, such as birds, fishes, serpents, cetaceans, 

testaceans, crustaceans, molluscs ; and of isolated species, such as 
7. Of the parts of the body ; of the skull and its sutures. 

8. Of the face and forehead. 

9, 10. Of eyes and eyebrows. 
H. Of ears, nose, and tongue. 

12. Of the neck and thorax. 

13, 14. Of the belly and navel ; and of the private parts. 

15. Of the trunk and limbs. 

16. Of the brain ; of the lungs and windpipe ; of the gullet and stomach. 

17. Of the heart and other viscera. 


1. Of the limbs and their movements: of the huckle-bone; of wild 

cattle, elephants, camels, and of the martichore ; and of other 

2, 3, 4, 5. Of the teeth of dogs, of horses, of man, and of the elephant. 

6. Of the elephant's tongue. 

7. Of the mouth ; and of the Egyptian hippopotamus. 

8. 9. Of apes and monkeys. 
10. Of the crocodile. 

n. Of the chameleon. 

12. Of the characters of birds ; and of the Yunx or wryneck. 

13. Of fishes ; and of the dolphin. 

14. Of serpents and of sea-serpents ; and of the fish Echeneis. 

15. Of the chief genera of viviparous animals, and of their viscera; of 

maggots in the stag's head ; of the gall-bladder. 

16. Of the kidneys and bladder. 

17. Of the heart and liver ; of the stomach in ruminants, in the elephant, 

in birds, and in fishes ; of the anatomy of serpents ; of the eyes 
of serpents and of swallow-chicks. 




1. Of the organs of generation : in fishes, birds, and serpents; and in 

viviparous animals. 

2. Of the veins, according to Syennesis and Diogenes of Apollonia. 

3. 4. Of the same according to Polybus ; and of the true system of the 

veins or blood-vessels. 

5. Of sinews. 

6. Of fibre, and of the clot of blood. 

7. Of the bones. 

8. Of cartilage, or gristle. 

9. Of horns, nails, and hooves. 

10, II. Of hair and skin ; of baldness and of grey hair. 

12. Of feathers ; and of the influence of climate and season on the colour 

of feathers and of hair. 

13. Of the membranes of the bones and of the brain. 

14. 15. Of membranous parts : of the omentum or caul, and of the bladder. 
1 6. Of flesh. 

17. Of fat and suet. 

18. Of the pupil of the eye. 

19. Of blood in health and disease. 

20. Of marrow and of milk. 

21. Of milk ; of the sheep and oxen of Epirus ; of rennet and cheese. 
-22. Of the seed of animals. 


1. Of the several genera of bloodless animals ; of the poulpe or octopus, 

and of other molluscs or cuttlefishes. 

2, 3. Of crustaceans. 

4. Of testaceans. 

5. Of sea-urchins. 

6. Of tethya or ascidians ; and of sea-nettles or sea-anemones. 

7. Of insects ; and of certain anomalous marine animals. 

8. Of the senses : of the mole's eye ; of hearing, smell and taste in fishes, 

and in bloodless animals. 

9. Of voice and sound : in fishes, birds, and certain other animals. 
10. Of sleep and waking ; of the catching of fish asleep ; of dreaming. 

ll. Of the nature of male and female ; of the eel ; and of the fishes called 


Of generation, spontaneous and hereditary. 

2. Of pairing and copulation : in birds and in viviparous quadrupeds. 

3. Of the same in oviparous quadrupeds. 

4. Of the same in serpents and other animals of long bodies. 

5. Of the same in fishes ; and on the anomalous generation of the 




6. Of pairing and copulation in molluscs or cuttlefishes. 

7. Of the same in crustaceans. 

8. Of the pairing of insects ; of the season of pairing ; and of the bird 

called halcyon. 

9. Of the season of pairing : in birds, in insects, and in fishes. 
10, II. Of the same in fishes. 

12. Of the same in molluscs or cuttlefishes, and in testaceans. 

13. Of the same in birds, both wild and domesticated. 

14. Of the signs of age and of maturity, and of the pairing seasons : in 

man and quadrupeds. 

15. Of the generation of the purple murex and other testaceans ; and of 

the starfish and of the hermit crab. 

16. Of the spontaneous growth of the sea-nettle and of sponges. 

17. Of the breeding habits of crustaceans. 

18. Of the breeding habits of molluscs. 

19. Of the breeding habits of insects; of creatures that live on snow and 

in fire ; and of the ephemera. 

20. Of the breeding habits of the hunter- wasp or ichneumon. 

21. Of the breeding habits of bees. 

22. Of the varieties of bees ; and of honey. 

23. Of the breeding habits of wasps. 

24. Of the breeding habits of the humble-bee. 

25. Of the breeding habits of ants. 

26. Of the breeding habits of the scorpion. 

27. Of the breeding habits of spiders. 

28. 29. Of the breeding habits of grasshoppers and locusts. 
30. Of the breeding habits of the cicada, or tettix. 

-31. Of insects spontaneously generated : of fleas and of lice ; of the para- 
sites of fishes. 

32. Of the clothes-moth ; of the grub called ' faggot-bearer ' ; of the fig- 

wasp, and of the device of caprification. 

33. Of the generation of the tortoise, the lizard and the crocodile. 

34. Of the generation of serpents, and of the viper. 


1. Of the pairing and nesting of birds. 

2. Of eggs, their colour, shape, structure, and maturation; of wind-eggs; 

of the pairing-habits of pigeons. 

3. Of the structure of the hen's egg, and of the development of the chick 

therein ; of twin-eggs. 

4. Of the breeding habits of pigeons. 

5. Of the vulture ; and of swallow-chicks. 

6. Of eagles ; and of their treatment of their young. 

7. Of the cuckoo ; and of its laying in an alien nest. 

8. Of the brooding of pigeons, crows, and partridges. 



9. Of the habits of pea-fowl. 

10. Of the generation of cartilaginous fishes ; of the embryo and its 

membranes in the smooth dog-fishes. 

11. Of the breeding of cartilaginous fishes continued ; of the fish called 


12. Of the dolphin and other cetaceans, and of the seal ; and of their 

generation and parturition. 

13. Of the generation of oviparous fishes. 

14. Of the carp and sheat-fish, and sotne other fishes of fresh-water. 

15. Of the spontaneous generation of certain fishes. 

16. Of the anomalous generation of eels. 

17. Of the spawning season in fishes-; of the pipe-fish; and of the tunny 

and mackerel. 

1 8. Oi the phenomena of pairing and conception in viviparous animals, 

as camels, elephants, horses, kine, and swine. 

19. The same of sheep and goats. 

20. The same of dogs. 

21. The same, with further particulars, of cattle. 

22. The same of horses ; and of the substance called Hippomanes. 

23. The same of asses. 

24. Of mules ; and of the Syrophoenician mules that pair and breed ; of 

an old mule at Athens. 

25. Of the signs of age in quadrupeds. 

26. Of camels. 

27. Of elephants. 

28. Of wild swine. 

29. Of deer. 

30. Of bears. 

31. Of lions. 

32. Of the hyaena ; and of its fabled ambiguity of sex. 

33. Of hares. 

34. Of the fox. 

35. Of the wolf, the weasel, the ichneumon and the thos or civet. 

36. Of the Syrian mules. 

37. Of mice and of their prodigious fecundity ; of the mice in Persia and 

in Egypt. 


1. Of the signs of puberty in man and woman. 

2. Of the so-called catamenia. 

3. Of the signs of conception ; of effluxion and abortion. 

4. Of pregnancy ; of twins and of multiple births. 

5. Of lactation ; and of the period of child-bearing. 

6. Of the duration of fecundity ; of individual differences in regard to 

procreation and child-bearing ; of the inheritance of deformity ; 
and of resemblance to parents. 




7. Of impregnation ; and of development within the womb. 

8. Of the embryo. 

9. Of labour or parturition. 

10. Of delivery; and of the infant. 

n. Of milk; and of ailments of the breast. 

12. Of infantile convulsions and other maladies. 


1. Of the psychology of animals ; of the principle of continuity in the 

scale of organisms ; and of the definition of plant and animal. 

2. Of terrestrial and aquatic animals, and of various aspects of this 

distinction ; of the dolphin ; of the effect upon development of 
minute changes in the embryo ; of the habits and diet of various 
marine animals ; of eels and eel-fishing. 

3. Of the diet and habits of birds. 

4. The same of lizards and of serpents. 

5. The same of wild quadrupeds. 

6. Of drinking ; and of the diet and fattening of swine. 

7. Of the feeding and fattening of cattle ; of the Pyrrhic or Epirote cattle. 

8. Of the feeding of horses, mules, and asses ; and of the watering of 

domestic animals. 

9. Of the diet of the elephant ; and of the length of life of elephants 

and of camels. 

10. Of the diet of sheep and of goats. 
IT. Of the food of insects. 

12. Of the migration of birds. 

13. Of the habitat and migration of fishes. 

14. Of the winter-sleep or hibernation of insects. 

15. The same of fishes. 

16. The same of birds. 

17. The same of quadrupeds; and of the renewal of youth by sloughing 

or casting the skin in serpents, insects, and crustaceans. 

1 8. Of season and weather, and of drought and moisture, in relation to 

birds and other animals. 

19. The same of fishes ; of parasites of fishes. 

20. Of maladies peculiar to certain fishes ; of lice in the sea ; of devices 

for catching fish by poison and otherwise ; of rain and drought, 
and heat and cold, in relation to shell-fish. 

21. Of the diseases of swine. 

22. The same of dogs, and of the camel and elephant. 

23. The same of cattle. 

24. The same of horses. 

25. The same of the ass. 

26. The same of the elephant. 

27. Of insects ; of the parasitic enemies of the bee. 




28. Of diversity of local habitation ; and of climate as affecting the forms 

of animals. 

29. O'f the same as affecting their habits ; and of venomous creatures in 

certain countries. 

30. Of the condition of fishes and other marine animals in respect of 



1. Of the psychology of animals; of the psychological differentiation of 

the sexes ; of the sympathy and antipathy of various animals one 
to another ; and of the habits of the elephant. 

2. Of fishes that swim in shoals ; and of fishes that are hostile to one 


3. Of the habits and intelligence of sheep and goats. 

4. The same of cattle and of horses. 

5. The same of the stag and hind. 

6. Of the habits of various animals ; of the natural remedies that they 

employ ; of the cunning of the hedgehog ; and of the Ictis or 

7. Of the nesting of the swallow ; and of the habits of pigeons and of 

partridges in regard to pairing, brooding, and rearing of the young. 

8. The same continued. 

9. Of woodpeckers. 

TO. Of the intelligence of cranes ; and of pelicans. 

1 1. Of eagles and vultures ; and of the wren and other birds. 

12. Of swans and of the swan's song ; of the chalcis or cymindis ; and of 

other birds. 

13. Of the jay; of the filial love of the stork and of the bee-eater; 

and of the cinnamon-bird. 

14. Of the halcyon and its nest. 

15. Of the hoopoe and other birds. 

1 6. Of the reed-warbler. 

17. Of the crake ; of the sitta or nut-hatch ; and of the tree-creeper. 

18. Of herons. 

19. Of owsels ; of the white owzels of Cyllene ; and of the laius or blue- 


20. Of thrushes. 

21. Of the blue-bird or wall-creeper. 

22. Of the oriole. 

23. Of the birds called pardalus and collyrion ; and of crows and ravens. 

24. Of daws and choughs. 

25. Of larks. 

26. Of the woodcock. 

27. Of the Egyptian ibis. 

28. Of the little horned owls. 




29. Of the cuckoo. 

30. Of the bird called cypselus ; and of the goat-sucker. 

31. Of ravens. 

32. Of eagles. 

33. Of a great bird in Scythia. 

34. Of the phene or lammergeyer. 

35. Of the petrel. 

36. Of hawks ; of hawking in Thrace ; and of the wolves by Lake Moeotis. 

37. Of the habits of the fishing-frog, of the torpedo, and of other fishes ; 

and of the sepia and the argonaut. 

38. Of industrious insects ; of the ant. 

39. Of spiders and of the spider's web. 

40. Of the whole economy of bees. 

41. Of wasps. 

42. Of the wasps called anthrenae. 

43. Of humble-bees. 

44. Of the temper and disposition of the lion and other animals. 

45. Of the bison on Mount Messapium. 

46. Of elephants. 

47. Of camels ; and of the King of Scythia's mare. 

48. Of the affectionate disposition of the dolphin. 

49. Of hens that assume the plumage of the cock. 

50. Of the effects of castration or mutilation ; of rumination or chewing 

the cud. 

49 B. Of change of plumage, or metamorphosis, in birds ; of the hoopoe ; 
of birds bathing in water or in dust. 



I OF the parts of animals some are simple : to wit, all such 486 a 5 
as divide into parts uniform with themselves, as flesh into 
flesh ; others are composite, such as divide into parts not 
uniform with themselves, as, for instance, the hand does not 
divide into hands nor the face into faces. 1 

1 Cf. P. A. ii. i and 2 ; Theophr. H. PI. i. 2 ; Ps.-Arist. de PL i. 2 and 3. 
A treatise might be written on the intention and the history of the 
distinction here drawn by Aristotle, who had derived it from Anaxagoras 
(cf. Lucret. i. 830 ; Serv. ad Aen. iv. 625 ; Cic. Q. Acad. iv. 57 ; Galen, 
de Dogm. Hipp. v. 450, 673, ed. Kiihn. &c.). The subject is treated 
more fully in the de Partibus (ii. i, &c.), where A. distinguishes three 
degrees of composition or synthesis. The first is composition out of 
the elements, e< TO>J> <cX. vrrci T'O>I> o rotation', oiov yf)f, depor, uSaror, 
Tri'po? : or rather of certain of these, lypbv yap *a\ t-Tjpbv Km Ocppbv x.a\ 
^svxpov V\T] TU>V (TwdeTuv o-co^nTcof f'ara'. The second and third stages 
of synthesis are, in animals, the simple tissues, bone, flesh, and the like, 
and the organs that are built up of these (cf. Galen, xv. 7 K.). 

In Meteor, iv. 10 the simple and composite parts of plants and 
animals are compared with the like categories of inanimate things, the 
former with such 6/ioio/zfpi} as gold and silver, tin and iron, <a\ 5<ra (* 
TOVTW yiyvfrai. It is noteworthy that, in the Meteor ologica^ A. ranks 
wood and bark among the uvo^oto/ifpf?, together with root and leaf, 
face and hand, though flesh and bone, nerve and skin rank only, with 
fibre and muscle, among the 6fj.oiop.fpf) ; in other words, the histological 
analysis is carried somewhat further on the botanical than on the 
zoological side. As to sap and juice and fibre and vessel and flesh, 
these are elementary things, so far as biology conducts us : np^at yap 
avrat, nXrjv ftrif Xeyoi ra? TU>V (TToiXfimv 8vi'ap.?is' aiYai e KOIVO.\ -navrutv. 
f] p.fv ovv ovaia KO.\ rj V\TJ (fivvis tv roLToir (Theophr., 1. c.). We must pass, 
as Galen tells us (i. 487 K.), to the de Gen. et Corr.'\\^ or the de Caelo i, 
for a discussion of the elements, and of the relation to these of the 
influences of wet and dry, hot and cold, &c. As Aristotle's account 
of the elements remained the groundwork of the mediaeval concep- 
tion of matter, so the older naturalists retained unaltered his distinction 
of simple and composite parts in the fabric of living things. The 
6}j.oio[j.(pr) and avop.oiop*pf] are the partes similares s. simplices s. primae, 
and the partes dissiinilares s. instrumentales s. organicae s. officinales, 
of the naturalists. Wotton, for instance (de Diff. Ani)n. i. 4; 1552), gives 
a very fair epitome of the tissues as follows : ' Similares numerantur hae, 
os, cartilago, vena, arteria, nervus, ligamentum, tendo, membrana, 
caro, adeps, unguis, cutis ; his adduntur humores, ut sanguis, et qui 
in oculo sunt, cristallinus et vitreus humor.' The division into tissues 
and organs of Bichat (Anat. generate, 1801) was thus quite on old 

AR. H.A. 13 


And of such as these, some are called not parts merely, 
but limbs or members. Such are those parts that, while 
entire in themselves, have within themselves other diverse 

10 parts : as, for instance, the head, foot, hand, the arm as 
a whole, the chest ; for these are all in themselves entire 
parts, and there are other diverse parts belonging to them. 1 
All those parts that do not subdivide into parts uniform 
with themselves are composed of parts that do so subdivide, 
for instance, hand is composed of flesh, sinews, and bones. 

15 Of animals, some resemble one another in all their parts, 
while others have parts wherein they differ. 2 Sometimes 
the parts are identical in form or species, as, for instance, 
one man's nose or eye resembles another man's nose or eye, 
flesh flesh, and bone bone ; and in like manner with a horse, 

1 P. A. i. 5-645 b 35- 

8 f\d dt T&V fowv. The succeeding passage is not easy to translate, 
but its meaning seems to me to be exquisitely clear, and its statements 
to be ordered with an admirable logic. Of animals, some have all 
their parts alike, each to other, alike in one horse and in another 
horse, in one man and in another man. Such animals are alike in form 
or species, and differ only as individuals. Some, again, have the same 
parts, but the properties or accidents thereof are contrary or opposite, 
or at least differ in degree. Such animals are alike in kind, or genus, 
as fishes are or birds, but differ specifically. Moreover, in certain cases, 
some part altogether new may supervene in one species though lacking 
in others, like the cock's comb, which is something singular and 
unmatched among birds ; but we must not unduly estimate the 
importance of such minor accretions, which leave the totality of the 
organism insignificantly changed. Thirdly, we may have animals 
under observation whose parts neither are identical nor differ only by 
accident or .in degree ; but which, on the contrary, have an essential 
unlikeness, and only resemble one another in the way of analogy : for 
analogy might be described as the likeness between things essentially 
different, or as being no more than that resemblance which is conferred 
by similarity of place, use, or general significance. For instance, a bird's 
feather is not the same thing as a fish's scale, nor is the difference one 
of accident or of degree ; but they are separate things, included under 
no single concept, and such resemblance as they possess one to another 
is best described as an analogy ; and the creatures that bear them are 
not of the same genus, -but of different genera. While these matters 
are of chief importance, there is a sort of difference not to be altogether 
overlooked, the difference of position, in parts that are still manifestfy 
the same : as in the case of teats, that are pectoral in one animal and 
inguinal in another. Lastly, passing from animals in their integrity to 
the tissues of which they are composed, these may be classified 
according to the simpler classifications of elementary things, which 
fall into such simple categories as solid and fluid, or hard and soft, 
or wet and dry. Of such simple contrasts, flesh and bone, or blood 
and artery, are simple instances. 

BOOK I I 4 86 a 

and with all other animals which we reckon to be of one 
and the same species : for as the whole is to the whole, so ao 
each to each are the parts severally. In other cases the 
parts are identical, save only for a difference in the way of 
excess or defect, as is the case in such animals as are of 
one and the same genus. 1 By ' genus ' I mean, for instance, 
Bird or Fish, for each of these is subject to difference in 
respect of its genus, 2 and there are many species of fishes 
and of birds. 

Within the limits of genera, most of the parts as a rule 
exhibit differences through contrast of the property or 486 b 5 
accident, 3 such as colour and shape, to which they are 
subject : in that some are more and some in a less 
degree the subject of the same property or accident ; and 
also in the way of multitude or fewness, magnitude or 
parvitude, in short in the way of excess or defect. Thus 
in some the texture of the flesh is soft, in others firm ; 
some have a long bill, 4 others a short one ; some have 10 
abundance of feathers, others have only a small quantity. 
It happens further that some have parts that others have 
not : for instance, some have spurs and others not, some 
have crests and others not ; but as a general rule, most 
parts and those that go to make up the bulk of the body 15 
are either identical with one another, or differ from one 
another in the way of contrast and of excess and defect. 
For ' the more ' and ' the less ' may be represented as 
1 excess ' or ' defect '. 

1 Cf. P. A. i. 4. 644* 16 o<ra u(v yap di<i<p(p(i TO)V ycvuv *a$' V7rfpo\fjv 
Kai TO p.a\\oi> Kn\ TO TJTTOV, TavTa vnffrvKTdi cvl ytvf (, ocr a d' f\ei TO dvdXoyov, 

2 Cf. Met. iv. 9. ioi8 a 12, ix. 9. io58 a 7 eTtpor^s TOU ytvovs, and also 
Met. vi. 12. io37 b . The several translators differ much in their 
rendering of this passage, and in the text which they follow. Scaliger 
reads 'Horum enim utrumque differt turn in genere, turn si ad genus 
referantur' ; and Schneider ' turn in (suo) genere, turn si ad (alterum) 
genus referantur ' : both following the Aldine text e\f i &ia(f)opav Kara TO 
yfvos KUI -rrpos TO ytvos. A. and W. say ' eine jede von diesen beiden 
Klassen hat in sich Unterschiede ', that is to say, they make the phrase 
of the same import as the succeeding and more expanded clause. 

3 For Trnpa ras TU>V 7ra6rjp.nTd)i> (isavTioxTfis Seal, gives ' differentiae 
sumuntur a contrariis affectionibus ', and Schn. likewise : Guil. de 
Moerbeke, on the other hand, ' inter se ipsa praeter,' which rendering 
A. and W. adopt. For 7ra^^/uT&)i/ C a has 

4 >o-7T(p at yfpai'oi A a . 


Once again, we may have to do with animals whose parts 
are neither identical in form nor yet identical save for 
differences in the way of excess or defect : T but they are the 
same only in the way of analogy, as, for instance, bone is 
20 only analogous to fish-bone, nail to hoof, hand to claw, and 
scale to feather ; for what the feather is in a bird, the scale 
is in a fish. 

The parts, then, which animals severally possess are diverse 
from, or identical with, one another in the fashion above 
described. And they are so furthermore in the way of 
local disposition : for many animals have identical organs 
that differ in position ; for instance, some have teats in the 
487* breast, others close to the thighs. 

Of the substances that are composed of parts uniform 
(or homogeneous) with themselves, some are soft and moist, 
others are dry and solid. The soft and moist are such either 
absolutely or so long as they are in their natural conditions, 
as, for instance, blood, serum, lard, suet, marrow, sperm, 
gall, milk in such as have it, flesh and the like ; and also, 
5 in a different way, the superfluities, 2 as phlegm and the 
excretions of the belly and the bladder. The dry and 
solid are such as sinew, skin, vein, hair, bone, gristle, nail, 
horn (a term which as applied to the part involves an 
ambiguity, since the whole also by virtue of its form is de- 
10 signated horn), 3 and such parts as present an analogy to these. 

1 i.e. we may have to do with animals neither specifically nor 
generically identical. 

2 The TrfpiTTcopaTa are made by 17 tv TO> o)'o) BtppQTrjs (G. A. iii. II. 
762 b 7), consist of TO Ttjs Tpocprjs uTroXfi/n/ia (ibid. i. 1 8. 724** 26), ^ a^p^orou 

<TT\V 77 xPWWI* (ib- i- !8. 725* 4), and ds rovs KVOVS TOTTOVS 
Tat (ib. ii. 4. 739* 2, iv. 8. 776 b 30) ; for instance, $Xey/ja earl 
TrpcoTrjy rpo0^y TrfpiTTcofta (725 a 14). They are devoid of sensa- 
tion (P. A. ii. 7. 652 b 6, 10. 656* 24). They include not only the 
excretions of bladder and intestine, but also blood, lard, sperm, gall, 
milk (though in the present passage these are apparently excluded), 
and even the eggs of birds. From the rrepiTTco/Lmm are formed bone, 
sinew, hair, nails, teeth and such like. They seem to be, in A.'s mind, 
the not-living constituents of the body, the ' formed material ', as we 
say. For reflf. see Bonitz, s.v. 

1 6/iow/ioi> yap TO pepor, KTX., an unimportant parenthesis, of which 
the true text is doubtful. Some MSS. and the Aldine have npos TO 
ytvos, Schn. TO /if'por, and then OTOV rro tf\rntari {o/ioioi> )} ical T<H oXu 
XfyfTfli Kepns. Read TO pfpos, OTI TO> CT^/^U.TI KQ\ TO 6X01- \tytTai Kepaf. 
The sense is according to the version of Guil., 'aequivocum enim 
cum totum pars et figura dicatur cornu,' 

ROOK I. I 487 

Animals differ from one another in their modes of sub- 
sistence, in their actions, in their habits, and in their parts. 
Concerning these differences we shall first speak in broad 
and general terms, and subsequently we shall treat of the 
same with close reference to each particular genus. 

Differences are manifested in modes of subsistence, 
in habits, in actions performed. For instance, some 15 
animals live in water and others on land. 1 And of those 
that live in water some do so in one way, and some 
in another : that is to say, some live and feed in the 
water, take in and emit water, and cannot live if deprived 
of water, as is the case with the great majority of 
fishes ; 2 others get their food and spend their days in the 20 
water, but do not take in water but air, nor do they bring 
forth in the water. Many of these creatures are furnished 
with feet, as the otter, the beaver, and the -crocodile ; some 
are furnished with wings, as the diver and the grebe ; some 
are destitute of feet, as the water-snake. Some creatures 
get their living in the water and cannot exist outside it : 
but for all that do not take in either air or water, as, for 25 
instance, the sea-nettle and the oyster. And of creatures 
that live in the water some live in the sea, some in rivers, 
some in lakes, and some in marshes, as the frog and the newt. 3 

Of animals that live on dry land some take in air and 
emit it, which phenomena are termed ' inhalation ' and 
' exhalation ' ; as, for instance, man and all such land 3 
animals as are furnished with lungs. Others, again, do 
not inhale air, yet live and find their sustenance on dry 
land ; as, for instance, the wasp, the bee, and all other 
insects. And by ' insects ' I mean such creatures as have 
nicks or notches on their bodies, either on their bellies or 
on both backs and bellies. 4 

And of land animals many, as has been said, derive their 
subsistence from the water ; but of creatures that live in 

1 H. A. viii. 2. 589*. 

2 Eels can crawl on dry ground, P. A. iv. 13. 696 a 5. Cf. also 
Theophr. nep\ l^du^vrutv fv TOJ r/po> bia^Lfvovro^v, fr. 171 ed. Wimmer. 

3 Sylburg and Schneider would transfer hither from 488^6 KOI TO>J> 
dciKaTTitov TO. p.fv TreXayin, TO. 8f aryia\&>77, ra df Trerpnta. 

4 H. A. iv. I. 523 b 15. 


and inhale water not a single one derives its subsistence 
from dry land. 

Some animals at first live in water, and by and by 
change their shape and live out of water, as is the case with 
5 river worms, 1 for out of these the gadfly 2 develops. 

Furthermore, some animals are stationary, and some are 
erratic. Stationary animals are found in water, but no 
such creature is found on dry land. In the water are many 
creatures that live in close adhesion to an external object, 
as is the case with several kinds of oyster. And, by the 
way, the sponge appears to be endowed with a certain 
10 sensibility : as a proof of which it is alleged 3 that the 
difficulty in detaching it from its moorings is increased if 
the movement to detach it be not covertly applied. 

Other creatures adhere at one time to an object and de- 
tach themselves from it at other times, as is the case with a 
species of the so-called sea-nettle ; for some of these creatures 
seek their food in the night-time loose and unattached. 

Many creatures are unattached but motionless, as is the 
15 case with oysters and the so-called holothuria. 4 Some can 
swim, as, for instance, fishes, molluscs, 5 and crustaceans, 
such as the crawfish. But some of these last move by 
walking, as the crab, for it is the nature of the creature, 
though it lives in water, to move by walking. 

Of land animals some are furnished with wings, such as 
birds and bees, .and these are so furnished in different ways 
20 one from another ; others are furnished with feet. Of the 
animals that are furnished with feet some walk, some 
creep, and some wriggle. 6 But no creature is able only to 
move by flying, as the fish is able only to swim, for the 
animals with leathern wings can walk ; the bat has feet and 
the seal has imperfect feet. 7 

Some birds have feet of little power, and are therefore 

, edd. : av.riBav A a pr. C a : do-Kapi&av cj. Karsch, Dittm. 
2 A. and W. would delete yiverai . . . ourrpo?. For ourrpoy Dittm. 
CJ. f/zTTi'y, cf. V. IQ. 55 I b 27 at 5' e^-rrides yivovrai e| d<r<apifta)v. While the 
text is more or less faulty, the allusion is clearly to the development 
of the gnat Chironomus (fV Tlf ) out f tne ' blood-worm ' (d<r*aptff), as 
correctly described infra, 1. c. 3 Cf. v. 16. 549"* 8, of the an-Xvo-tac. 

4 P. A. iv. 5. 68l a 2O 17 5e &(T7Tp ovra (frvra d-rro\f \vfjifva. 

5 In A. the /za\<mn, or inollusca, signify the Cephalopods. 

6 ffe //It'. 9. 709* 28. ~ rf /7 A " ? "oR7T: P. A. iv. n 6Q7 b 4- 

BOOK I. i 4 8 7 b 

called Apodes* This little bird is powerful on the wing ; 35 
and, as a rule, birds that resemble it are weak-footed and 
strong-winged, such as the swallow and the drepanis or 
(?) Alpine swift ; for all these birds resemble one another 
in their habits and in their plumage, 2 and may easily be 
mistaken one for another. (The apus is to be seen at 
all seasons, but the drepanis only after rainy weather in 30 
summer ; for this is the time when it is seen and cap- 
tured, though, as a general rule, it is a rare bird.) 

Again, some animals move by walking on the ground as 
well as by swimming in water. 

Furthermore, the following differences are manifest in 
their modes of living and in their actions. Some are 
gregarious, some are solitary, whether they be furnished 488* 
with feet or wings or be fitted for a life in the water ; and 
some partake of both characters, the solitary and the gre- 
garious. And of the gregarious, 3 some are disposed to com- 
bine for social purposes, others to live each for its own self. 

Gregarious creatures are, among birds, such as the 
pigeon, the crane, and the swan ; and, by the way, no bird 
furnished with crooked talons is gregarious. Of creatures that 5 
live in water many kinds of fishes are gregarious, such as the 
so-called migrants, the tunny, the pelamys, and the bonito. 

Man, by the way, presents a mixture of the two 
characters, the gregarious and the solitary. 

Social creatures are such as have some one common 
object in view ; and this property is not common to all 
creatures that are gregarious. Such social creatures are 
man, the bee, the wasp, the ant, and the crane. 10 

Again, of these social creatures some submit to a ruler, 

1 H. A. ix. 30. 6i8 a 3i ; Plin. //. A", x. 39, xi. 47. anovs maybe the 
swift, or perhaps the cliff-martin or sand-martin ; dpfnavis, lit. ' sickle- 
wing ', is, alternatively, either the large alpine, or the common swift ; 
cf. 67. oj ' Gk. Birds, p. 34. 

2 onoionrepa : perhaps rather ' in the fashion of their wings '. 

3 This passage would be simple and clear were it not for the words 
TUV ayf\aid)v KCU ra>i> /iovaSiKo>j/. With Schneider (Cur. post. p. 280) we 
delete *ai TUV ^nvadiK^v on the ground that the //oi/aSiKu s. /xoi/am/cu can 
never be, although (as A. subsequently shows) the dycAcua may 
or may not be, noXiTiKa. But note that though vnopas (H. A. ix. 
25. 6i; b 21) or (nropa&iKos (Pol. i. 8. 1256*23) is elsewhere an antithesis 
of cryeAmof, it is not so here, but is only the opposite of T 


others are subject to no governance : as, for instance, the 
crane and the several sorts of bee submit to a ruler, 
whereas ants 1 and numerous other creatures 2 are every 
one his own master. 

And again, both of gregarious and of solitary animals, 
some are attached to a fixed home and others are erratic 
or nomad. 

15 Also, some are carnivorous, some graminivorous, some 
omnivorous : whilst some feed on a peculiar diet, as for 
instance the bees and the spiders, for the bee lives on 
honey and certain other sweets, and the spider lives by 
catching flies ; and some creatures live on fish. Again, 
some creatures catch their food, others treasure it up; 
?o whereas others do not so. 

Some creatures provide themselves with a dwelling, 
others go without one: of the former kind are the mole, 
the mouse, the ant, the bee ; of the latter kind are many 
insects and quadrupeds. Further, in respect to locality of 
dwelling-place, some creatures dwell under ground, as the 
lizard and the snake ; others live on the surface of the 
ground, as the horse and the dog. [Some make to 
25 themselves holes, others do not so.] z 

Some are nocturnal, as the owl and the bat ; others live 
in the daylight. 

Moreover, some creatures are tame and some are wild : 
some are at all times tame, as man 4 and the mule ; others 
are at all times savage, as the leopard and the wolf; and 
some creatures can be rapidly tamed, as the elephant. 

Again, we may regard animals in another light. For, 

30 whenever a race of animals is found domesticated, the same 

is always to be found in a wild 5 condition ; as we find to be 

the case with horses, kine, s wine, [men,] sheep, goats, and dogs. 

1 Cf. Proi'. vi. 7. 

2 Guil. has here locustas : A. and W suggest that fivpia has been 
formed out of /lup/^xe?. 8 [ ] Dittm. 

1 488*27, Dittm. cj. omv yiwos, -where all MSS. and edd. have olov 
avdpwiros ; a more plausible conjecture, following the ductus litterarum^ 
would perhaps be olov ovos, tirnos. In the next sentence, where perhaps 
avdpwTToi is still more open to doubt, Pice. cj. oi/oe. 

6 Cf. P. A. i. 3.643 b 4 ; Probl. x. 45. 895 b 23; and, of plants, Theophr. 
H. PL iii. 2. 2. 

HOOK 1. i 

Further, some animals emit sound while others are mute, 
and some are endowed with voice : of these latter some have 
articulate speech, 1 while others are inarticulate ; some are 
given to continual chirping and twittering, some are prone 
to silence ; some are musical, and some unmusical ; but all 
animals without exception exercise their power of singing 
or chattering chiefly in connexion with the intercourse of 
the sexes. 

Again, some creatures live in the fields, as the cushat ; 
some on the mountains, as the hoopoe ; some frequent the 
abodes of men, as the pigeon. 

Some, again, are peculiarly salacious, as the partridge, 2 
the barn-door cock and their congeners ; others are inclined 
to chastity, as the whole tribe of crows, for birds of this 5 
kind indulge but rarely in sexual intercourse/' 5 

Of marine animals, again, some live in the open seas, 
some near the shore, some on rocks. 4 

Furthermore, some are combative under offence ; others 
are provident for defence. Of the former kind are such 
as act as aggressors upon others or retaliate when sub- 
jected to ill usage, and of the- latter kind are such as 10 
merely have some means of guarding themselves against 

Animals also differ from one another in regard to char- 
acter in the following respects. Some are good-tempered, 
sluggish, and little prone to ferocity, as the ox ; others 
are quick-tempered, ferocious and unteachable, as the wild 
boar; some are intelligent and timid, as the stag and the 15 
hare ; others are mean and treacherous, as the snake ; 
others are noble and courageous and high-bred, as the 
lion ; others are thorough-bred and wild and treacherous, 
as the wolf: for, by the way, an animal is high-bred 5 if it 
come from a noble stock, and an animal is thorough-bred 
if it does not deflect from its racial characteristics. 

1 H. A. iv. 9. 535 a ; Poet. 20. I456 b . 

3 G. A. ii. 7. 746 b I ; Ael. iv. i, &c. 

' Cf. G. A. iii. 6. 756 b 19. 4 See note, 487** 27. 

6 fvyfvts, yfwaiov, Gaza nobile, generosutn ; vide Arist. Rhet. ii. 15. 
I39O b 16. Cf. Find. Pyth. viii. 65 $va TO yevvalov eVtTr/jeVti | CK 


20 Further, some are crafty and mischievous, as the fox ; 
some are spirited 1 and affectionate and fawning, as the 
dog; others are easy-tempered and easily domesticated, 
as the elephant ; others are cautious and watchful, as the 
goose ; others are jealous and self-conceited, as the peacock. 
But of all animals man alone is capable of deliberation. 

25 Many animals have memory, 2 and are capable of in- 
struction ; but no other creature except man can recall the 
past at will. 

With regard to the several genera of animals, particulars 
as to their habits of life and modes of existence will be 
discussed more fully by and by. 

3 Common to all animals are the organs whereby they 2 
3 take food and the organs whereinto they take it ; 4 and 
these are either identical with one another, or are 
diverse in the ways above specified : to wit, either iden- 
tical in form, or varying in respect of excess or defect, 
or resembling one another analogically, or differing in 


Furthermore, the great majority of animals have other 

organs besides these in common, whereby they discharge 
the residuum of their food : I say, the great majority, for 
489* this statement does not apply to all. And, by the way, 
the organ whereby food is taken in is called the mouth, 
and the organ whereinto it is taken, the belly ; the re- 
mainder of the alimentary system has a great variety of 

Now the residuum of food is twofold in kind, wet and 
dry, and such creatures as have organs receptive of wet 
residuum are invariably found with organs receptive of dry 
residuum ; 5 but such as have organs receptive of dry resi- 

Schneider compares Polit. vii. 7. !327 b 3O o Qvpos eoriv 6 

TO </)l\TJTtt6l/. 

2 Cf. Metaphys. i. I. 

3 A. begins here to refer to function, and to speak of organs in 
relation to their particular function : this subject is discussed much 
more fully in P. A. i. 5 and other portions of the same work. 

4 P. A. ii. 10. 655 b 3o. 

5 TpoQrjs = nepiTTunaTos ; cf. infra, vi. 2. 590* 30 ; G. A. i. 13. 7i9 b 34, 
c. So Bonitz, &c., but it seems simpler to take the construction as 

BOOK I. 2 489' 

duum need not possess organs receptive of wet residuum. 
In other words, an animal has a bowel or intestine l if it 5 
have a bladder ; but an animal may have a bowel and be 
without a bladder. And, by the way, I may here remark 
that the organ receptive of wet residuum is termed 
'bladder', and the organ receptive of dry residuum 
' intestine or bowel '. 

3 Of animals otherwise, 2 a great many have, besides the 
organs above-mentioned, an organ for excretion of the 
sperm : and of animals capable of generation one secretes 10 
into another, and the other into itself. 3 The latter is 
termed ( female ', and the former ' male ' ; but some animals 
have neither male nor female. Consequently, the organs 
connected with this function differ in form, for some 
animals have a womb and others an organ analogous 

The above-mentioned organs, then, are the most indis- 15 
pensable parts of animals ; and with some of them all 
animals without exception, and with others animals for the 
most part, must needs be provided. 

One sense, and one alone, is common to all animals- 
the sense of touch. 4 Consequently, there is no special 
name for the organ in which it has its seat ; for in some 
groups of animals the organ is identical, in others it is only 

4 Every animal is supplied with moisture, and, if the 20 
animal be deprived of the same by natural causes or 
artificial means, death ensues : further, every animal has 
another part in which the moisture is contained. These 
parts are blood and vein, and in other animals there is 

ecthliptic, for rrjv Trepi'rrcocriv rqv TTJS vypas KOI TJJS ^poy rpcxplj?, as in 
G.A. ii. 4. 737 b 34. 

For the various meanings of KoiXi'a cf. Bonitz, s.i 1 . 

2 TWV Se XoiTTcoi/. ( Reliqua dicit animalia respiciens ad reliqua membra 
et partes communes vel singulares animalium,' Schneider. 

1 G. A. i. 3. 7l6 a 17 TO 5' appfv <(i\ TO drj\v dtfK^epft Kara TOV \6yov 
T<B duvncrdai fTtpov fK(iTCpov t Kara Se TTJV aurBifyiv fnoplots TicrtV Kara /nei/ TOV 
\6yov TOJ appfv p.fv aval TO 8vvdfj.evov yevvav els rrepo'', TC de 6fj\v TO fls 
HI/TO, Ka\ % ov yivcrai (vvnupxav eV ra> y(vvu>vr(. TO ytvv&pevov. 

4 P. A. ii. I. 647* ; de An. iii. 13.' 435*. 


something to correspond ; ' but in these latter the parts are 
imperfect, being merely fibre and serum or lymph. 2 

Touch has its seat in a part uniform and homogeneous, 
as in the flesh or something of the kind/" and generally, 

-15 with animals supplied with blood, in the parts charged 
with blood. In other animals it has its seat in parts analo- 
gous to the parts charged with blood ; but in all cases it is 
seated in parts that in their texture are homogeneous. 

The active faculties, 4 on the contrary, are seated in the 
parts that are heterogeneous : as, for instance, the business 
of preparing the food is seated in the mouth, and the office 
of locomotion in the feet, the wings, or in organs to 

30 Again, some animals are supplied with blood, as man, 
the horse, and all such animals as are, when full-grown, 
either destitute of feet, or two-footed, or four-footed ; other 
animals are bloodless, such as the bee and the wasp, and, 
of marine animals, the cuttle-fish, the crawfish, and all such 
animals as have more than four feet. 

Again, some animals are viviparous, others oviparous, 5 
others vermiparous or ' grub-bearing '. Some are vivi- 
parous, such as man, the horse, the seal, and all other 
animals that are hair-coated, and, of marine animals, the 
cetaceans, as the dolphin, and the so-called Selachia. (Of 
these latter animals, some have a .tubular air-passage and 
no gills, as the dolphin and the whale : 5 the dolphin with 
the air- passage going through its back, 6 the whale with the 

1 //. A. iii. 4. 5i5 a 23. 

2 That IX&P takes the place of blood in beings without the latter, we 
know from //. v. 340, with which Schn. appositely compares Anacrcont. 
43- I?? Ctt'flt/d, n7ra^9, tivaip.oo'apKf, . . . (rxt&jv ei 6(ois o/noior. (p\(j3(s 
wo8ei? are described in the case of the smaller mesenteric vessels, 
//. A. iii. 4. 5i4 b : see also the end of the same chapter. 

Cf. de An. ii. II. 422^ 2O TL TO alcrdijT^piov TO TOU arrrov CITTTIKOV, 
TToYfpoi/ r; <rdp, KCII ev TO'IS a\\ois TO dj/uAoyoj', 77 ov, a\\a TOVTO p.ev eVn 
ro /uTni', TO df 7Tpu>Tov alcrdrjTrjpLOV aXXo TI ecrTiv eWc?. 

The main contrast is with the senses, not excluding other functions 
such as the supply of moisture or of air. We should probably say ' The 
more mechanical operations are performed', &c. 5 Plin. ix. 7. 

' 8ia TOU I/OOTOU, which, according to Schneider, ' spatium inter caput et 
dorsum significat, utapud Herodotum . . . 6m eVSeKarov eVeo?, initio anni 
undecimi.' The corresponding passages in P. A. iv. 13. 697* 25, de 
Resp. 12. 476 b 29, have rrpu TOV (yKC(pa\ov. 

BOOK I. 5 489' 

air-passage in its forehead ; others have uncovered gills, 5 
as the Selachia, the sharks and rays. 1 ) 

What we term an egg is a certain completed result of 
conception out of which the animal that is to be develops, 
and in such a way that in respect to its primitive germ it 
comes from part only of the egg, while the rest serves for 
food as the germ develops.- A ' grub ' on the other hand is 
a thing out of which in its entirety the animal in its entirety 
develops, by differentiation and growth of the embryo. 10 

Of viviparous animals, some hatch eggs in their own 
interior, as creatures of the shark kind ; others engender in 
their interior a live foetus, as man and the horse. When 
the result of conception is perfected, with some animals 
a living creature is brought forth, with others an egg is 
brought to light, with others a grub. Of the eggs, some have 
egg-shells and are of two different colours within, such as 
birds' eggs ; others are soft-skinned and of uniform colour, as 15 
the eggs of animals of the shark kind. Of the grubs, some 
are from the first capable of movement, others are motionless. 3 
However, with regard to these phenomena we shall speak 
precisely hereafter when we come to treat of Generation. 

Furthermore, some animals have feet and some are 
destitute thereof. 4 Of such as have feet, some animals have ao 
two, as is the case with men and birds, and with men and 
birds only ; some have four, as the lizard and the dog ; 
some have more, as the centipede and the bee ; but allsoever 
that have feet have an even number of them. 

Of swimming creatures that are destitute of feet, some 
have winglets or fins, as fishes : and of these some have 


four fins, two above on the back, two below on the belly, 5 25 
1 P. A. iv. 13. 696* 10. 2 Cf. G. A. iii. 9. 758, &c. 

3 G. A. iii. 9. 759 a 3 fitori p(V ovv rpiy(vfi rt yiyixrai TCI roirura, KCI\ 
5i' f)v alriav (< Kum'/ifVooy aKivrjri^d 7r<iX<r>, (tprjrat KT\. 

4 Cf. Met. vi. 12. I037 b . 

5 It is plain that A. is only referring to the paired fins, those, that is 
to say, that are truly comparable to the limbs of other vertebrates. 
The terms ' on the back ' and * on the belly ' seem scarcely accurate, but 
they are inserted more for nomenclature than description, as \ve speak 
of the hinder pair as the ventral fins, though they may be jugular or 
thoracic in position. Cf. de Inc. 18. 7I4 b 3 rot? /zet/ yap opviaiv avu> at 

TTTtpVytS ttCTC, Toli 5f TTTtpiyla fil'O (V TO) TTpClVfl' KO.\ Tols pfV (V TO?? V7TTIOIS Ot 
TTO^ff, TOJf 6' (V T( T0i9 I'TTTIOIS 1 , KCll (yyi'S TCOl> TTpavS)V TTTfpvytd T0(9 7T\(i(TTOtf. 


as the gilt-head and the basse ; l some have two only. to 
wit, such as are exceedingly long and smooth, as the eel 
and the conger ; some have none at all, as the muraena, 
but use the sea just as snakes use dry ground and by the 
way, snakes swim in water in just the same way. 2 Of the 
30 shark-kind some have no fins, such as those that are flat 
and long-tailed, as the ray and the sting-ray, but these 
fishes swim actually by the undulatory motion of their flat 
bodies ; the fishing frog, however, has fins, and so likewise 
have all such fishes as have not their flat surfaces thinned 
off to a sharp edge. 3 

Of those swimming creatures that appear to have feet, 
as is the case with the molluscs, these creatures swirn by 
the aid of their feet and their fins as well, and they swim 
most rapidly backwards in the direction of the trunk, 4 as is 
the case with the cuttle-fish or sepia and the calamary; 
and, by the way, neither of these latter can walk as the 
49 a poulpe or octopus can. 

The hard-skinned or crustaceous animals, like the craw- 
fish, swim by the instrumentality of their tail-parts; and 
they swim most rapidly tail foremost, by the aid of the fins 
developed upon that member The newt swims by means 
of its feet and tail ; and its tail resembles that of the sheat- 
5 fish, to compare little with great. 

Of animals that can fly some are furnished with feathered 
wings, as the eagle and the hawk ; some are furnished with 
membranous wings, 6 as the bee and the cockchafer ; others 
are furnished with leathern wings, as the flying fox 6 and the 
bat. All flying creatures possessed of blood have feathered 
wings or leathern wings ; the bloodless creatures have 
membranous wings, as insects. The creatures that have 
10 feathered wings or leathern wings have either two feet 7 

1 Chrysophrys auratus and Labrax 

2 de Inc. 8. ;o8 a I ; Plin. ix. 73. 

1 P. A. iv. 13. 695 b 22. * H.A. iv. i. 524* 13. 

* s. oXon-Tf pa, de Inc. 10. 7 io a 4, 1 5. 7 1 3* 4 ; de Somno et Vig. 2. 456* 20. 

6 aXo>7rq : probably a large bat ; cf. * the little foxes that spoil the 
grapes', which were probably the Egyptian fruit-bat, Cynonycteris 

1 Dittm. cj. (^ Tfrpci7ro8) ; cf. de Inc. 19. 7I4 b 12 Statrfp f) (jbcoKrj *ai ff 
vvKTfpis' KOI yap raina TfrpuTrofia, KQKOX 8'eariV, Cf. also P. A. iv. 697 8. 
But see infra, 490* 28. 

BOOK I. 5 490 a 

or no feet at all : for there are said to be certain flying 
serpents in Ethiopia ] that are destitute of feet. 

Creatures that have feathered wings are classed as a 
genus under the name of ' bird ' ; the other two genera, the 
leathern-winged and membrane-winged, are as yet without 
a generic title. 

Of creatures that can fly and are bloodless some are 
coleopterous or sheath-winged, for they have their wings 
in a sheath or shard, like the cockchafer and the dung- 15 
beetle ; others are sheathless, and of these latter some are 
dipterous and some tetrapterous : tetrapterous, such as are 
comparatively large or have their stings in the tail, dipterous, 
such as are comparatively small or have their stings in 
front. The coleoptera are, without exception, devoid of 
stings ; the diptera have the sting in front, as the fly, the ao 
horsefly, the gadfly, and the gnat.~ 

Bloodless animals as a general rule are inferior in point 
of size to blooded animals ; though, by the way, there are 
found in the sea some few bloodless creatures Oi abnormal 
size, as in the case of certain molluscs/ 5 And of these 
bloodless genera, those are the largest that dwell in milder 
climates, and those that inhabit the sea are larger than 25 
those living on dry land or in fresh water. 

All creatures that are capable of motion move with four 
or more points of motion ; 4 the blooded animals with four 
only : as, for instance, man with two hands and two feet, 
birds with two wings and two feet, quadrupeds and fishes 
severally with four feet and four fins. Creatures that have 30 
two winglets or fins, or that have none at all like serpents, 
move all the same with not less than four points of motion ; 
for there are four bends in their bodies as they move, or 
two bends together with their fins. Bloodless and many- 
footed animals, whether furnished with wings or feet, move 
with more than four points of motion ; as, for instance, the 
dayfly moves with four feet and four wings : 5 and, I may 49O b 
observe in passing, this creature is exceptional not only 

1 Herod, ii. 75, 76. 2 H.A. iv. 7. 532* 9. 

1 H.A. iv. I. 524* 26. 

4 Cf. de Inc. 5. 7o6 a 3I *aAa> yap TTO&I fjifpos Vl (T^/ifia) nf 

KCITU TOTTOV. 6 Cf. H. A. V. I Q. 5 ^ 2 I . 


in regard to the duration of its existence, whence it re- 
ceives its name, but also because though a quadruped it 
has wings also. 

All animals move alike, four-footed and many-footed ; 
5 in other words, they all move cross-corner-wise. And 
animals in general have two feet in advance ; the crab 
alone has four. 1 

Very extensive genera of animals, 2 into which other 6 
subdivisions fall, are the following: one, of birds; one, of 
fishes ; and another, of cetaceans. Now all these creatures 
are blooded. 

There is another genus of the hard-shell kind, which is 

10 called oyster; 3 another of the soft-shell kind, not as 
yet designated by a single term, such as the spiny crawfish 
and the various kinds of crabs and lobsters ; and another of 
molluscs, as the two kinds of calamary and the cuttle-fish ; 
that of insects is different. All these latter creatures are 
bloodless, and such of them as have feet have a goodly 

i 5 number of them ; and of the insects some have wings as 
well as feet. 

Of the other animals the genera are not extensive. 4 For 
in them one species does not comprehend many species ; "' 

1 A. seems to take the crab as walking strictly sideways : cf. de Inc. 
17. ;i3 b 32. 

2 The object of this chapter, as Scaliger clearly points out, is not to 
define genera, but, where possible, to denominate them : to show how 
certain familiar terms correspond to real generic groups, while on the 
other hand for many groups or genera susceptible of definition language 
has no names to correspond. The modern naturalist devises a new 
name for each new group that he defines ; for Aristotle the definition 
was enough. 

1 oarpfiov speciem fecit A., oorptov genus : Seal, in loc. 

4 The whole passage is very troublesome, and A. seems to juggle 
with the terms i&>? and ytvos. This is not in itself unusual, for a 
group may of course be an eldos in respect to a larger ye'i/oy, and at the 
same time a yivos in respect to smaller f'idrj. A. seems to me to be 
trying to show: (i) that the other large genera comparable to bird, 
fish, &c., are not generally recognized, and are difficult to define ; 
though (2) he does succeed in arriving at, e. g., the genus of viviparous 
quadrupeds (49o b 3i) ; (3) that sometimes a genus has many species, 
but under no common appellation ; for, while this crab and that crab 
form the yeVoy TO TO>I> KapKivav, itself within the yevos TO TO>V p,a\axo- 
aTpaKav, yet there is no such comprehensive name for any group of 
species within the ytvos TO TUV TtTpanodw *nt (MGTOK^V, save perhaps 
for the X6(^ov/joj. 

R rrfpttxfi TroXXu ftdrj (v eiSo?. This seems to be a technical phrase, 

BOOK I. 6 490 

but in one case, as man, the species is simple, admitting of 
no differentiation, while other cases admit of differentiation, 
but the forms lack particular designations. 

So, for instance, creatures that are quadrupedal and 
unprovided with wings are blooded without exception, 1 but 20 
some of them are viviparous, and some oviparous. Such 
as are viviparous are hair-coated, and such as are oviparous 
are covered with a kind of tessellated hard substance ; and 
the tessellated bits of this substance are, as it were, similar 
in regard to position to a scale. 2 

An animal that is blooded and capable of movement on 
dry land, but is naturally unprovided with feet, belongs to 
the serpent genus ; and animals of this genus are coated 
with the tessellated horny substance. Serpents in general 
are oviparous ; the adder, an exceptional case, is viviparous : 3 25 
for not all viviparous animals are hair-coated, and some 
fishes also are viviparous. 

All animals, however, that are hair-coated are viviparous. 
For, by the way, one must regard as a kind of hair such 
prickly hairs as hedgehogs and porcupines carry ; for these 
spines perform the office of hair, and not of feet as is the 30 
case with similar parts in sea-urchins. 4 

In the genus that combines all viviparous quadrupeds 
are many species, but under no common appellation. They 
are only named as it were one by one, as we say man, 
lion, stag, horse, dog, and so on ; though, by the way, there 
is a sort of genus 5 that embraces all creatures that have 
bushy manes and bushy tails, 6 such as the horse, the ass, 491* 
the mule, the jennet, and the animals that are called 


cf. tpapev TO /uev irepiexov roO ci'Sou? e?i/at, TO 8e nepif^ofjid'ov rr/s v\rjs, de 
Cael. iv. 4. 312* 12 ; Phys. iii. 7. 2O7 b I. 

1 Schn. and Bekk. read uv -rravra. 

2 ofjioiov \topq \fnidos is a curious phrase, but it occurs also in 
P. A. iv. n. 69i a 16. Cf. supra, \. I. 486 b 21. 

3 Here again, such information as this is not introduced to teach us 
such and such facts about serpents, but to illustrate the methods and 
the difficulties of defining the group to which they belong. 

Horat. Canidia, ' Horret capillis ut marinus asperis Echinus.' 
' A. and W. CJ. eVeon 6' <iv TI ovopa : Dittm. tnt! *<TTIV (V TI yevos 

' Cf. G.A. iii. 5. 755 b 18, iv. 10. 777 b 5, &c. 

AR. H.A. (2 


Hemioni l in Syria, from their externally resembling 
mules, though they are not strictly of the same species. 
And that they are not so is proved by the fact that they 
mate with and breed from one another. 
5 For all these reasons, we must take animals species by 
species, and discuss their peculiarities severally. 

These preceding statements, then, have been put forward 
thus in a general way, as a kind of foretaste of the number 
of subjects and of the properties that we have to consider 
in order that we may first get a clear notion of distinctive 
character and common properties. By and by we shall 
discuss these matters with greater minuteness. 

10 After this we shall pass on to the discussion of causes. 
For to do this when the investigation of the details is 
complete is the proper and natural method, and that 
whereby the subjects and the premisses of our argument 
will afterwards be rendered plain. 

In the first place we must look to the constituent parts 

15 of animals. 2 For it is in a way relative to these parts, first 
and foremost, that anrmals in their entirety differ from one 
another : either in the fact that some have this or that, 
while they have not that or this ; or by peculiarities of 
position or of arrangement ; or by the differences that 
have been previously mentioned, depending upon diversity 
of form, on excess or defect in this or that particular, on 
analogy, or on contrasts of the accidental qualities. 

To begin with, we must take into consideration the 

ao parts of Man. For, just as each nation is wont to 
reckon by that monetary standard with which it is most 
familiar, so must we do in other matters. And, of course, 
man is the animal with which we are all of us the most 

Now the parts are-obvious enough to physical perception. 
However, with the view of observing due order and sequence 
and of combining rational notions with physical perception, 

1 Eg uus heinionus or E. onager \ cf. H. A. vi. 36. 580* I ; Theophr. 
a,p. Plin. viii. 69. 

2 rrepi 8( rwv eWos /ifpo>i> TOV oxu/xarof ^ /lopuoj/ Kai rives at 
aurau', TTptoros ptv 6 ' A pt <JT art A rjs vTTfXdftfTo &Saai re *ui 
Galen, xiv. 699 K. 

BOOK I. 6 49i a 

we shall proceed to enumerate the parts: firstly, the organic, 1 15 
and afterwards the simple or non-composite. 

The chief parts into which the body as a whole is sub- 
divided, 2 are the head, the neck, the trunk (extending from 
the neck to the privy parts), which is called the thorax, two 
arms and two legs. 3 

Of the parts of which the head is composed the hair- 3 
covered portion is called the * skull '. The front portion of 
it is termed * bregma ' or ' sinciput ', developed after birth 
for it is the last of all the bones in the body to acquire 
solidity, 1 the hinder part is termed the ' occiput', and the 
part intervening between the sinciput and the occiput is 
the ' crown '. The brain lies underneath the sinciput ; the 
occiput is hollow. 5 The skull consists entirely of thin G 49i b 
bone, rounded in shape, and contained within a wrapper 
of fleshless skin. 

The skull has sutures : one, of circular form, in the case 
of women ; in the case of men, as a general rule, three 
meeting at a point. 7 Instances have been known of a 
man's skull devoid of suture altogether. In the skull the 5 

1 P. A. ii. 2. 647 b 22 f< rovrov (roof ai/o/ioto^tfpiv) yap trviff<mjKV 
fKaarov ru>v opyavLK.<jov /zspcoi', f OCTT&V *cai vtiipav Kai crapKutv Kai aXXeov 
TOLOVTGW <Tvp.fta\\onti'(i)v TO. \LIV els rfjv ola'iav TO. 5' els rrjv epyacriav. In 

H.A.\v.6. 531 the opyaviKa are contrasted with the alo-d^rrjpia and 

2 P. A. iv. 10. 68s b 29. 

3 491* 28 read at/x^y, TO & an av\vos . . . KaAftrat 

dvo, (TKfXrj dvo. 

1 H. A. vii. 10. 58; b 13; P. A. ii. 7. 653=* 35 ; G.A. ii. 5. 774 a 24. 

5 That the back of the skull was empty is a vulgar error, arising, 
I think, in the following way : firstly, from a belief that hearing was 
associated with the element air, as is indicated in this connexion in 
P. A. ii. IO. 65 6 b 13 TO yap oTrurdfv OVK e^ei cyK<pa\ov t . . . c^fi Se KOI TTJV 
UKorjv v\6yus fvia rlav ftpcoj/ tv Teo TOTTCO TQ> TTfpi TTJV Ke<pa\Tjv' TO yap 
Kfvbv Ka\ovp.(i>ov atpos 7r\ijpff e'ori, TO dc TJJS aKofjf al<r0T)Tr)piov aepos aval 
<j) : secondly, from a recognition of the fact that the auditory region 
of the skull does contain air-spaces, as we may discover, without 
dissection, by tapping the mastoid process immediately behind the ear. 
Cf. also Hippocr. ii. p. 215 K, vii. p. loL, c. See also Sonnenburg, 
Zool. krit. Bemerk. zn Aristoteles, Bonn, 1857, p. 12. 

apaiuv may mean porous, hollow ; cf. Hippocr. ii. p. 218 K, &c. 

7 Cf. H. A. iii. 7. 516* 19 (and note), P. A. ii. 10. 656 b 14. I imagine 
that this singular misstatement dates from a belief that the sutures 
of the skull coincided with the margin and the partings of the hairy 

C 2 


middle line, where the hair parts, 1 is called the crown or 
vertex. In some the parting is double ; that is to 
say, some men are double-crowned, not in regard to the 
bony skull, but in consequence of the double fall or set 
of the hair. 2 

The part that lies under the skull is called the ' face ' : 8 
10 but in the case of man only, for the term is not applied to 
a fish or to an ox. In the face the pan below the sinci- 
put and between the eyes is termed the forehead. When 
men have large foreheads, they are slow to move ; when 
they have small ones, they are fickle ; when they have 
broad ones, they are apt to be distraught ; when they 
have foreheads rounded or bulging out, they are quick- 
tempered. 3 

Underneath the forehead are two eyebrows. Straight 9 
1 5 eyebrows are a sign of softness of disposition; such as 
curve in towards the nose, of harshness ; such as curve out 
towards the temples, of humour and dissimulation ; such as 
are drawn in towards one another, of jealousy. 4 

Under the eyebrows come the eyes. These are naturally 
two in number. Each of them has an upper and a lower 
eyelid, and the hairs on the edges of these are termed 
20* eyelashes '. The central part of the eye includes the 
moist part whereby vision is effected, termed the ' pupil ', 5 
and the part surrounding it called the ' black ' ; the part 
outside this is the 'white'. A part common to the upper 
and lower eyelid is a pair of nicks or corners, one in 
the direction of the nose, and the other in the direction of 

1 Xi'(T(7a>fta, ? quasi eXtcrcrca/xa. P. has aXi 

2 Pollux, ii. 43 (K\f]dr)(Tav df KOI SiKopvtyoi Ttvfs, ovs KOI 

Read ols 6e nfpKpfpts, OvpiKoi, with P D a A a ; ei^xooi, A. and W. ; 

i, Dittm. 

4 Trogus, ap. Plin. xi. 114 ; Antig. Mirab. 114 ; Arist. de Physiogn. 
6. 8i2 b 26 ; Galen, iv. 796 K, who, for /ZCOKOI", humour or mockery, has 
/iw/iou, shame or disgrace. 

6 de Sensu, 12. 437 b I ; ProbL xxxi. 7. 958* 14 ; Hippocr. de Cam. 17 
(i. p. 439 K ; viii. p. 606 L). Hippocrates' description is much better: 
17 6e Koprj Ka\fofj.tvr) TOV 6(f)da\p.oi> p.t\ai> (fraivfrat dia TOVTO, on tv ftdfai 

f(TT\ KOI \ITO)V(S JT(p\ aVTO (l(T\ fif\OVfS' (<TTl &( OV /ifXnl/ O>/m, dXXa XfUKOV 

(Cf. Cassius, Probl. bled, xxvii. vol. iv. p. 332.) 

BOOK I. 9 49i b 

the temples. When these are long they are a sign of bad 
disposition ; if the side toward the nostril be fleshy and 25 
comb-like, 1 they are a sign of dishonesty. 

All animals, as a general rule, are provided with eyes, 
excepting the ostracoderms and other imperfect creatures ; 
at all events, all viviparous animals have eyes, with the 
exception of the mole. And yet one might assert that, 
though the mole has not eyes in the full sense, yet it has 
eyes in a kind of a way. For in point of absolute fact it 
cannot see, and has no eyes visible externally ; but when 30 
the outer skin is removed, it is found to have the place 
where eyes are usually situated, and the black parts of the 
eyes rightly situated, and all the place that is usually 
devoted on the outside to eyes : showing that the parts are 
stunted in development, and the skin allowed to grow 
over. 2 

jo Of the eye 3 the white is pretty much the same in all492 a 
creatures; but what is called the black differs in various 
animals. 4 Some have the rim black, some distinctly blue, 
some greyish-blue, some greenish ; 5 and this last colour is 
the sign of an excellent disposition, and is particularly well 
adapted for sharpness of vision. 

1 By the Kp(&8ts is plainly meant the caruncula at the inner angle 
of the eye, which represents the third eyelid or nictitating membrane 
of the bird, especially well seen in hawks, owls, and many other large 
birds (P. A. ii. 13. 657 b 16). It is very tempting to read olov turlves, 
for olov KTfi'ts, with the Cod. Canis., Alb. Magnus (who renders sicut 
accidit oculis inilvi] and Piccolos, and also with the version of De 
Moerbeke according to a MS. quoted by Camus (Notit. vi. p. 440 ; 
Schn. iii. p. 30). The structure in question is properly called eyKavQls, 
Galen, iv. 796 K. ; P. Aegin. iii, &c. Trogus, ap. Plin. xi. 114, literally 
translating A., has ' Qui carnosos a naribus angulos habent, malitiae 
notam praebent', and Antig. Mirab. (126) 114, has in like manner 
nav6oi'S Kp<o5ei?, Trovijpias. Galen, also quoting A., inserts ols 8e 
/3/ja^etf, f)6ovs jSeXriopo?, and continues o>i> 5f ot ttrevts oiov Kp(a>8es exovrts 
irpos roi p.vKT?ipi, 7roi'T]pias, and this, though it also may be corrupt, 
prevents us meanwhile from departing far from the received text. 
The use of KT/jSofer, Ruf. Eph. 55, for the same part is also in favour 
of retaining KrcVes-. 

2 True of Talpa caeca of S. Europe ; the eyes of our common 
T. europea are rudimentary but distinctly visible. Cf. de An. iii. i. 
425* IO (paivfTai yap Knt 17 (TnaXaj; VTTO TO 8cpp.a \ov<rn o(p6a\p,<ns ; Plin. 
xi. 52; Galen, iv. i6oK. 

3 Cf. Galen, i. 329, xvii A., 723 K. * G. A. v. I. 779 b 15. 

5 myooTToV : lit. ' as in goats' eyes ', at least so Pliny understood it 
(H.N. viii. 76, xi. 51), but the word is obscure ; my If, in Hipp. Coac. 


5 Man is the only, or nearly the only, creature, that has 
eyes of diverse colours. Animals, as a rule, have eyes of 
one colour only. Some horses have blue eyes. 1 

Of eyes, some are large, some small, some medium-sized ; 
of these, the medium-sized are the best. Moreover, eyes 
sometimes protrude, sometimes recede, sometimes are neither 
protruding nor receding. Of these, the receding eye is in 
all animals the most acute ; but the last kind are the sign 

10 of the best disposition. 2 Again, eyes are sometimes inclined 
to wink under observation, sometimes to remain open and 
staring, and sometimes are disposed neither to wink nor 
stare. The last kind are the sign of the best nature, and 
of the others, the latter kind indicates impudence, and the 
former indecision. 

Furthermore, there is a portion of the head, whereby an II 
animal hears, a part incapable of breathing, the ' ear '. 
I say 'incapable of breathing', for Alcmaeon is mistaken 
when he says that goats inspire through their ears. 3 Of 

15 the ear one part is unnamed, the other part is called the 
'lobe'; 4 and it is entirely composed of gristle and flesh. 
The ear is constructed internally like the trumpet-shell, and 
the innermost -bone is like the ear itself/ 5 and into it at the 
end the sound makes its way, as into the bottom of a jar. 
This receptacle does not communicate by any passage with 

20 the brain, but does so with the palate, and a vein extends 
from the brain towards it. The eyes also are connected 
with the brain, and each of them lies at the end of a little 
vein. Of animals possessed of ears man is the only one 
that cannot move this organ. Of creatures possessed of 
hearing, some have ears, whilst others have none, but merely 

214 (i. p. 267 K, v. p. 322 L), means a speck in the eye. Cf. G.A. v. 
! 779* 33 b 14 I Ar. ap. Athen. viii. p. 353. 

1 G.A. I.e.; Plin. xi. 53; Hippiatr.^. 53; Geopon. xvi. 2. Schn. 
cj. ertpoyXavKoi. 

Cf. G.A. v. i. 78o b 36 ; of horses, Xen. de Re Eg. i. 9. 

1 Ael. i. 53 ; Opp. Cyn. ii. 340; Varro, R.R. ii. 3. 5, c. 

4 Rufus Ephes. p. 26 \ofios de TO eVcKpf/ue's, orrep xai puvnv 'A. (^rjcrt 
TOV WTO? opo/zd^Vcrdm, ra 6' nXXa dva>vvp.a uvai. The unnamed portion 
includes the *6yxn ar d irrepvyiov, ibid. ; cf. Poll. ii. 85. 8. 

6 ofjiotov T&> OJTI, is an obscure and doubtful reading. We might 
perhaps suggest o/uoioi/ rairw or TOI'TOI?, i.e. 'the innermost bony part 
is also trumpet-shaped or spirally coiled, like the outer ear.' 

BOOK I. ii 492 a 

have the passages for ears visible, as, for example, feathered 35 
animals or animals coated with horny tessellates. 

Viviparous animals, with the exception of the seal, the 
dolphin, and those others which after a similar fashion to 
these are cetaceans, 1 are all provided with ears ; for, by the 
way, the shark-kind are also viviparous. Now, the seal has 
the passages visible whereby it hears ; 2 but the dolphin 
can hear, but has no ears, nor yet any passages visible. 3 3 
But man alone is unable to move his ears, and all other 
animals can move them. 4 And the ears lie, with man, in 
the same horizontal plane with the eyes, and not in a plane 
above them as is the case with some quadrupeds. 5 Of ears, 
some are fine, some are coarse, and some are of medium 
texture ; the last kind are best for hearing, but they serve 
in no way to indicate character. Some ears are large, some 
small, some medium-sized ; again, some stand out far, some 
lie in close and tight, and some take up a medium position ; 49 ab 
of these such as are of medium size and of medium posi- 
tion are indications of the best disposition, while the large 
and outstanding 6 ones indicate a tendency to irrelevant 
talk or chattering. The part intercepted between the eye, 
the ear, and the crown is termed the ' temple'. 

Again, there is a part of the countenance that serves as 5 
a passage for the breath, the ' nose '. For a man inhales 
and exhales by this organ, and sneezing is effected by its 
means : which last is an outward rush of collected breath, 
and is the only mode of breath used as an omen and re- 
garded as supernatural. 7 Both inhalation and exhalation 
go right on from the nose towards the chest ; 8 and with the 

OVTW KrjTcoSr; seems to be a slipshod equivalent for ?S>v a\\uv 

Kr?TG>Sa>r, ocra TOVTOV r^fi TOV rpOTrnv, H.A. viii. 2. 589* 33. A. and W. 
CJ. TCOJ/ dXXcoi/ ocra creXo^coST/, and Pice. TO>I> a\\a>v oxravra)? Ta pr) KTJTW&I; 
(a>oTOKi -yap *cai ra creXax/j). 

2 P. A. ii. 12. 657*22; G.A. v. 2. ;8i b 23. 
1 H. A. iv. 8. 533 b 14 ; Plin. xi. 50. 

4 492* 28, read with A. and W. 6 6e 8t\(p\s axovfi /iV, OVK ex 3' 2>ra 
OVTC nopovs (pavpovs. d\\a p.6vovavdp<i>7ros ovs ov Kivft) TO, 6 aXXa Kirel navra. 

5 P. A. ii. II. 657* 13. 

6 Galen, iv. 797 K. ; Antig. Mirab. 114. 

7 Od. xvii. 541 ; Ar. Ran. 647, Av. 720 ; Athen. 66 C ; Arist. Probl. 
ix. 54. 897 a n, &c. 

8 de Resp. 7. 474 a 19. 


10 nostrils alone and separately it is impossible to inhale or 
exhale, owing to the fact that the inspiration and respiration 
take place from the chest along the windpipe, and not by 
any portion connected with the head ; and indeed it is 
possible for a creature to live without using 1 this process of 
nasal respiration. 

Again, smelling takes place by means of the nose, 2 

-smelling, or the sensible discrimination of odour. And the 

nostril admits of easy motion, and is not, like the ear, intrin- 

15 sically immovable. A part of it, composed of gristle, con- 
stitutes a septum or partition, and part is an open passage ; 
for the nostril consists of two separate channels. The 
nostril (or nose) of the elephant 3 is long and strong, and 
the animal uses it like a hand ; for by means of this organ 
it draws objects towards it, and takes hold of them, and 

ao introduces its food into its mouth, whether liquid or dry 
food, and it is the only living creature that does so. 

Furthermore, there are two jaws ; the front part of them 
constitutes the chin, and the hinder part the cheek. All 
animals move the lo\ver jaw, with the exception of the river- 
crocodile ; this creature moves the upper jaw only. 4 

25 Next after the nose come two lips, composed of flesh, 
and facile of motion. The mouth lies inside the jaws and 
lips. Parts of the mouth are the roof or palate and the 

The part that is sensible of taste is the tongue. The 
sensation has its seat at the tip of the tongue ; if the object 
to be tasted 5 be placed on the flat surface of the organ, 
the taste is less sensibly experienced. The tongue is 
sensitive in all other ways wherein flesh in general is so : 

30 that is, it can appreciate hardness, or warmth and cold, in 
any part of it, just as it can appreciate taste. 6 The tongue 
is sometimes broad, sometimes narrow, and sometimes of 

1 But cf. de Resp. \. 4;o b 9, 9. 475 a 29. 2 P. A. ii. 10. 6$6 b 31. 

' P. A. ii. 1 6. 6s8 b 33. 

4 Hdt. ii. 68 ; H.A. iii. 7. 516*24 ; P. A. ii. 17. 66o b 27, iv. n. 69i b 5. 

5 Pice, and Dittm. read cav 6e <n). 

6 A, and \V., following Camus, point out that the text is unsatisfactory, 
inasmuch as taste has been expressly localized in a particular. part of 
the tongue. The more accurate statement would have been al<rQav(T<n 
df ou finvov TOV X^/MOV nXXu KOI u>v 17 fi\\rj (rapt; TTUVTMV. 

BOOK I. ii 49 2 b 

medium width ; the last kind is the best and the clearest 
in its discrimination of taste. 1 Moreover, the tongue is 
sometimes loosely hung, and sometimes fastened : 2 as in 
the case of those who mumble and who lisp. 3 

The tongue consists of flesh, soft and spongy, and the 
so-called ' epiglottis ' is a part of this organ. 

That part of the mouth that splits into two bits is 
called the ' tonsils ' ; that part that splits into many bits, 493 
the ' gums '. Both the tonsils and the gums are composed 
of flesh. In the gums are teeth, composed of bone. 

Inside the mouth is another part, shaped like a bunch of 
grapes, 4 a pillar streaked with veins. 5 If this pillar gets 
relaxed and inflamed it is called 'uvula' or 'bunch of 
grapes ', and it then has a tendency to bring about suffoca- 
tion. 7 

12 The neck 8 is the part between the face and the trunk. Of 5 
this the front part is the larynx [and the back part the 
gullet]. The front part, composed of gristle, through 
which respiration and speech is effected, is termed the 
'wind-pipe' ; the part that is fleshy is the oesophagus, inside 
just in front of the chine. The part to the back of the 
neck is the epomis, or * shoulder-point'. 10 

1 Perhaps, as most commentators have taken it, * the best adapted 
for distinct articulation ' ; but the subject under discussion here is 
taste, not voice : cf . P. A . iv. 1 7. 66o a 1 9 TT/JO? re rfjv r&>i> x v p-^ lf a B^aiv *.a\ 

OS T'/V T(i)V ypU fJLfJLaTOiV dldpdpQMTllt Kdl TtpOS TOV AdyOI/ 17 fJLd^UKrj KOI TT\dTfia 

1 H.A. iv. 9. 556 b 7 ; P. A. ii. 17. 66o a 2. 

3 \lr\\ifiv seems to mean ' to slur over a letter ', and rpavXifriv ' to 
misplace or mispronounce it', as for instance in speaking through the 
nose (Pers. i. 33). Cf. Aristoph. fr. 536 \l/\\6v tori KCU KuXel T^V dpnTov 
aprov, Vcsp. 44 etr' 'A\Ki^iddr]S eixe npos /ue rpnv^icras' 'OXay [fyaf] J 
&<i)\os TI]V K(pa\i]v KoXanos '('x l - Tp</CAo? = btilbits, Lucret. iv. n6o; cf. 
Cic. de Orat. i. 6 1. 

4 Hippocr. de Morb. ii. 10 (ii. p. 220 K ; vii. p. 18 L). 

Read e7n'0\e#o? : eVi <p\fft6s, Dittm. after Schneider. 
c lit. 'moistened', viz. by the descent of phlegm from the brain, 
Hippoc. I.e. (TTiKpvXt) yii/fTat, (JTO.V (s TOV y<ipyap(t)i>a Karaftf) (p\fyp.a ano 

7 Ruf. Ephes. p. 28 a ; Poll. ii. 99. 

* P. A. iii. 3. 664 a . n [ ] Dittm. 

10 The eVco/Lu'r is the region of the deltoid muscle, Galen, de Off. Part. 
iv. 136 K. ; cf. Pollux, ii. 133 xXeidutv TU p.(v TT/JO? rnis co^orrXurat? f 
TO 8e npos TOO r^n^^Xa) Trapacr(payis. 


10 These then are the parts to be met with before you come 
to the thorax. 

To the trunk there is a front part and a back part. Next 
after the neck in the front part is the chest, with a pair of 
breasts. To each of the breasts is attached a teat or 
nipple, through which in the case of females the milk per- 
colates ; and the breast is of a spongy texture. Milk, by 
the way, is found at times in the male ; but with the male 

15 the flesh of the breast is tough, with the female it is soft 
and porous. 

Next after the thorax and in front comes the ' belly', and 
its root l the ' navel '. Underneath this root the bilateral 
part is the 'flank': the undivided 2 part below the 
navel, the ' abdomen ', the extremity of which is the region 

20 of the ' pubes ' ; and above the navel the ' hypochondrium ' ; 
the cavity common to the hypochondrium and the flank 
is the gut-cavity. 

Serving as a brace-girdle to the hinder parts is the 
pelvis, and hence it gets its name (oo-tyvs), for it is sym- 
metrical (to-cxpvts) in appearance ; of the fundament the part 
for resting on is termed the ' rump ', and the part whereon 
the thigh pivots is termed the ' socket ' (or acetabulum). 
The * womb ' is a part peculiar to the female ; and the 

25 'penis' is peculiar to the male. This latter organ is ex- 
ternal and situated at the extremity of the trunk ; it is 
composed of two separate parts: of which the extreme 
part is fleshy, does not alter in size, 3 and is called the 
glans ; and round about it is a skin devoid of any specific 
title, 4 which integument if it be cut asunder never grows 
together again, any more than docs the jaw or the eyelid. 5 
And the connexion between the latter and the glans is 

Cf. G.A. ii. 4. 74O a 33 at Sf (f>\(@(S olov pifai -rrpbs rrjv la-rtpnv 
(TvvdnTovai, fit' u>v Xn/M/3rft TO Kvrma rfjv Tpo<j)r t v. Cf. ibid. 7- 745^22. 

2 A. and \V. read, probably rightly, *oi\ov KOUOI-, thus combining 
the alternative readings of the MSS., and following Gaza ' cavum 

3 Reading, with A. and W., d>? titrfiv i'crov : Xiaaof ob? (Irrclv, Coraes. 

1 TtoaQr;, TO eVi rfj ovpffBpq 8f'pp.n, Poll. ; TO dtp^a rov cuSoi'ov, Hesych. 
Cf. also Ruf. Ephes. i. p. 31, cit. Schn. 

H. A, iii. ii. $i8 a I ; P. A. ii. 13. 657 b 3 ; Hippocr. Aph. vi. 19. 



BOOK I. 13 493 

called the frenum. The remaining part of the penis is ?. 
composed of gristle ; it is easily susceptible of enlargement ; 
and it protrudes and recedes in the reverse directions to 
what is observable in the identical organ in cats. 1 Under- 
neath the penis are two 'testicles', and the integument of 
these is a skin that is termed the ' scrotum '. 

Testicles are not identical with flesh, and are not alto- 
gether diverse from it. But by and by we shall treat in an 493 b 
exhaustive way regarding all such parts. 

The privy part of the female is in character opposite to 
that of the male. In other words, the part under the pubes 
is hollow or receding, and not, like the male organ, pro- 
truding. Further, there .is an ' urethra ' outside the womb ; 
(which organ serves as a passage for the sperm of the male, 5 
and as an outlet for liquid excretion to both sexes). 2 

The part common to the neck and chest is the 'throat'; 
the 'armpit' is common to side, arm, and shoulder; and the 
* groin' is common to thigh and abdomen. The part inside 
the thigh and buttocks is the ' perineum ', and the part 
outside the thigh and buttocks is the ' hypoglutis '. I0 

The front parts of the trunk have now been enumerated. 

The part behind the chest is termed the ' back '. 

15 Parts of the back are a pair of 'shoulder-blades', the 
'back-bone', and, underneath on a level with the belly in 
the trunk, 3 the ' loins '. Common to the upper and lower 
part of the trunk are the ' ribs '. eight on either side, for as 
to the so-called seven-ribbed Ligyans we have not received '5 
any trustworthy evidence. 

Man, then, has an upper and a lower part, a front and 
a back part, a right and a left side. Now the right and the 
left side are pretty well alike in their parts and identical 

1 493 a 3 2 alXovpois renders the statement accurate ; Xofpovpnis, the 
usual reading, would not be correct. 

2 Pice. CJ. Kdl p^rpa c^e^ovcra TU>V vaTfpStv, ^i'oo? T&> (rr-fp^nri TOV 
tippevns' f] 6' ovprjdpn TOV vypov *rX. But the clause in the text has 
rather the look of a footnote, descriptive of the urethra in general 
terms : we therefore treat it as a parenthesis. 

" This description is unsatisfactory. Pice. cj. KUT' avriirepav 


20 throughout, except that the left side is the weaker of the 
two ; but the back parts do not resemble the front ones, 
neither do the lower ones the upper: only that these upper 
and lower parts may be said to resemble one another thus 
far, that, if the face be plump or meagre, the abdomen is 
plump or meagre to correspond ; and that the legs correspond 
to the arms, and where the upper arm is short the thigh is 

25 usually short also, and where the feet are small the hands 
are small correspondingly. 

Of the limbs, one set, forming a pair, is * arms '. To the 
arm belong the 'shoulder', 'upper-arm', 'elbow', 'fore- 
arm ', and ' hand '. To the hand belong the ' palm ', and 
the five ' fingers '. The part of the finger that bends is 
termed ' knuckle ', the part that is inflexible is termed the 
' phalanx '. The big finger or thumb is single-jointed, the 

30 other fingers are double-jointed. The bending both of the 
arm and of the finger takes place from without inwards in 
all cases ; and the arm bends at the elbow. The inner part 
of the hand is termed the * palm ', and is fleshy and divided 
by joints or lines : in the case of long-lived people by one 
494 a or two extending right across, in the case of the short-lived 
by two, not so extending. 1 The joint between hand and 
arm is termed the 'wrist'. The outside or back of the 
hand is sinewy, and has no specific designation. 

There is another duplicate limb, the ' leg '. Of this limb 
the double-knobbed part is termed the ' thigh-bone ', the 
5 sliding part the ' knee-cap', the double-boned part the ' leg' ; 
the front part of this latter is termed the 'shin', and the 
part behind it the 'calf, wherein the flesh is sinewy and 
venous, in some cases drawn upwards towards the hollow 
behind the knee, as in the case of people with large hips, and 
in other cases drawn downwards. The lower extremity of 

10 the shin is the ' ankle ', duplicate in either leg. The part 
of the limb that contains a multiplicity of bones is the 
1 foot '. The hinder part of the foot is the { heel ' ; at the 
front of it the divided part consists of 'toes', five in num- 
ber; the fleshy part underneath is the 'ball'; 2 the upper 

1 Arist. Probl. ix. 49. 8q6 a 38, xiv. 10. 964*33 ; Plin. xi. 114. 

2 orljdus : Hippocr. Art. 'iii. pp. 222. 228 K ; irpooniGis, Foil. ii. 162. 


BOOK I. 15 494 

part or back of the foot is sinewy and has no particular 
appellation ; of the toe, one portion is the 'nail' and another 
the 'joint ', and the nail is in all cases at the extrepity ; 15 
and toes are without exception single-jointed. Men that 
have the inside or sole of the foot clumsy and not arched, 
that is, that walk resting on the entire under-surface of 
their feet, 1 are prone to roguery. The joint common to 
thigh and shin is the * knee '. 

These, then, are the parts common to the male and 
the female sex. The relative position of the parts as to 
up and down, or to front and back, or to right and left, all 20 
this as regards externals might safely be left to mere 
ordinary perception. But for all that, we must treat of 
them for the same reason as the one previously brought 
forward ; that is to say, we must refer to them in order 
that a due and regular sequence may be observed in our 
exposition, and in order that by the enumeration of these 
obvious facts due attention may be subsequently given to 25 
those parts in men and other animals that are diverse in 
any way from one another. 

In man, above all other animals, the terms ' upper ' and 
1 lower' are used in harmony with their natural positions ; 
for in him, upper and lower have the same meaning as 
when they are applied to the universe as a whole.- In like 
manner the terms, 'in front', ' behind', 'right' and 'left', are 3 
used in accordance with their natural sense. But in regard 
to other animals, in some cases these distinctions do not 
exist, and in others they do so, but in a vague way. For 
instance, the head with all animals is up and above in 
respect to their bodies ; but man alone, as has been said, 
has, in maturity, this part uppermost in respect to the 494 b 
material universe. 

Next after the head comes the neck, and then the chest 
and the back : the one in front and the other behind. 
Next after these come the belly, the loins, the sexual parts, 
and the haunches ; then the thigh and shin ; and, lastly, 
the feet. 

1 Lat. plancus ; cf. Plin. xi. 105. 

8 De Iiru. ct Senect. i. 468* 5 ; P. A. ii. lo. 656* 10. 


The legs bend frontwards, in the direction of actual 
progression, and frontwards also lies that part of the foot 
5 which is the most effective of motion, and the flexure of 
that part ; but the heel lies at the back, and the ankle- 
bones lie laterally, earwise. 1 The arms are situated to 
right and left, and bend inwards : so that the convexities 
jo formed by bent arms and legs are practically face to face 
with one another in the case of man. 2 

As for the senses and for the organs of sensation, the 
eyes, the nostrils, and the tongue, all alike are situated 
frontwards ; the sense of hearing, and the organ of hearing, 
the ear, is situated sideways, on the same horizontal plane 
i 5 with the eyes. The eyes in man are, in proportion to his 
size, nearer to one another than in any other animal. 

Of the senses man has the sense of touch more refined 
than any animal, and so also, but in less degree, the sense 
of taste ; in the development of the other senses he is 
surpassed by a great number of animals. 

The parts, then, that are externally visible are arranged 16 
ao in the way above stated, and as a rule have their special 
designations, and from use and wont are known familiarly 
to all ; but this is not the case with the inner parts. For 
the fact is that the inner parts of man are to a very 
great extent unknown, and the consequence is that we 
must have recourse to an examination of the inner parts of 
other animals whose nature in any way resembles that 
of man. 

25 In the first place then, the brain lies in the front part of 
the head. 3 And this holds alike with all animals possessed 
of a brain ; and all blooded animals are possessed thereof, 

Here A. and W. suggest fttartpov fKorcpto&tv for tudrtpov Kara TO ovs, 
and translate ' jeder der beiden Knochel an den beiden Seiten des 
Fusses '. The passage is perhaps corrupt, but it would seem that the 
general reference is to direction of flexure and not to position of parts : 
this, together with the manifestly awkward position of KOI ; Kap-^it 
in the preceding line, suggests some such reading as the following, *ai 17 

KU/iV/X'i? f] p.(V TTTfpVriS fK TOV OTTlCrdfV, TtoV df (jfyvptoV (K(lT(p<*)6ll> KCLTll TO OUS 

(cf. 1. 1 4 infra}. 

1 //. A. ii. i. 498* 3; de Inc. 12-14. 7ii a -7i2 b . 
s Hippocr. de Morb. ii. 8 (ii. p. 219 K ; vii. p. 16 L). 

BOOK I. 16 494 b 

and, by the way, molluscs as well. But, taking size for 
size of animal, the largest brain, 1 and the moistest, is that 
of man. Two membranes enclose it : the stronger one 2 
nearer the bone of the skull ; the inner one, 3 round the 30 
brain itself, is finer. The brain in all cases is bilateral. 4 
Behind this, right at the back, comes what is termed the 
' cerebellum ', differing in form from the brain as we may 
both feel and see. 

The back of the head is with all animals empty and 
hollow, whatever be its size in the different animals. 5 For 495 a 
some creatures have big heads while the face below is small 
in proportion, as is the case "with round-faced animals ; some 
have little heads and long jaws, as is the case, without 
exception, among animals of the mane-and-tail species. 

The brain in all animals is bloodless, 6 devoid of veins, 5 
and naturally cold to the touch ; 7 in the great majority 
of animals it has a small hollow in its centre. The 
brain-caul around it is reticulated with veins ; and this 
brain-caul is that skin-like membrane which closely sur- 
rounds the brain. Above the brain is the thinnest and 
weakest bone of the head, which is termed 'bregma' or 10 
'sinciput'. 8 

From the eye there go three ducts to the brain : the 
largest and the medium-sized to the cerebellum, the least 
to the brain itself ; and the least is the one situated nearest 
to the nostril. The two largest ones, then, run side by 
side and do not meet; the medium-sized ones meet and 15 
this is particularly visible in fishes, for they lie nearer 
than the large ones to the brain ; the smallest pair are the 
most widely separate from one another, and do not meet. 

Inside the neck is what is termed the 'oesophagus' 

1 P. A. ii. 14. 6s.8 b ;. 

2 The dura mater \ cf. Hippocr. dc loc. in /Loin. 2 (vi. p. 280 L) ; 
If. A. iii. 13. 519*. 

The//<2 mater, the fj.rj vl y or ' brain-caul ' of the sequel. 
4 Hippocr. de Morb. Sacr. 3 (i. p. 595 K ; vi. p. 366 L) ; /'. A. iii. 7. 
66o b 22. 
495 a i omit fieVpa. ! P. A. ii. 7. 652* 35. 

7 de Somno et Vig. 3. 457 b 30. 

8 Hippocr. de Capit. Vuln. 2 (iii. p. 348 K ; iii. p. 1 88 L) ; P. A. ii. 
7- 653*35 ; N.A. vii. 10. 587 1 ' 13. 


20 (whose other name l is derived from its length and narrow- 
ness), and the windpipe. The windpipe is situated in 
front of the oesophagus in all animals that have a wind- 
pipe, and all animals have one that are furnished with 
lungs. The windpipe is made up of gristle, is sparingly 
supplied with blood, and is streaked all round with numerous 

35 minute veins ; it is situated, in its upper part, near the 
mouth, below the aperture formed by the nostrils into the 
mouth an aperture through which, when men, in drinking, 
inhale any of the liquid, this liquid finds its way out 
through the nostrils. In betwixt the two openings comes 
the so-called epiglottis, 2 an organ capable of being drawn 
over and covering the orifice of the windpipe communi- 

30 eating with the mouth ; the end of the tongue is attached 
to the epiglottis. In the other direction the windpipe 
extends to the interval between the lungs, and hereupon 
bifurcates into each of the two divisions of the lung ; for 
the lung in all animals possessed of the organ has a ten- 
dency to be double. In viviparous animals, however, the 
495 b duplication is not so plainly discernible as in other species, 
and the duplication is least discernible in man. And in man 
the organ is not split into many parts, as is the case with 
some vivipara, neither is it smooth, but its surface is uneven. 
In the case of the ovipara, such as birds and oviparous 
quadrupeds, the two parts of the organ are separated to 
a distance from one another, so that the creatures appear 
5 to be furnished with a pair of lungs; and from the windpipe, 
itself single, there branch off two separate parts extending to 
each of the two divisions of the lung. It is attached also 
to the great vein and to what is designated the ' aorta '. 
When the windpipe is charged with air, the air passes on 
to the hollow parts of the lung. These parts have divisions, 

10 composed of gristle, which meet at an acute angle; 
from the divisions run passages through the entire lung, 
giving off smaller and smaller ramifications. The heart 
also is attached to the windpipe, by connexions of fat, 

1 Oy. aro/Lia^of , fancifully derived from orei/or, fj.(inpos : unless the 
parenthesis be a later interpolation, when we might rather conjecture 
tocos' : cf. Et. M. la-Opus 8f tori OTCJ/OS TOTTOJ-, dC ov tWrai ra e<r6i6p.eva 
KOI 7riv6fj.^a. 2 P. A. iii. 3. 664 b 21. 

BOOK I. 16 495 b 

gristle, and sinew ; and at the point of juncture there is 
a hollow. When the windpipe is charged with air, the 
entrance of the air into the heart, though imperceptible in 
some animals, is perceptible enough in the larger ones. 15 
Such are the properties of the windpipe, and it takes in 
and throws out air only, and takes in nothing else either 
dry or liquid, or else it causes you pain until you shall 
have coughed up whatever may have gone down. 

The oesophagus communicates at the top with the 
mouth, close to the windpipe, and is attached to the back- 20 
bone and the windpipe by membranous ligaments, and at 
last finds its way through the midriff into the belly. It is 
composed of flesh-like substance, and is elastic both length- 
ways and breadthways. 

The stomach of man resembles that of a dog ; for it is 
not much bigger than the bowel, but is somewhat like 25 
a bowel of more than usual width ; then comes the bowel, 
single, convoluted, moderately wide. The lower part of 
the gut is like that of a pig ; for it is broad, and the part 
from it to the buttocks is thick and short. The caul, 1 or 
great omentum, is attached to the middle of the stomach, 
and consists of a fatty membrane, as is the case with all 30 
other animals whose stomachs are single and which have 
teeth 2 in both jaws. 

The mesentery is over the bowels ; this also is mem- 
branous and broad, and turns to fat. It is attached to the 
great vein and the aorta, and there run through it a number 
of veins closely packed together, extending towards the 
region of the bowels, beginning above and ending below. 

So much for the properties of the oesophagus, the wind- 
pipe, and the stomach. 

17 The heart 3 has three cavities, and is situated above the 
lung at the division of the windpipe, and is provided with 5 
a fatty and thick membrane where it fastens on to the 
great vein and the aorta. It lies with its tapering portion 

1 P. A. iv. 3. 677* 17. 2 i. e. incisors. Cf. infra, ii. I. 499* 23. 

3 See the fuller account of the heart and vessels in iii. 3-4 ; P. A. iii. 4. 
666 b , &c. 

AR. H.A. 


upon the aorta, and this portion is similarly situated l in 
relation to the chest in all animals that have a chest. In 
all animals alike, in those that have a chest and in those 

10 that have none, the apex of the heart points forwards, 
although this fact might possibly escape notice by a change 
of position under dissection. The rounded end of the heart 
is at the top. The apex is to a great extent fleshy and 
close in texture, and in the cavities of the heart are sinews. 
As a rule the heart is situated in the middle of the chest in 

15 animals that have a chest, and in man it is situated a little 
to the left-hand side, leaning a little way from the division 
of the breasts towards the left breast in the upper part of 
the chest. 2 

The heart is not large, and in its general shape it is not 
elongated ; in fact, it is somewhat round in form : only, be 
it remembered, it is sharp-pointed at the bottom. It has 

20 three cavities, as has been said : the right-hand one the 
largest of the three, the left-hand one the least, and the 
middle one intermediate in size. 3 All these cavities, even 
the two small ones, are connected by passages with the 
lung, 4 and this fact is rendered quite plain in one of the 

25 cavities. And below, at the point of attachment, in 
the largest cavity there is a connexion with the great vein 5 
[near which the mesentery lies] ; G and in the middle one 
there is a connexion with the aorta. 

Canals lead from the heart into the lung, 7 and branch off 
just as the windpipe does, running all. over the lung parallel 

30 with the passages from the windpipe. The canals from the 
heart are uppermost ; and there is no common passage, but 
the passages through their having a common wall receive 

1 A. and W. read Kflrai 5e eVi rfi aoprfj KOI TCI oe'a /caret re 

2 Plin. xi. 69; Cels. iv. I : cf. Juv. iii. 7. 160. 

3 The ascription of three cavities to the heart was probably influenced 
by tradition or mysticism, in much the same way as Plato's notion 
of the three corporeal faculties. For an attempted interpretation, see 
infra, iii. 3. 513*. 

k H. A. iii. 3. 5i3 a 35. 

5 Reading with A. and W. dndcras ' *x fl ) Knl s ^o putpas, fls r6i> 

TfTprjfJLfvas, KnrddrjXov de Kara p.iav TQ>V KOiAiou'. Karudtv o (K rrjs 
KT\. Dittm. brackets the whole passage, e^ 61 ^ KoiXias 

rr]v pea-rjv TV aoprf), as an importation from iii. 3. 5i3 a 3oseq. 
8 [ ] A. and W. 7 Cf. de Resf. 22(16). 4?8 a 26. 

BOOK I. 17 

the breath and pass it on to the heart ; and one of the pas- 
sages conveys it to the right cavity, and the other to the left. 

With regard to the great vein and the aorta we shall, by 
and by, treat of them together in a discussion devoted to 
them and to them alone. 

In all animals that are furnished with a lung, and 4Q6 b 
that are both internally and externally viviparous, 1 the 
lung is of all organs the most richly supplied with 
blood ; for the lung is throughout spongy in texture, and 
along by every single pore in it go branches from the 
great vein. Those who imagine it to be empty are alto- 5 
gether mistaken ; and they are led into their error by their 
observation of lungs removed from animals under dissection, 
out of which organs the blood has all escaped immediately 
after death. 

Of the other internal organs the heart alone contains 
blood. And the lung has blood not in itself but in its 
veins, but the heart has blood in itself; for in each of its 
three cavities it has blood, but the thinnest blood is what 10 
it has in its central cavity. 

Under the lung comes the thoracic diaphragm 2 or midriff, 
attached to the ribs, the hypochondria and the backbone, 
with a thin membrane in the middle of it. It has veins 
running through it; and the diaphragm 3 in the case of 15 
man is thicker in proportion to the size of his frame than 
in other animals. 

Under the diaphragm on the right-hand side lies the 
* liver ', and on the left-hand side the ' spleen ', alike in all 
animals that are provided with these organs in an ordinary 
and not preternatural way ; for, be it observed, in some 
quadrupeds these organs have been found in a transposed 
position. 4 These organs are connected with the stomach 20 
by the caul. 

To outward view the spleen of man is narrow and long, 
resembling the self-same organ in the pig. The liver in 

1 i.e. the mammalia, as opposed to the ovipara and ovovivipara 
(cf. P. A. ii. 9. 655* 5, iv. i. 6;6 b 3, &c.). 

2 Cf. P. A. iii. 10. 672** 10. 

' <j>pi>es, Med., Guil., Pice., A. and W. $Xe/3e?, codd., Aid., Bk. 
The so-called Inversio viscerum. 

D 2 


the great majority of animals is not provided with a ' gall- 
bladder ' ; but the latter is present in some. 1 The liver of a 
man is round-shaped, and resembles the same organ in the 
ox. And, by the way, the absence above referred to of a 

25 gall-bladder is at times met with in the practice of augury. 
For instance, in a certain district of the Chalcidic settlement 
in Euboea the sheep are devoid of gall-bladders ; and in 
Naxos nearly all the quadrupeds have one so large that 
foreigners when they offer sacrifice with such victims are 
bewildered with fright, under the impression that the 
phenomenon is not due to natural causes, but bodes some 
mischief to the individual offerers of the sacrifice. 2 

3 o Again, the liver is attached to the great vein, but it has 
no communication with the aorta ; for the vein that goes 
off from the great vein goes right through the liver, at 
a point where are the so-called * portals ' of the liver. The 
spleen also is connected only with the great vein, for a 
vein extends to the spleen off from it. 

After these organs come the ' kidneys ', and these are 
placed close to the backbone, and resemble in character 
497 a the same organ in kine. In all animals that are provided 
with this organ, the right kidney is situated higher up than 
the other. It has also less fatty substance than the left- 
hand one 3 and is less moist. And this phenomenon also 
is observable in all the other animals alike. 

Furthermore, passages or ducts lead into the kidneys 
5 both from the great vein and from the aorta, only not into 
the cavity. For, by the way, there is a cavity in the 
middle of the kidney, bigger in some creatures and less in 
others ; but there is none in the case of the seal. 4 This latter 
animal has kidneys resembling in shape the identical organ 
in kine, but in its case the organs are more solid than in 
any other known creature. The ducts that lead into the 
kidneys lose themselves in the substance of the kidneys 

10 themselves ; and the proof that they extend no farther 

1 The statement here would seem to be the opposite of the truth ; 
cf. P. A. iv. 2. 676^ l6 ('x f i $f Knt \O\T}V TO. TroAXa TO>V eVat'/itoi/ u>o)V. 
Dittm. transposes the ov*. 

2 P. A. iv. 2. 677* I. 

3 P. A. iii. 9. 671^ 28, 672* 23. * P. A. iii. 9. 67i b 3. 

BOOK I. 17 497 a 

rests on the fact that they l contain no blood, nor is any 
clot found therein. The kidneys, however, have, as has 
been said, a small cavity. From this cavity in the kidney 
there lead two considerable ducts or ureters into the bladder ; 
and others spring from the aorta, strong and continuous. 2 
And to the middle of each of the two kidneys is attached 
a hollow sinewy vein, stretching right along the spine 15 
through the narrows ; by and by these veins are lost in 
either loin, and again become visible extending to the 
flank. And these off-branchings of the veins terminate in 
the bladder. For the bladder lies at the extremity, and is 
held in position by the ducts stretching from the kidneys, 
along the stalk that extends to the urethra ; and pretty 20 
well all round it is fastened by fine sinewy membranes, 
that resemble to some extent the thoracic diaphragm. The 
bladder in man is, proportionately to his size, tolerably large. 

To the stalk of the bladder the private part is attached, 
the external orifices coalescing ; 3 but a little lower down, 25 
one of the openings communicates with the testicles and 
the other with the bladder. The penis is gristly and 
sinewy in its texture. With it are connected the testicles 
in male animals, and the properties of these organs we 
shall discuss in our general account of the said organ. 4 

All these organs are similar in the female ; for there is 30 
no difference in regard to the internal organs, except in 
respect to the womb, and with reference to the appearance 
of this organ I must refer the reader to diagrams in my 
'Anatomy'. The womb, however, is situated over the 
bowel, and the bladder lies over the womb. But we must 
treat by and by in our pages of the womb of all female 
animals viewed generally. For the wombs of all female 
animals are not identical, neither do their local dispositions 

These are the organs, internal and external, of man, and 497 b 
such is their nature and such their local disposition. 

1 Here Dittm. inserts (TO KoIXa), which interpretation gives the right 
sense, but is hardly necessary. Cf. iii. 4- 5i4 b 3 2 ? A - 9- 6 7i b 13- 

2 The iliac arteries, not as seen in man, but, as in a quadruped, with 
their origins higher up. 

8 Read crvvepptoybs (is ravro. 

4 Cf. H.A. iii. I. 509 et seq., G. A. i. 12. ;i8 a . 


497 With regard to animals in general, some parts or organs I 
5 are common to all, as has been said, and some are common 
only to particular genera ; l the parts, moreover, are identical 
with or different from one another on the lines already 
repeatedly laid down. For as a general rule all animals 
10 that are generically distinct have the majority of their parts 
or organs different in form or species ; and some of them they 
have only analogically similar 2 and diverse in kind or genus, 
while they have others that are alike in kind but specifically 
diverse ; and many parts or organs exist in some animals, 
but not in others. 

For instance, viviparous quadrupeds have all a head and 
15 a neck, and all the parts or organs of the head, but they 
differ each from other in the shapes- of the parts. The lion 
has its neck composed of one single bone instead of 
vertebrae ; :j but, when dissected, the animal is found in all 
internal characters to resemble the dog. 

The quadrupedal vivipara instead of arms have forelegs. 4 
This is true of all quadrupeds, but such of them as have 
20 toes have, practically speaking, organs analogous to hands ; 
at all events, they use these fore-limbs for many purposes 
as hands. And they have the limbs on the left-hand side 
less distinct from those on the right than man. 5 

1 The main subject of this Book is to define the great genera of 
sanguineous animals, the viviparous and oviparous quadrupeds, the 
birds and fishes, though many instances of specific diversity are 
introduced parenthetically. In the opening sentences, which must 
be read together with those of Book I, brevity leads to a certain 
appearance of confusion : we are reminded that a generic difference 
between two animals carries with it generic difference between certain 
parts as well as specific differences between many others ; but it now 
goes without saying that in animals which are specifically identical 
the parts are also specifically identical, and that in animals which are 
akin generically but diverse specifically the parts also are generically 
alike but are more or less specifically diverse. 

! H.A. i. i. 486 b 19, &c. 

! P. A. iv. 10. 686 a 21 ; Ael. iv. 34 ; cf. Wiegmann, Obs. en'/., p. 3. 

1 A. and W. cj. (avr\ 5e ^etpcoi/ TrdSar). 

5 Wiegmann, Pice., 'and Dittm. bracket this sentence, which is at 

BOOK II. I 497 b 

The fore-limbs then serve more or less the purpose of 
hands in quadrupeds, with the exception of the elephant. 
This latter animal has its toes somewhat indistinctly defined, 1 
and its front legs are much bigger than its hinder ones ; it 
is five-toed, and has short ankles to its hind feet. But it 25 
has a nose such in properties and such in size as to allow 
of its using the same for a hand. 2 For it eats and drinks 
by lifting up its food with the aid of this organ into its 
mouth, and with the same organ it lifts up articles 3 to the 
driver on its back ; with this organ it can pluck up trees by 
the roots, and when walking through water it spouts the 
water up by means of it ; 4 and this organ is capable of 30 
being crooked or coiled at the tip, but not of flexing like 
a joint, for it is composed of gristle. 

Of all animals man alone can learn to make equal use of 
both hands. 5 

All animals have a part analogous to the chest in man, 

best parenthetical ; A. and W., substituting oniaQia for dpiorepd, are 
in obvious error. Cf. de Inc. 4. 706* 18 an oXeXt <^(va cx ov(Tl T dpiarfpa 
Tci)v fw'cov /zdXicTTa avSpanroi dia TO Kara (pvariv f\ etv poXiora TO>I> a>a>i> 
(puaei 8e /3e'Xrtof re TO 8ftov TOV dpiorepot) Kai Ke^copifr/ueVoj/, 810 Kal ra 
5eia iv TOIS di>6 parrots p.d\io~Ta 8iu ftTTtv. did)pto~p.ev(i)v 5e T<UJ> fiesta**/ 
euXoycos 1 TO. dpio~Tfpa aKivrjTOTfpd eVn, <ai dno\f\ /j-dXiora iv TOVTOIS I 
cf. Plin. x. 105. While aTroXeXu^fVa is difficult to translate, the meaning 
clearly is that the left side is less dependent on, less inferior to, less 
contrasted with, the right in quadrupeds than in mankind. The chief 
contrast, according to A., is that the right side is KIVOVV, the left KIVOV- 
pfvov (de Inc. 4. 7O5 b 30 ; cf. H. A. ii. I. 498 b 7) ; and in the above-quoted 
passage we are told that, as man represents Nature's design better 
than the brutes, so it is man that exhibits most clearly this particular 
differentiation. The idea may have arisen from the fact that man is 
accustomed to carry a burden on his left shoulder (cf. de Inc. 4. 706* 2), 
while an animal bears it evenly on its back. But over and above this, 
the statement is part of the general superstitious belief as to the 
inferiority of the left side a tenet of the Pythagoreans (cf. de Caelo, 
ii. 2. 284" 6, fr. 195. I5i3 a 15). The right-hand side of the body is 
said to be warmer than the left, especially in man (G. A. iv. I. 765 b I ; 
cf. P. A. ii. 2. 648 a 12), and its organs, except the eye and ear, stronger 
(Probl. xxxi. 1 8. 95 9 a 20) ; males are said by Anaxagoras and others to 
be conceived on the right side, females on the left (G.A. iv. I. 
?63 b 33), &c. Cf. also P. A, iv. 8. 684* 28, &c. 

1 H.A. iii. 9. 5i7 a 32. 

2 P. A. ii. 16. 6s8 b 33, iv. 12. 692 b 17; Plin. viii. 10, xi. 105 ; Opp. 
Cyn. ii. 524. ' Dittm. cj, -nov ope-yet. 

4 See also H.A. ix. 46. 630* 28; cf. P. A. iii. 6. 669 a 8 ra ava- 

5 Eth. Nic. v. 10. H34 b 34; Magn. Mor. i. 34. H94 b 34; Pol. ii. 
12. I274 b 13. 


but not similar to his ; for the chest in man is broad, but 
that of all other animals is narrow. 1 Moreover, no other 
animal but man has breasts in front ; 2 the elephant, 
498 a certainly, has two breasts, not however in the chest, but 
near it. 

Moreover, also, animals have the flexions of their fore 
and hind limbs in directions opposite to one another, and in 
directions the reverse of those observed in the arms and 
legs of man ; with the exception of the elephant. 3 In 
5 other words, with the viviparous quadrupeds the front 
legs bend forwards and the hind ones backwards, and the 
concavities 4 of the two pairs of limbs thus face one 

The elephant does not sleep standing, as some were wont 
to assert, but it bends its legs and settles down ; only that 

10 in consequence of its weight it cannot bend its legs on both 

sides simultaneously, but falls into a recumbent position on 

one side or the other, and in this position it goes to sleep. 5 

And it bends its hind legs just as a man bends his legs. 6 

In the case of the ovipara, as the crocodile and the lizard 

15 and the like, both pairs of legs, fore and hind, bend forwards, 
with a slight swerve to one side. 7 The flexion is similar in 
the case of the multipeds ; only that the legs in between 
the extreme ends always move in a manner intermediate 
between that of those in front and those behind, and 
accordingly bend sideways rather than backwards or 
forwards. 8 But man bends his arms and his legs towards 

20 the same point, and therefore in opposite ways : that is to 

1 P. A. iv. 10. 688 a 13. 

2 Infra, 500* 13 ; /'. A. iv. 10. 688 a 13 ; Ael. iv. 31. 

3 de Inc. 9. 709* 10 ; 12. 712* II. 

1 Some MSS. have KwXn for KotXa. fl Plin. xi. 101. 

6 Cf. P. A. iv. 10. 687 b 25 ; de Inc. 13. 712*11.- A. is thinking of the 
elbow and knee in the elephant, as also in man : but of the wrist and 
ankle (knee and hock) df such an animal as the horse. 

7 This is at variance with fact, and with the statements in the de 
Incessu (e.g. 13. 7i2 a 9) that no quadruped flexes its fore and hind 
limbs in the same direction : hence \Viegmann and Piccolos insert $ 
Tovntffdev after ra 7rpo<70ia. According to the de Inc. 15. 71 3 a 1 8 ndtna 
CK ToO nhayiov 7rpoo7rf0VKora TO. <TK(\T) (\t *cai . . . KafiTrrti els TO -n\ay'iov : 
cf. also Plin. xi. 102 'sunt autem crura his obliqua, humani pollicis 
modo '. 

8 Plin. xi. 35 (29). 

BOOK II. I 498 

say, he bends his arms backwards, with just a slight 
inclination inwards, 1 and his legs frontwards. No animal 
bends both its fore-limbs and hind-limbs backwards ; 
but in the case of all animals the flexion of the shoulders 
is in the opposite direction to that of the elbows or 
the joints of the forelegs, and the flexure in the hips 25 
to that of the knees of the hind-legs : 2 so that since man 
differs from other animals in flexion, those animals that 
possess such parts as these move them contrariwise to 

man, 3 

Birds have the flexions of their limbs like those of 
the quadrupeds ; for, although bipeds, they bend their legs 
backwards, and instead of arms or front legs have wings 30 
which bend frontwards. 4 

The seal is a kind of imperfect or crippled quadruped ; 5 
for just behind the shoulder-blade its front feet are placed, 
resembling hands, like the front paws of the bear ; for they 
are furnished with five toes, and each of the toes has three 4Q8 b 
flexions and a nail of inconsiderable size. The hind feet 
are also furnished with five toes ; in their flexions and nails 
they resemble the front feet, and in shape they resemble 
a fish's tail. 

The movements of animals, quadruped and multiped, are 5 
crosswise, or in diagonals, and their equilibrium in standing 
posture is maintained crosswise ; and it is always the limb 
on the right-hand side that is the first to move. 6 The lion, 
however, and the two species of camel, both the Bactrian 

1 A. and W. cj. (*<u eV(k). 

2 Reading (T/?) TU>V onio~dev yovdru>v. Dittm. reads *nl TO>I/ o 
(jfj TU>V} yovdrav {(ca^iTr/;). 

* The conclusion is weak, the translation doubtful, and the text in 
all probability at fault. Dittm. reads TO. TOUT' (\OVT fVawiW, and 
MSS. have oi ra TOtnOr' c^oi/rer, oi rotnCr* ^., oi TOVT (\. I suspect 
something like WOT' erret 6 ai>dpu>nos (vn\\d fVavrt'oor KdpTnci, KOI oi 
TtTpdirodts fvavTiwr (reading fVaXXa| for rot? aXXor, and TtrpaTroSfs 1 for 
raCr* x oi;Tff )) i- e - man moves his two limbs in opposite directions, 
and quadrupeds likewise, but in directions contrary to man. 

4 P. A. iv. 12. 693 b 3; de Inc. 12. 71 i a 16, 13. 7i2 a 22. 

5 H. A. i. i. 487'' 23 ; P. A. ii. 2. 657* 22, iv. 13. 697'' 4 ; *fc 7f. 19. 
7l4 b 12. 

6 ^ InC. 14. 7I2 a 25 /ifTU TO bf^lOV TU>V fJ.TTpO(r6fV TO ttpUTTCpOV 

onia-Bfv Kivovaiv, (ira TO dpiarTfpbv TUIV fp.npoo'dd', p.(Tii dc TOVTO TO 


and the Arabian, progress by an amble ; and the action 
so called is when the animal never overpasses the right foot 

10 with the left, but always follows close upon it. 1 

Whatever parts men have in front, these parts quadrupeds 
have below, in or on the belly ; and whatever parts men 
have behind, these parts quadrupeds have above on their 
backs. Most quadrupeds have a tail ; for even the seal has 
a tiny one resembling that of the stag. Regarding the 

J 5 tails of the pithecoids we must give their distinctive 
properties by and by. 2 

All viviparous quadrupeds are hair-coated, whereas man 
has only a few short hairs excepting on the head, 3 but, so 
far as the head is concerned, he is hairier than any other 
animal. 4 Further, of hair-coated animals, the back is 

20 hairier than the belly, which latter is either comparatively 
void of hair or smooth and void of hair altogether. 5 With 
man the reverse is the case. 

Man also has upper and lower eyelashes, and hair under 
the armpits and on the pubes. No other animal has hair in' 
either of these localities, or has an under eyelash ; though 

2 5 in the case of some animals a few straggling hairs grow 
under the eyelid. 

Of hair-coated quadrupeds some are hairy all over the 
body, as the pig, the bear, and the dog ; others 7 are especially 
hairy on the neck and all round about it, as is the case 
with animals that have a shaggy mane, such as the lion ; 
others again are especially hairy on the upper surface of the 

30 neck from the head as far as the withers, namely, such as 
have a crested mane, 8 as is the case with the horse, the 

1 Plin. (xi. 105) translates literally ' pedatim, hoc est ut sinister 
pes non transeat dextrum sed subsequatur '. The passage is very 
obscure. An amble is, properly speaking, the mode of progression in 
which both legs of one side follow both legs of the other, instead of 
moving criss-cross, and this indeed appears to be the gait of the 
camel. If this be what is meant here, we might conjecture the 
omission of a word, e. g. ov npofiaivfi TW apto-repy TO 8(ibv ei/aAXa, dXX' 
(7raKO\ov6(i (? -0a>r). Cf. H. A. ix. 44. 629 b 26. 

2 Infra, cap. viii. * P. A. ii. 14. 658- 15 ; Plin. xi. 47. 
4 Probl. x. 62. 898 a 20. 

P. A. ii. 14. 6s8 a 17 ; Probl. x. 53. 896 b 29 ; Plin. xi. 94. 
; Cf. 65 8 a 26. 7 Cf. 658* 30. 

Of the boar, Od. xix. 446. 

BOOK II. I 498 b 

mule, and, among the undomesticated horned animals, the 

The so-called hippelaphus 1 also has a mane on its withers, 
and the animal called pardion, 2 in either case a thin mane 
extending from the head to the withers ; the hippelaphus 
has, exceptionally, a beard by the larynx. Both these 499 a 
animals 3 have horns and are cloven-footed ; the female, 
however, of the hippelaphus has no horns. This latter 
animal resembles the stag in size ; it is found in the territory 
of the Arachotae, 4 where the wild cattle also are found. 

Wild cattle 5 differ from their domesticated congeners 5 
just as the wild boar differs from the domesticated one. 
That is to say they are black, strong looking, with a 
hook-nosed muzzle, and with horns lying more over the 
back. The horns of the hippelaphus resemble those of 
the gazelle. 

The elephant, by the way, is the least hairy of all 
quadrupeds. With animals, as a general rule, the tail 10 
corresponds with the body as regards thickness or thinness 
of hair-coating ; that is, with animals that have long tails, 
for some creatures have tails of altogether insignificant size. 

Camels 6 have an exceptional organ wherein they differ 
from all other animals, and that is the so-called 'hump' on 
their back. The Bactrian camel differs from the Arabian ; 7 
for the former has two humps and the latter only one. 15 
though it has, by the way. a kind of a hump below like the 
one above, on which, when it kneels, the weight of the 
whole body rests. The camel has four teats like the cow, 8 
a tail like that of an ass, and the privy parts of the male 
are directed backwards. It has one knee in each leg, and 
the flexures of the limb are not manifold, as some say, 20 
although they appear to be so from the constricted shape 
of the region of the belly. 9 It has a huckle-bone like that 

1 Cf. Tragelaphus, Plin. viii. 50 (33). Probably the Nylghau, 
Port ax (Antilope] picta ; cf. Wiegmann, Obs. crit., p. 21. 

2 Some MSS. have tWdpStoi/ ; according to Sundevall, the giraffe (?). 

3 Dittm. cj. a^oTfpa, 5 re fiovaaos /cat 6 i7T7re'Aa0or. 

4 Beluchistan. Cf. Strabo ix. 8. 9, &c, ' i.e. buffaloes. 
6 Cf. v. 14, vi. 26, ix. 47. 630 b . 7 Plin. viii. 26. 

' H.A. ii. i. soo b 29 ; P. A. iv. 10. 6S8 b 23. 

' J Accepting Schneider's conj. of v^ooraXais for the common reading 


of kine, but meagre and small in proportion to its bulk. 1 
It is cloven -footed, and has not got teeth in both jaws; 2 
and it is cloven-footed in the following way : at the back 
there is a slight cleft extending as far up as the second 

25 joint of the toes ; and in front there are small hooves on 
the tip of the first joint of the toes ; 3 and a sort of web 
passes across the cleft, as in geese. The foot is fleshy under- 
neath, like that of the bear ; so that, when the animal goes to 

30 war, they protect its feet, when they get sore, with sandals. 4 
The legs of all quadrupeds are bony, sinewy, and flesh- 
less ; and in point of fact such is the case with all animals 
499 b that are furnished with feet, with the exception of man. 6 
They are also unfurnished with buttocks ; and this last 
point is plain in an especial degree in birds. It is the 
reverse with man ; for there is scarcely any part of the 
body in which man is so fleshy as in the buttock, the thigh, 
5 and the calf ; u for the part of the leg called gastrocnemia 
or * calf ' is fleshy. 7 

Of blooded and viviparous quadrupeds some have the foot 
cloven into many parts, as is the case with the hands and 
feet of man (for some animals, by the way, are many-toed, 
as the lion, the dog, and the pard) ; others have feet cloven 
in twain, and instead of nails have hooves, as the sheep, the 

10 goat, the deer, and the hippopotamus ; 8 others are uncloven 
of foot, such for instance as the solid-hooved animals, the 

v7ro'<7Ttt<7iy ; the latter would seem to be meaningless here (cf. Hippocr. 
Art. 806). With the general statement cf. Herod, iii. 103 Ka^Xos ev 

TOt<Tl OTTLO-dioKTl (TK(\(Tl \ (i TtVVfpCLS fJ.T)pOVS Kdl yOVVdTd T((T(Tfpd I cf. alSO 

Ael. x. 3. 

1 Plin. xi. 105. 

2 cifjiQudov and its converse always refer only to the front or incisor 
teeth. The camel has three lower incisors on each side and one upper 
one, which is large and tusk-like, resembling a canine. Cf. P. A. iii. 
14. 674* 32. 

3 1 have followed, not without hesitation, A. and W.'s conjectural 
restoration TO 8' tinrpoa-Bcv \ti ptKpa ovv^ia TTJS TrpaTrjs Ka/iTrrJs rwv 
ddKTi>\aiv TT aKporuTa>, in place of the common ro 8' fp.Trpo<rd(v eo-xirrrai 

bv [udKpciv, Dittm.] ocrov a\pt rijs TTpwrqs Ka/zTrjjr TO>I/ SaKTvXwv en 
to TfTTdpd [fV Kpa> 8e, Dittm.]. 

'fidTivai are perhaps rather boots than sandals; cf. Hesych. 
ftoi/ teal fvre\fs vTr68r]p.a dypoiK.iK.6v ; cf. Xen. An. iv. 5* 14 > Phn. 
xi. 106. 

6 Plin. xi. 105. 6 P. A. iv. 10. 686 b 7. 

7 Pice, would delete o-npKcoSm. 8 The hippopotamus has four toes. 

BOOK II. I 499 b 

horse and the mule. Swine are either cloven-footed or 
uncloven-footed ; for there are in Illyria and in Paeonia 
and elsewhere solid-hooved swine. 1 The cloven-footed 
animals have two clefts behind ; 2 in the solid-hooved this 
part is continuous and undivided. 

Furthermore, of animals some are horned, and some are 15 
not so. The great majority of the horned animals are 
cloven-footed, as the ox, the stag, the goat ; and a solid- 
hooved animal with a pair of horns has never yet been met 
with. But a few animals are known to be single-horned 
and single-hooved, as the Indian ass ; 3 and one, to wit the 
oryx, 4 is single-horned and cloven-hooved. 

Of all solid-hooved animals the Indian ass alone has an 20 
astragalus or huckle-bone ; for the pig, as was said above, 
is either solid-hooved or cloven-footed, and consequently 
has no well-formed huckle-bone. 5 Of the cloven-footed 
many are provided with a huckle-bone. Of the many- 
fingered or many-toed, no single one has been observed to 
have a huckle-bone/ none of the others any more than 
man. The lynx, however, has something like a hemi- 
astragal, and the lion something resembling the sculptor's 25 
' labyrinth '. 8 All the animals that have a huckle-bone 

1 G. A. iv. 6. 774 b 21; Ps. Arist. de Mirab. 68. 835* 35 ; Antig. Car. 
66 (72) ; Plin. ii. 106, xi. 44 ; Ael. v. 27 alyas 'lXXvpi'8as oTrX^i/ CIKOI'CO fx fiv , 
dXX* ov xi^vv- On the solid-hooved swine cf. Alb. M. ii. p. 100; Linn. 
Syst. Nat. 1740, p. 49, Amoen. Acad. v. p. 461 ; Bateson's Variation, 
1894, p. 387, &c. 

2 Schn. and Cam., following Gaza, read e^npoadev KOI o-ma-dev. But 
the reference here is clearly to the two little hooflets, or lateral toes, 
at the back of the foot. 

3 Doubtless the rhinoceros ; this animal has three toes, indistinctly 
separate. On the rhinoceros cf. P. A. iii. 2. 663 a 23 ; Ael. iv. 52 ; 
Ctes. ap. Phot. Bibl. Ixxiv. p. 153. 

4 Cf. P. A. iii. 2. 663*- 23. Probably Oryx {Antilope] leucoryx of 
N. Africa, or O.beisa of Abyssinia, as represented on Egyptian frescos. 
Cf. Plin. viii. (53) 214, and ii. (40) 107. 

5 Plin. xi. 106. 6 P. A. iv. 10. 69o a 21. 

7 A. means, of course, a huckle-bone suitable for playing it'ifh, 
and probably only then recognized it as a ' huckle-bone'. 

8 iT\aTTfiv or 7ie/ji7rXTTeu/ is frequent in A. in the sense of moulding 
or modelling ; and I think Schneider (iv. p. 298) is near the mark in 
suggesting ' Fortasse 7rArToi'o-i verbum referendum ad artifices, qui in 
columnarum lapidearum capitnlis cochlearum figuras incudebant et 
fingebant '. I am inclined to suspect that qpaor/myaXioi/ and Xafivptvdwftr) 
refer to varieties of the architectural astragal. Pliny translates \afivpiv- 

, ' tortuoshtsj and the lion's astragalus has actually a spiral twist. 


have it in the hinder legs. They have also the bone placed 
straight up in the joint ; the upper part, outside ; the lower 
part, inside ; the sides called Coa 1 turned towards one 
another, the sides called Chia l outside, and the keraiae or 
30 'horns' on the top. This, then, is the position of the 
huckle-bone in the case of all animals provided with the 

Some animals are, at one and the same time, furnished 
with a mane and furnished also with a pair of horns bent 
50O a in towards one another, as is the bison (or aurochs), 2 which 
is found in Paeonia and Maedica. 3 But all animals that 
are horned are quadrupedal, except in cases where a 
creature is said metaphorically, or by a figure of speech, 
to have horns ; just as the Egyptians describe the serpents 4 
found in the neighbourhood of Thebes, while in point of 

5 fact the creatures have merely protuberances on the head 
sufficiently large to suggest such an epithet. 

Of horned animals the deer alone has a horn, or antler, 
hard and solid throughout. 5 The horns of other animals 
are hollow for a certain distance, and solid towards the 
extremity. The hollow part is derived from the skin, but 
the core round which 7 this is wrapped the hard part is 
derived from the bones ; as is the case with the horns of 

10 oxen. The deer is the only animal that sheds its horns, 
and it does so annually, after reaching the age of two years, 
and again renews them. All other animals retain their 
horns permanently, unless the horns be damaged by 

Again, with regard to the breasts and the generative 
organs, animals differ widely from one another and from 

15 man. For instance, the breasts of some animals are 
situated in front, either in the chest or near to it, and there 

1 So Scaliger; codd. xcoXa, tVxi'a. KU>OV counted six, x' i0v i or tne dog, 
one (Hesych. Poll.), cf. de Caelo ii. 12. 292* 29 pvpiuvi riorp. XL VS /3aXe7v 
aprjxavov. We learn from Theophrastus, Lucian, and others, that the 
huckle-bones of the gazelle were especially prized. 

1 H.A. ix. 45. 630* 18; P. A. iii. 2. 663* 13 ; Bison jubatus, Plin. 

3 In North Macedonia. Still surviving in the Caucasus and in 

4 Cerastes aegyptiacus. Cf. Herod, ii. 74. 

5 P. A. iii. 2. 663 b 12; cf. H.A. ix. 5. 6li b 13. 

6 //. A. iii. 9. 5i; a 21. 7 o om. Bekk. 

BOOK II. i 5oo a 

are in such cases two breasts and two teats, as is the case 
with man and the elephant, 1 as previously stated. 2 For 
the elephant has two breasts in the region of the axillae ; 
and the female elephant has two breasts insignificant in 
size and in no way proportionate to the bulk of the entire ao 
frame, in fact, so insignificant as to be invisible in a side- 
ways view ; the males also have breasts, like the females, 
exceedingly small. The she-bear has four breasts. Some 
animals have two breasts, but situated near the thighs, and 
teats, likewise two in number, as the sheep ; others have 
four teats, as the cow. Some have breasts neither in the 25 
chest nor at the thighs, but in the belly, as the dog and 
pig ; and they have a considerable number of breasts or 
dugs, but not all of equal size. Thus the she-pard has four 
dugs in the belly, the lioness two, and others more. The 
she-camel, also, has two dugs and four teats, like the cow. 3 
Of solid-hooved animals the males have no dugs, excepting 
in the case of males that take after the mother, which 
phenomenon is observable in horses. 3 

Of male animals the genitals 4 of some are external, as is 
the case with man, the horse, and most other creatures ; 
some are internal, as with the dolphin. With those that soo b 
have the organ externally placed, the organ in some cases 
is situated in front, as in the cases already mentioned, and 
of these some have the organ detached, both penis and 
testicles, as man ; others have penis and testicles closely 
attached to the belly, some more closely, some less ; for 5 
this organ is not detached in the wild boar nor in the 

The penis of the elephant resembles that of the horse ; 
compared with the size of the animal it is disproportionately 
small ; the testicles are not visible, but are concealed inside 
in the vicinity of the kidneys ; and for this reason the male 
speedily gives over in the act of intercourse. 5 The genitals of 10 

1 Also the Libyan goats, Arist. ap. Ael. xvi. 33. 

2 S^^pra, 497** 35 ; cf. P. A. iv. 10. 688 a 18 ; Plin. xi. 95. 

3 P. A. iv. 10. 688 |J 33 ; Galen, de usu Part. iii. 607 K. 

4 Cf. Plin. x. 83, xi. 109, no. 

' Here the MSS. and Aid. have KOI TO. anoXeXv^evovs e\fi TOVS 

axrirep Imros, TCI & OIK aTroXfXvfj.evovs Sxrirtp KciTrpor, which words (KCI'L 
exceptedj Didot transfers to 5oo b 2, after KOI TOI'TWJ.- : A. and \V. omit. 


the female are situated where the udder is in sheep ; when 
she is in heat, she draws the organ back and exposes it 
externally, to facilitate the act of intercourse for the male ; 
and the organ opens out to a considerable extent. 

With most animals the genitals have the position above 

15 assigned ; but some animals discharge their urine back- 
wards, 1 as the lynx, the lion, the camel, and the hare. 
Male animals differ from one another, as has been said, in 
this particular, but all female animals are retromingent : 
even the female elephant like other animals, though she 
has 2 the privy part below the thighs. 

20 In the male organ itself there is a great diversity. For 
in some cases the organ is composed of flesh and gristle, 3 
as in man ; in such cases, the fleshy part does not become 
inflated, 4 but the gristly part is subject to enlargement. In 
other cases, the organ is composed of fibrous tissue, as with 
the camel and the deer ; in other cases it is bony, 5 as with 
the fox, the wolf, the marten, and the weasel ; for this organ 

25 in the weasel has a bone. 

When man has arrived at maturity, his upper part is 
smaller than the lower one, 6 but with all other blooded 
animals the reverse holds good. By the ' upper ' part we 
mean all extending from the head down to the parts used 
for excretion of residuum, and by the 'lower' part all else. 

30 With animals that have feet the hind legs are to be rated 
as the lower part in our comparison of magnitudes, and 
with animals devoid of feet, the tail, 7 and the like. 

When animals arrive at maturity, their properties are as 
above stated ; but they differ greatly from one another in 
their growth towards maturity. For instance, man, when 
young, has his upper part larger than the lower, but in 
5Oi a course of growth he comes to reverse this condition ; and it 
is owing to this circumstance that an exceptional instance, 

1 CLP. A. iv. 10. 689 a 3i. 

2 Reading with A. and W. e^cov, or with Schn. Kainep e^cor/. Pice, 
stigmatizes the clause. 3 P. A. iv. 10. 689* 29. 

4 -nve v^dros tVn 8rcoi>, P. A. iv. ID. 689 a 3O ; cf. Probl. xxx. I. 953 b 33. 

5 H.A. viii. 12. 83 i b i ; Plin. xi. 109. 6 P. A. iv. 10. 686 b 12. 
7 It seems impossible to draw a distinction between ntpitos and oi>pn, 

save that K. is never used of a very short tail, like the rump or 
uropygium of birds ; cf. Bonitz, s. vocc., Schn. iii. p. 74, &c. 

BOOK IT. i 5oi a 

by the way he does not progress in early life as he does 
at maturity, but in infancy creeps on all fours ; but some 
animals, in growth, retain the relative proportion of the 
parts, as the dog. Some animals at first have the upper 
part smaller and the lower part larger, and in course of 
growth the upper part gets to be the larger, as is the case 5 
with the bushy-tailed animals such as the horse ; for in 
their case there is never, subsequently to birth, any increase 
in the part extending from the hoof to the haunch. 1 

Again, in respect to the teeth, 2 animals differ greatly 
both from one another and from man. All animals that 
are quadrupedal, blooded, and viviparous, are furnished 10 
with teeth ; but, to begin with, some are double-toothed 
(or fully furnished with teeth in both jaws), and some are 
not. For instance, horned quadrupeds are not double- 
toothed ; for they have not got the front teeth in the upper 
jaw ; and some hornless animals, also, are not double- 
toothed, as the camel. Some animals have tusks, like the 15 
boar, 3 and some have not. Further, some animals are saw- 
toothed, such as the lion, the pard, and the dog ; *nd some 
have teeth that do not interlock but have flat opposing 
crowns, as the horse and the ox ; and by c saw-toothed ' we 
mean such animals as interlock the sharp-pointed teeth in 
one jaw between the sharp-pointed ones in the other. No 
animal is there that possesses both tusks and horns, nor 
yet do either of these structures exist in any animal pos- 20 
sessed of ' saw-teeth '. 4 The front teeth are usually sharp, 
and the back ones blunt. The seal is saw-toothed through- 
out, 5 inasmuch as he is a sort of link with the class of fishes ; 
for fishes are almost all saw-toothed. 

No animal of these genera is provided with double rows of 
teeth. There is, however, an animal of the sort, if we are to 
believe Ctesias. He assures us that the Indian wild beast 3 5 
called the ' martichoras ' G has a triple row of teeth in both 

1 Xen. Eg. i. 16 ; Plin. xi. 108. 2 P. A. iii. I ; G.A. v. 8. 

3 H. A. iv. ii. 538" II ; Plin. xi. 61. 

4 P. A. iii. I. 66l b 23 dia TO p.rj8(V \uni\v iroifiv rf]v (f)v<Tiv 


* P. A. iv. 13. 697 b 6. 

9 O. Pers. martijaqctra, lit. ' manslayer ', the tiger. Cf. Ctes. Ind. ap. 

AR. H.A. 



upper and lower jaw ; that it is as big as a lion and 
equally hairy, and that its feet resemble those of the lion ; 
that it resembles man in its face and ears ; that its eyes 
30 are blue, and its colour vermilion ; that its tail is like that 
of the land-scorpion ; that it has a sting in the tail, and has 
the faculty of shooting off arrow-wise l the spines that are 
attached to the tail ; that the sound of its voice is a some- 
thing between the sound of a pan-pipe and that of a trumpet ; 
that it can run as swiftly 2 as a deer, and that it is savage 
5Oi b and a man-eater. 3 

Man sheds his teeth, and so do other animals, as the 
horse, the mule, and the ass. And man sheds his front 
teeth ; but there is no instance of an animal that sheds its 
molars. 4 The pig sheds none of its teeth at all. 

5 With regard to dogs some doubts are entertained, as 2 
some contend that they shed no teeth whatever, and others 
that they shed the canines, but those alone ; 5 the fact being, 
that they do shed their teeth like man, but that the cir- 
cumstance escapes observation, owing to the fact that they 
never shed them until equivalent teeth have grown within 
the gums to take the place of the shed ones. We shall 
be justified in supposing that the case is similar with wild 

10 beasts in general ; for they are said to shed their canines 
only. Dogs can be distinguished from one another, the 
young from the old, by their teeth ; for the teeth in young 
dogs are white and sharp-pointed ; in old dogs, black and 

In this particular, the horse differs entirely from animals 3 
15 in general : for, generally speaking, as animals grow older 

Phot. Bibl. p. 67; Ael. iv. 21; Pausan. ix. 21. 4; Plin. viii. (21) 30; 
Philostr. v. Ap. iii. 45 ;'cf. Otto Keller, Thiere des Altertums, p. 139. 

1 The root of ' tiger ' is said to signify ' sharp ', * swift ', or 'an 
arrow ' ; cf. Varro, L. L. v. 100 ' Vocabulum e lingua Armenia ; nam ibi 
et sagitta et quod vehementissimum flumen dicitur Tigris '. 

2 * Animal velocitatis tremendae,' Plin. viii. 66. 

3 A. and W. bracket this passage (501* 25~ b i) as an interpolation. 

4 G.A. v. 8. ;88 b 7 ; Plin. xi. 63. 

6 As the lion also is said to do : H.A. vi. 31. 579 b 43 ; G. A. 788 b 17 ; 
Plin. 1. c. 

BOOK II. 3 5oi b 

their teeth get blacker, but the horse's teeth grow whiter 
with age. 

The so-called ' canines ' come in between the sharp teeth 
and the broad or blunt ones, partaking of the form of 
both kinds ; for they are broad at the base and sharp at 
the tip. 

Males have more teeth than females in the case of men, 20 
sheep, goats, and swine ; in the case of other animals observa- 
tions have not yet been made : but the more teeth they 
have the more long-lived are they, as a rule, while those are 
short-lived in proportion that have teeth fewer in number 
and thinly set. 1 

4. The last teeth to come in man are molars called ' wisdom- 
teeth ', 2 which come at the age of twenty years, in the case 25 
of both sexes. 3 Cases have been known in women upwards 
of eighty years old where at the very close of life the 
wisdom-teeth have come up, causing great pain in their 
coming ; and cases have been known of the like phenomenon 
in men too. This happens, when it does happen, in the 
case of people where the wisdom-teeth have not come up 
in early years. 

5 The elephant has four teeth on either side, by which it 30 
munches its food, grinding it like so much barley-meal, and, 
quite apart from these, it has its great teeth, or tusks, two 
in number. 4 In the male these tusks are comparatively 
large and curved upwards ; in the female, they are com- 
paratively small and point in the opposite direction ; that 5O2 a 
is, they look downwards towards the ground. The elephant 

is furnished with teeth at birth, but the tusks are not then 

6 The tongue of the elephant 5 is exceedingly small, and 
situated far back in the mouth, 6 so that it is difficult to get 
a sight of it. 

1 Plin. xi. 114. 2 Hippocr. o-axfrpovio-Trjpes. 3 Plin. xi. 63. 

4 Plin. xi. 62 ; Ael. xiv. 5. 5 Plin. xi. 65 ; Ael. iv. 31. 

6 Plin. 1. c. ' lata elephanto praecipue ', where Camper (Descr. p. 47) 
suspects alta s. latens. 

E 2 


5 Furthermore, animals differ from one another in the 7 
relative size of their mouths. In some animals the mouth 
opens wide, as is the case with the dog, the lion, and with all 
the saw-toothed animals ; other animals have small mouths, 
as man ; and others have mouths of medium capacity, as 
the pig and his congeners. 

[The Egyptian hippopotamus 1 has a mane like a horse, 

10 is cloven-footed like an ox, and is snub-nosed. It has 
a huckle-bone like cloven-footed animals, and tusks just 
visible ; it has the tail of a pig, the neigh of a horse, 2 and 
the dimensions of an ass. The hide is so thick that spears 
are made out of it. In its internal organs it resembles the 

15 horse and the ass.] 

Some animals share the properties of man and the 8 
quadrupeds, as the ape, the monkey, and the baboon. The 
monkey is a tailed ape. The baboon 3 resembles the ape 

20 in form, only that it is bigger and stronger, more like a dog 
in face, and is more savage in its habits, and its teeth are 
more dog-like and more powerful. 

Apes are hairy on the back in keeping with their 
quadrupedal nature, and hairy on the belly in keeping with 
their human form for, as was said above, this characteristic 

25 is reversed in man and the quadruped 4 only that the hair 
is coarse, so 5 that the ape is thickly coated both on the 
belly and on the back. Its face resembles that of man in 
many respects ; in other words, it has similar nostrils and 

30 ears, and teeth like those of man, both front teeth and 
molars. Further, whereas quadrupeds in general are not 
furnished with lashes on one of the two eyelids, this creature 
has them on both, only very thinly set, especially the. under 
ones ; in fact they are very insignificant indeed. And we 

1 Herod, ii. 71 ; Plin. viii. (25) 39, xi. (39) 113; Ael. v. 53. This 
description follows that of Herodotus closely, with slight exceptions, 

e. g. ovprjv ITTTTOV . . . neyaBo? otrov re fiovs 6 pfyurTOS. 

2 'Ab Arabibus eius curatoribus percunctatus sum quam vocem 
edere soleret. Unus respondit equinam, alter mulinam. Verum nationi 
vafrae nihil credens, illius aures paulo gravius vellere coepi ; sed nullam 
vocem elicere potui (!),' P. Gellius, ed. Hamburg, 1614, p. 26; cit. 
Schneider, Hist. Piscium, 1789, p. 317. 

1 Plin. viii. 80. 4 H. A. ii. I. 4g8 b 17 ; Plin. xi. (44) 100. 

5 wore cj. Dittm. 

BOOK II. 8 5oa a 

must bear in mind that all other quadrupeds have no under 
eyelash at all. 1 

The ape has also in its chest two teats upon poorly 
developed breasts. It has also arms like man, only covered 
with hair, and it bends these legs like man, with the 5O2 b 
convexities of both limbs facing one another. 2 In addition, 
it has hands and fingers and nails like man, only that all 
these parts are somewhat more beast-like in appearance. 
Its feet are exceptional in kind. That is, they are like large 5 
hands, and the toes are like fingers, with the middle one 
the longest of all, and the under part of the foot is like 
a hand except for its length, 3 and stretches out towards the 
extremities like the palm of the hand ; and this palm at 
the after end is unusually hard, and in a clumsy obscure 
kind of way resembles a heel. The creature uses its feet 10 
either as hands or feet, and doubles them up as one doubles 
a fist. Its upper-arm and thigh are short in proportion to 
the forearm and the shin. It has no projecting navel, but 
only a hardness in the ordinary locality of the navel. Its 
upper part is much larger than its lower part, as is the case 15 
with quadrupeds ; in fact, the proportion of the former to 
the latter is about as five to three. Owing to this circum- 
stance and to the fact that its feet resemble hands and are 
composed in a manner of hand and of foot : of foot in the 
heel extremity, of the hand in all else for even the toes 
have what is called a ' palm ' : for these reasons the animal 20 
is oftener to be found on all fours than upright. It has 
neither hips, inasmuch as it is a quadruped, 4 nor yet a 
tail, inasmuch as it is a biped, except by the way that it 
has a tail as small as small can be, just a sort of indication 
of a tail. The genitals of the female resemble those of the 
female in the human species ; those of the male are more 
like those of a dog than are those of a man. 

9 The monkey, as has been observed, is furnished with 25 

1 P. A. ii. 14. 658"* 15. 

2 Cf. supra, I. 498* 19; Plin. xi. 102. 

3 The construction is obscure ; the best reading seems to be e'rn- 

fJLT]K(TTepOV TT)S \ftpO9, DlttlTl. 

4 P. A. iv. io. 689 b 32. 


a tail. In all such creatures the internal organs are found 
under dissection to correspond to those of man. 

So much then for the properties of the organs of such 
animals as bring forth their young into the world alive. 1 

Oviparous and blooded quadrupeds and, by the way, IO 

no terrestrial 2 blooded animal is oviparous unless it is 

30 quadrupedal or is devoid of feet altogether are furnished 

with a head, a neck, a back, upper and under parts, the 

.front legs and hind legs, and the part analogous to the 

chest, all as in the case of viviparous quadrupeds, and with 

a tail, usually large, in exceptional cases small. And all 

these creatures are many-toed, and the several toes are 

cloven apart. Furthermore, they all have the ordinary 

organs of sensation, including a tongue, with the exception 

53 a of the Egyptian crocodile. 3 

This latter animal, by the way, resembles certain fishes. 
For, as a general rule, fishes have a prickly tongue, 4 not 
free in its movements ; though there are some fishes that 
present a smooth undifferentiated surface where the tongue 
should be, until you open their mouths"' wide and make 
a close inspection. 

Again, oviparous blooded quadrupeds are unprovided 
5 with ears, but possess only the passage for hearing ; neither 
have they breasts, nor a copulatory organ, nor external 
testicles, but internal ones only ; neither are they hair-coated, 
but are in all cases covered with scaly plates. Moreover, 
they are without exception saw-toothed. 

River crocodiles have pigs' eyes, large teeth and tusks, 
10 and strong nails, and an impenetrable skin composed of 

1 Schn. tr. ' quae animal pariunt, paries extimas ad hunc "habent 
modum ' ; and A. and W. in like manner ' die Beschaffenheit der nach 
aussen liegenden Theile der Lebendiggebarenden ' ; in both cases 
reading, with A a C a , T et? TO (KTOS TO>J/ ^cooro/coiWo)!/ p.6pia, for TU ra>i> eiY 

\ y \ * 

2 x*po-atoj>, as Opposed to TTT^VOI/. 

8 Herod, ii. 68 ; P. A. iv. n. 69o b 20 ; Plin. viii. 37 (25), xi. 65. 

4 P. A. ii. 17. 66i a 2. 

r> Cod. P. (K\ivavTi. Cf. P. A. iv. ii. 6Qo b 25. Schn. suggests eVi- 

K\ivavri ; cf. ibid. ii. 17. 660** 22 eav p.i'i ns TO o-To/j-a firiK\ivg p,rj (paivfffdai 
os Tof'ro TO p.6ptoi>. Pice, would read TO'TTO//, (wore udrjXov eu/nt) 

BOOK II. 10 503 

scaly plates. They see but poorly under water, but above 
the surface of it with remarkable acuteness. As a rule, they 
pass the day-time on land and the night-time in the water ; 
for the temperature of the water is at night-time more 
genial than that of the open air. 

II The chameleon 1 resembles the lizard in the general 15 
configuration of its body, but the ribs stretch downwards 
and meet together under the belly as is the case with fishes, 
and the spine sticks up as with the fish. Its face resembles 
that of the baboon. 2 Its tail is exceedingly long, terminates 
in a sharp point, and is for the most part coiled up, like 20 
a strap of leather. It stands higher off the ground than 
the lizard, but the flexure of the legs is the same in both 
creatures. Each of its feet is divided into two parts, which 
bear the same relation to one another that the thumb and 
the rest of the hand bear to one another in man. Each of 25 
these parts is for a short distance divided after a fashion 
into toes; on the front feet the inside part is divided into 
three and the outside into two, on the hind feet the inside 
part into two and the outside into three ; it has claws also 
on these parts resembling those of birds of prey. Its body 30 
is rough all over, like that of the crocodile. Its eyes are 
situated in a hollow recess, and are very large and round, 
and are enveloped in a skin resembling that which covers 
the entire body ; 3 and in the middle a slight aperture is 
left for vision, through which the animal sees, for it never 
covers up this aperture with the cutaneous envelope. It 
keeps twisting its eyes round and shifting its line of vision 
in every direction, and thus contrives to get a sight of any 
object that it wants to see. The change in its colour 4 takes 
place when it is inflated with air ; it is then black, not unlike 
the crocodile, or green like the lizard but black-spotted 5 
like the pard. This change of colour takes place over the 

1 Plin. viii. 51. 

2 xoipoTritfr/Kos does not occur elsewhere in Aristotle. I suspect the 
true reading to be TO> rof> x 0>i P v ' Tn^r/Kov Kfp<ov KT\. Cf. Plin. ' rostrum, 
ut in parvo, simillimum suillo'. Salmas. cj. x ol P ov *? mdyKov. 

3 Theophr. Fr. p. 189 (Teubn.) ; Plin. viii. 51, xi. 55. 

4 Theophr. 1. c. ; Antig. Mirab. 25 ; Ael. ii. 14 ; Ovid, Met. xv. 412 ; 
Plin. xxviii. 29, c. 


whole body alike, for the eyes and the tail come alike under 
its influence. In its movements it is very sluggish, like the 

10 tortoise. It assumes a greenish hue in dying, and retains 
this hue after death. It resembles the lizard in the position 
of the oesophagus and the windpipe. It has no flesh any- 
where except a few scraps of flesh on the head and on the 
jaws and near to the root of the tail. It has blood only 

15 round about the heart, the eyes, the region above the heart, 
and in all the veins extending from these parts ; and in all 
these there is but little blood after all. 1 The brain is 
situated a little above the eyes, but connected with them. 
When the outer skin is drawn aside from off the eye, 

20 a something is found surrounding the eye, that gleams 
through like a thin ring of copper. 2 Membranes 3 extend 
wellnigh over its entire frame, numerous and strong, and 
surpassing in respect of number and relative strength those 
found in any other animal. After being cut open along its 
entire length it continues to breathe for a considerable 
time ; 4 a very slight motion goes on in the region of the 

25 heart, and, while contraction is especially manifested in the 
neighbourhood of the ribs, a similar motion is more or less 
discernible over the whole body. It has no spleen visible. 
It hibernates, like the lizard. 

Birds 5 also in some parts resemble the above-mentioned 12 
30 animals ; that is to say, they have in all cases a head, a 
neck, a back, a belly, and what is analogous to the chest. 
The bird is remarkable among animals as having two feet, 
like man ; only, by the way, it bends them backwards as 
quadrupeds bend their hind legs, as was noticed previously. 6 
It has neither hands nor front feet, but wings an excep- 
tional structure as compared with other animals. Its 

1 P. A. iv. II. 692* 22 TOVTOV $' CUTIOV TO rjdof roC wou TO TTJS 
7roXi//zop<oi/ yap yivcrai flta TOV <o/3o/, 6 8f (pojBos Kard^vgis 61' oXiym/io- 

eon Kal ev8fiav 

2 Valentin, Theatr. Anatom., 1720, p. 196 'pupilla quasi parvo aureo 
circulo circumdata '. Cf. Theoph. fr. p. 189 (Teubn.). See also A. and 
W.'s note. 

3 For vp.fvcs, Karsch cj. irXevpova: 'audacius, etsi natura rei com- 
mendatur,' Dittm. 

4 Schn. reads . . . xpovov l<r\v^uis, (Bpaxeias eri 

5 Cf. P. A. iv. 12. c Supra, i. 498* 28. 

BOOK II. 12 504* 

haunch-bone is long, like a thigh, and is attached to the body 504* 
as far as the middle of the belly ; l so like to a thigh is it 
that when viewed separately it looks like a real one, while 
the real thigh is a separate structure betwixt it 2 and the 
shin. Of all birds those that have crooked talons have the 
biggest thighs and the strongest breasts. All birds are 
furnished with many claws, 3 and all have the toes separated 5 
more or less asunder ; that is to say, in the greater part 
the toes are clearly distinct from one another, for even 
the swimming birds, although they are web-footed, have 
still their claws fully articulated and distinctly differentiated 
from one another. Birds that fly high in air are in all cases 
four-toed : that is, the greater part have three toes in front ro 
and one behind in place of a heel ; some few have two in 
front and two behind, as the wryneck. 

This latter bird is somewhat bigger than the chaffinch, 
and is mottled in appearance. It is peculiar in the arrange- 
ment of its toes, 4 and resembles the snake in the structure of 
its tongue ; for the creature can protrude its tongue to the 
extent of four finger-breadths, and then draw it back again. i s 
Moreover, it can twist its head backwards while keeping 
all the rest of its body still, like the serpent. It has big 
claws, somewhat resembling those of the woodpecker. 5 Its 
note is a shrill chirp. 6 

Birds are furnished with a mouth, but with an exceptional 
one, for they have neither lips nor teeth, but a beak. 20 
Neither have they ears nor a nose, but only passages for 
the sensations connected with these organs : that for the 
nostrils in the beak, and that for hearing in the head. 
Like all other animals they all have two eyes, and these 
are devoid of lashes. The heavy-bodied (or gallinaceous) 

1 de Inc. II. 7lo b 21. 

2 A. and W. cj. ^\P l r n? *vf)nr)s. A. errs, through mistaking the 
long metatarsus for the leg or shin, and so, in turn, the tibia for the 
thigh and the femur for the haunch-bone. The error is corrected by 
Fridericus II, de Arte venandi, p. 44, cit. Schn. iv. p. 304. 

3 Plin. xi. 107. 

4 dvo fjiovov cx (l r vs 5nt(T0cv KOI 8vo rovs e/zTTpocr&i', P. A. iv. 12. 
695* 23. 

5 Restoring, as Schn. suggests, KeXe&>i/ s. KO\I>V for KoXoieoi/. Cf. ix. 
9. 6i4 b 5. 

6 Ael. vi. 19 *m rov ir\dyiov av\ov 


25 birds close the eye by means of the lower lid, and all birds 
blink by means of a skin extending over the eye from the 
inner corner ; the owl and its congeners also close the eye 
by means of the upper lid. 1 The same phenomenon is 
observable in the animals that are protected by horny scutes, 
as in the lizard and its congeners ; for they all without 
exception close the eye with the lower lid, but they do not 
blink like birds. 2 

30 Further, birds have neither scutes nor hair, but feathers ; 3 
and the feathers are invariably furnished with quills. 
They have no tail, but a rump 4 with tail-feathers, short 
in such as are long-legged and web-footed, large in 
others. These latter kinds of birds fly with their feet 
tucked up close to the belly ; but the small-rumped 
or short-tailed birds fly with their legs stretched out at 
full length. All are furnished with a tongue, but the 
organ is variable, being long in some birds and broad in 
others. Certain species of birds above all other animals, 
and next after man, possess the faculty of uttering articulate 
sounds ; and this faculty is chiefly developed in broad- 
tongued birds. 5 No oviparous creature has an epiglottis G 
over the windpipe, but these animals so manage the open- 
5 ing and shutting of the windpipe as not to allow any solid 
substance to get down into the lung. 

Some species of birds are furnished additionally with 
spurs, but no bird with crooked talons is found so provided. 
The birds with talons are among those that fly well, but 
those that have spurs are among the heavy-bodied. 

10 Again, some birds have a crest. As a general rule the 
crest sticks up, and is composed of feathers only ; but the 
crest of the barn-door cock is exceptional in kind, for, 
whereas it is not just exactly flesh, at the same time it is 
not easy to say what else it is. 


1 P. A. ii. 13. 657* 28 ; Plin. xi. 57. 

2 P. A. iv. ii. 691* 20. 3 G. A. v. 3. 782* 17. 

4 It seems plain that ovponvyiov means here not the rump only, but 
the whole tail of the bird: cf. P. A. iv. 13. 697'' H ovdev 8' f fX" 
ovpoirvyiov fit) <r\ionT(pov' oc TOIOVTOV yap Trrtpov yivtrai TO ovpoirvyiov. 
f) 8e KepKos KO\ f /iTToStof &v TJV {rrrdpxovcra fv rot? 

6 H. A. viii. 12. 597 1 ' 26 ; P. A. ii. 17. 66o a 23. 

*P.A. iii. 3. 664 b 22 ; Plin. xi. 66. 

BOOK II. 13 504 

13 Of water animals the genus of fishes constitutes a single 
group apart from the rest, and including many diverse 
forms. 1 

In the first place, the fish has a head, a back, a belly, in 15 
the neighbourhood of which last are placed the stomach 
and viscera; and behind it has a tail of continuous, un- 
divided shape, but not, by the way, in all cases alike. No 
fish has a neck, or any limb, or testicles 2 at all, within or 
without, or breasts. But, by the way, this absence of breasts 
may be predicated of all non-viviparous animals ; and in 20 
point of fact viviparous animals are not in all cases provided 
with the organ, excepting such as are directly viviparous 
without being first oviparous. Thus the dolphin is directly 
viviparous, and accordingly we find it furnished with two 
breasts, 3 not situated high up, but in the neighbourhood of 
the genitals. And this creature is not provided, like 
quadrupeds, with visible teats, but has two vents, one on 
each flank, from which the milk flows ; and its young have 25 
to follow after it to get suckled, and this phenomenon has 
been actually witnessed. 

Fishes, then, as has been observed, have no breasts and 
no passage for the genitals visible externally. But they 
have an exceptional organ in the gills, whereby, after 
taking the water in by the mouth, they discharge it again ; 
and in the fins, of which the greater part have four, and the 3 
lanky ones two, as, for instance, the eel, and these two 
situated near to the gills. 4 In like manner the grey mullet 
as, for instance, the mullet found in the lake at Siphae 5 
have only two fins ; and the same is the case with the fish 
called Ribbon-fish. 6 Some of the lanky fishes have no fins 

1 i8e'a, frequent in A. of a logical species, is not used of the species 
of animals or plants. It may here mean the sensible species, and thus 
be all but identical with ftop^, cf. Schn. ' piscium genus solum ab aliis 
multarum ambitu formarum distinctum est'. 

2 Cf. H.A. v. 5. 540 b 28, &c. 

3 H.A. iii. 20. 52i b 23 ; Plin. xi. 95. 

* H. A. i. 5. 489 b 23 ; P. A. iv. 13. 696* 4 ; de Inc. 7. 707* 28 ; Plin. 
ix. 37. 

5 Tipha, on the south coast of Boeotia, near Thespiae , cf. Pausan. 
ix. 32. 3 (Sylburg). Cf. P. A. iv. 13. 696* 5 ; de Inc. 7. 7o8 a 5. 

6 rmVia, an unidentified fish. Cefiola taenia, L. and Cobitis taenia, 
L. have two pair of fins. Speusippus (cit. Ath. 329 f) compares it 



at all, such as the muraena, nor gills articulated * like those 
of other fish. 

And of those fish that are provided with gills, some have 

5O5 a coverings for this organ, whereas all the selachians have 

the organ unprotected by a cover. And those fishes that 

have coverings or opercula for the gills have in all cases 

their gills placed sideways ; whereas, among selachians, 

the broad ones have the gills down below on the belly, as 

the torpedo and the ray, while the lanky ones have the 

5 organ placed sideways, as is the case in all the dog-fish. 

The fishing-frog has gills placed sideways, and covered 
not with a spiny operculum, as in all but the selachian 
fishes, but with one of skin. 

Morever, with fishes furnished with gills, 2 the gills in some 
cases are simple in others duplicate j and the last gill in the 
direction of the body is always simple. And, again, some 

10 fishes have few gills, and others have a great number ; but 
all alike have the same number on both sides. Those 
that have the least number have one gill on either side, 
and this one duplicate, like the boar-fish ; others have 
two on either side, one simple and the other duplicate, like 
the conger and the scarus ; 3 others have four on either side, 

*5 simple, as the elops, 4 the synagris, 5 the muraena, and the 
eel ; others have four, all, with the exception of the hind- 
most one, in double rows, as the wrasse, 6 the perch, the 
sheat-fish, and the carp. The dog-fish have all their gills 
double, five on a side ; and the sword-fish has eight 7 

with ^rjrra and /So^yXoxro-o?, from which we might infer it to be a 

1 8i7p0pa>fieVa probably means close-set^ well-knit, i. e. with the 
filaments linked together, as is usual in fishes ; the gill-filaments of 
the muraena are loose and float apart. 

2 Plin. ix. 32. 

J Scarus cretensis, the parrot-wrasse ; mod. Gk. o-Kiipw. 

4 The identification was disputed by the ancients ; cf. Plin. ix. 27, 
xxxii. 54 ; Athen. vii. 364, viii. 294 ; Ael. viii. 28. Perhaps the sturgeon, 
perhaps a large tunny (cf. footnote, vi. 17. 57o b 20). 

6 In mod. Gk. crwaypida is Dentex indgaris, but the statements here 
and in 15. 5o6 b 16 do not help the identification. 

6 In mod. Gk. /c/^Xa is Ctenilabrus rostratus (Heldreich), and the 
various wrasses are known throughout the Mediterranean as 
tourdou, grivu, c. 

7 i. e. four on each side. 


BOOK II. 13 505 

double gills. 1 So much for the number of gills as found in 

Again, fishes differ from other animals in more ways than 20 
as regards the gills. For they are not covered with hairs 
as are viviparous land animals, nor, as is the case with 
certain oviparous quadrupeds, with tessellated scutes, nor, 
like birds, with feathers ; but for the most part they are 
covered with scales. Some few are rough-skinned, while 25 
the smooth-skinned are very few indeed. Of the Selachia 
some are rough-skinned and some smooth-skinned ; 2 and 
among the smooth-skinned fishes are included the conger, 
the eel, and the tunny. 

All fishes are saw-toothed excepting the scarus ; 3 and 
the teeth in all cases are sharp and set in many rows, and 
in some cases are placed on the tongue. 4 The tongue is 
hard and spiny, and so firmly attached that fishes in many 30 
instances seem to be devoid of the organ altogether. The 
mouth in some cases 5 is wide-stretched, as it is with some 
viviparous quadrupeds. . . . 

With regard to organs of sense, all save eyes, fishes 
possess none of them, neither the organs nor their passages, 
neither ears nor nostrils ; but all fishes are furnished with 
eyes, and the eyes devoid of lids, though the eyes are not 
hard ; 6 with regard to the organs connected with the other 
senses, hearing and smell, they are devoid alike of the 
organs themselves and of passages indicative of them. 

Fishes without exception are supplied with blood. Some 505** 
of them are oviparous, and some viviparous ; scaly fish 
are invariably oviparous, but cartilaginous fishes are all 
viviparous, with the single exception of the fishing-frog. 7 

1 This passage is referred to, P. A. iv. 13. 6g6 }) 15. 

2 P. A. iv. 13. 697* 4. 3 P. A. iii. i. 662 a 7. 

4 Pice. CJ. odovras, Kai TroXvaroixovs S 1 cVtoi Kal ev rf) y\unry. 

5 The ol /zeV indicates a hiatus here, which we may fill up from the 
corresponding passage in P. A. iv. 13. 696*^34 en d( *a\ T&V ava> TO 

(TTOfjLa \6vr(t)v ra pev avfppuybs *X fl TO " r( 'M a Ta $* fivovpov' ocra p.(v 
crapKo<pdya avfppeoyds 1 , too*7rep ra Kap^apoSoi/ra, Sta TO ev T&> oro/zari flvat 
Tois roiovTOiS rfjv l&xyV) ocra 8f pr) crapK.o<pdya, p.vovpov. Dittm. would 

merely insert ot 5e pvovpov. Cf. also P. A. iii. i. 662* 31. 

6 Like a crab's. Cf. P. A. ii. 2. 648* 17. 

7 G. A. iii. 3. 754* 25. 


5 Of blooded animals there now remains the serpent genus. 14 
This genus is common to both elements, for, while most 
species comprehended therein are land animals, a small 
minority, to wit the aquatic species, pass their lives in 
fresh water. There are also sea-serpents, 1 in shape to a 
great extent resembling their congeners of the land, with 
this exception that the head in their case is somewhat 

10 like the head of the conger; and there are several kinds 
of sea-serpent, and the different kinds differ in colour ; 
these animals are not found in very deep water. Serpents, 
like fish, are devoid of feet. 

There are also sea-scolopendras, 2 resembling in shape 
their land congeners, but somewhat less in regard to 
magnitude. These creatures are found in the neighbour- 

15 hood of rocks ; as compared with their land congeners 
they are redder in colour, are furnished with feet in greater 
numbers and with legs of more delicate structure. And 
the same remark applies to them as to the sea-serpents, that 
they are not found in very deep water. 

Of fishes whose habitat is in the vicinity of rocks there is a 
tiny one, which some call the Echeneis, 3 or ' ship-holder ', 
and which is by some people used as a charm to bring luck 

20 in affairs of law and love. The creature is unfit for eating. 
Some people assert that it has feet, but this is not the case : 
it appears, however, to be furnished with feet from the 
fact that its fins resemble those organs. 

So much, then, for the external parts of blooded animals, 
as regards their numbers, their properties, and their relative 

25 As for the properties of the internal organs, these we 
must first discuss in the case of the animals that are supplied 
with blood. For the principal genera differ from the rest of 

1 H. A. ix. 37. 62i a 2 ; Plin. ix. 67. 

2 Annelid worms, e.g. Nereis. H.A. ix. 37. 62i a 6; de Inc. 7. 
707* 30 ; Plin. ix. 67 (43) ; Opp. Hal. ii. 424 ; Ael. vii. 35. 

3 Plin. ix. 41, xxxii. I ; Opp. Hal. i. 213 ; Ael. xii. 45 ; Bartol. 
Romano, Nautica Mediterranea, Roma, 1607. The myth of the 'ship- 
holder' has been elegantly explained by V. W. Ekman, ' On Dead 
Water,' in the Reports of Nansen's North Polar Expedition, Christiania, 


BOOK II. 15 505 

animals, in that the former are supplied with blood and 
the latter are not ; and the former include man, viviparous 
and oviparous quadrupeds, birds, fishes, cetaceans, and all 
the others that come under no general designation by reason 30 
of their not forming genera, but groups of which simply the 
specific name is predicable, 1 as when we say ' the serpent ', 
' the crocodile '. 

All viviparous quadrupeds, then, are furnished with an 
oesophagus and a windpipe, situated as in man ; the same 
statement is applicable to oviparous quadrupeds and to 
birds, only that the latter present diversities in the shapes 
of these organs. As a general rule, all animals that take 506* 
up air and breathe it in and out are furnished with a lung, 
a windpipe, and an oesophagus, with the windpipe and 
oesophagus not admitting of diversity in situation but 
admitting of diversity in properties, and with the lung 
admitting of diversity in both these respects. Further, all 
blooded animals have a heart and a diaphragm or midriff ; 5 
but in small animals the existence of the latter organ is 
not so obvious owing to its delicacy and minute size. 

In regard to the heart 2 there is an exceptional pheno- 
menon observable in oxen. In other words, there is one 
species of ox where, though not in all cases, a bone is found 
inside the heart. 3 And, by the way, the horse's heart also 10 
has a bone inside it. 

The genera referred to above are not in all cases furnished 
with a lung : for instance, the fish is devoid of the organ, 
as is also every animal furnished with gills. All blooded 
animals are furnished with a liver. As a general rule 
blooded animals are furnished with a spleen ; but with 
the great majority of non-viviparous but oviparous animals 

1 As Meyer, Thierkl. d. Arist., p. 155, says, the serpent as ytvos 
contains many ctS^, but is also, as here, a single fl8os in the great yeVor, 
TCTpurroda tpoTOKa (^oXt&ord. Cf. H.A. i. 6. 49o b 16. Dittm. needlessly 
conjectures e^is KCU KopSuXoy. 

2 The construction is obscure, and suggests either a lacuna or an 
interpolation. I follow Schn., who, following Albertus, reads TT\T)V on 
(v rfj Kcipftlq 'idiov TI ecrriV. A. and W. bracket TT\T}V . . . CHTTOVV, as an 
interpolation from P. A. iii. 4. 666 b 18. 

3 P. A. iii. 4. 666 b 18 ; G.A. v. 7. ;8; b 18. 


15 the spleen is so small as all but to escape observation ; l 
and this is the case with almost all birds, as with the pigeon, 
the kite, the falcon, the owl: in point of fact, the aego- 
cephalus 2 is devoid of the organ altogether. With oviparous 
quadrupeds the case is much the same as with the vivi- 
parous ; that is to say, they also have the spleen exceedingly 
minute, as the tortoise, the freshwater tortoise, the toad, 

20 the lizard, the crocodile, and the frog. 

Some animals have a gall-bladder close to the liver, and 
others have not. Of viviparous quadrupeds the deer is 
without the organ, 3 as also the roe, the horse, the mule, the 
ass, the seal, and some kinds of pigs. 4 Of deer those that 
are called Achainae 5 appear to have gall in their tail, but 

25 what is so called does resemble gall in colour, though it is 
not so completely fluid, and the organ internally 6 resembles 
a spleen. 

However, without any exception, stags are found to have 
maggots living inside the head, 7 and the habitat of these 
creatures is in the hollow underneath the root of the tongue 
and in the neighbourhood of the vertebra to which the head 
is attached. These creatures are as large as the largest 

30 grubs ; they grow all together in a cluster, and they are 
usually about twenty in number. 8 

Deer then, as has been observed, are without a gall- 
bladder ; their gut, however, is so bitter that even hounds 
refuse to eat it unless the animal is exceptionally fat. 9 With 
5 6 the elephant also the liver is unfurnished with a gall- 
bladder, but when the animal is cut in the region where the 
organ is found in animals furnished with it, there oozes 
out a fluid resembling gall, in greater or less quantities. 
Of animals that take in sea-water and are furnished with a 

1 P.A. iii. 7. 6;o a 32. 

2 Unidentified ; perhaps one of the horned owls. 

3 P. A. iv. 2. 67& 27. 4 jiiW, Bekk. ; but cf. P.AA.c.^ 

'" Schol. ad Apoll. Rh. iv. 175 'A^ain Wl T^S Kprjrrjs yroXtr, tv fi 
yivovrai dxaiivctn \eyop,vai \a(f)oC at KOI crnaOiixiai KaXovvrai' ol Se nepara 
/zeydXa f^ovrts e\a0ot, Kfpciorm. See also H. A. ix. 5. 6n b 18, and note. 

5 tKTos, Bekk., according to Dittm., by misprint. 

7 Larvae of a gadfly, Oestrus sp., esp. Oe. rufibarbis^ Meig. ; cf 
Sundevall, p. 67. Cf. Plin. xi. 49. 

8 Dittm., following B. St. Hilaire, brackets the paragraph. 

9 Plin. xi. 74. Nemes. de Nat. Horn. iv. p. 116. 

BOOK II. 15 5o6 b 

lung, the dolphin is unprovided with a gall-bladder. Birds 5 
and fishes all have the organ, 1 as also oviparous quadrupeds, 
all to a greater or a lesser extent. But of fishes some have 
the organ close to the liver, as the dog-fishes, the sheat-fish, 
the rhine or angel-fish, the smooth skate, the torpedo, 
and, of the lanky fishes ; the eel, the pipe-fish, 2 and the 
hammer-headed shark. The callionymus, 3 also, has the 10 
gall-bladder close to the liver, and in no other fish does 
the organ attain so great a relative size. 4 Other fishes have 
the organ close to the gut, attached to the liver by certain 
extremely fine ducts. The bonito has the gall-bladder 
stretched alongside the gut and equalling it in length, and 
often a double fold of it. Others have the organ in the 15 
region of the gut ; in some cases far off, in others near ; as 
the fishing-frog, the elops, the synagris, the muraena, and 
the sword-fish. Often animals of the same species show 
this diversity of position ; as, for instance, some congers are 
found with the organ attached close to the liver, and others 
with it detached from and below it. The case is much 
the same with birds : that is, some have the gall-bladder ao 
close to the stomach, and others close to the gut, as the 
pigeon, the raven, the quail, the swallow, and the sparrow ; 
some have it near at once to the liver and to the stomach 
as the aegocephalus ; others have it near at once to the 
liver and the gut, as the falcon and the kite. 

16 Again, all viviparous quadrupeds are furnished with 
kidneys and a bladder. 5 Of the ovipara that are not quad- 25 
rupedal there is no instance known of an animal, whether 
fish or bird, provided with these organs. Of the ovipara 

1 Cf. P. A. iv. 2. 

2 Syngnathus sp., cf. H. A. vi. 13. $67* 18 ; G.A. iii. 4. 755 a 33. 

* According to Cuvier, Uranoscopus scaber ; but according to Doric 
ap. Athen. vii. p. 282, identical with Kd\\i\dvs t ?Xo\^, auXto/riar and 
dvdias, which probably refer to one of the larger tunnies (cf. Ael. 
xiii. 17). 

4 Menand., Anaxipp., c., ap. Ael. xiii. 4 ; Plin. xxxii. 7 ; Arist. fr. 

ap. Ael. 1. C. eVi TOU Xo/3ou TOU 8eiou Kndrjp.fiTjv %ft %o\f)v TroXXni/, avrcp 
de TO T)7rap Kara Trjv Xatap (popemu TrKfupav. In the genus Urano- 
soopus, ' la vesicule du fiel est enorme et a la forme d'une fiole a long 
cou, suspendue & un canal choledoque aussi gros que le duodenum,' 
Cuvier, iii. p. 296. 
Cf. P. A. iii. 9. 

AR. H.A. P 


that are quadrupedal, the turtle alone is provided with these 
organs l of a magnitude to correspond with the other organs 
of the animal. In the turtle the kidney resembles the 
same organ in the ox ; that is to say, it looks like one 
30 single organ composed of a number of small ones. [The 
bison also resembles the ox in all its internal parts.] 

With all animals that are furnished with these parts, the 17 
parts are similarly situated, and with the exception of 
man, the heart is in the middle ; in man, however, as has 
57 a been observed, the heart is placed a little to the left-hand 
side. 2 In all animals the pointed end of the heart turns 
frontwards ; only in fish it would at first sight seem other- 
wise, for the pointed end is turned not towards the breast, 
but towards the head and the mouth. 3 And (in fish) the 
5 apex is attached to a tube 4 just where the right and left 
gills meet together. There are other ducts extending from 
the heart to each of the gills, greater in the greater fish, 
lesser in the lesser ; but in the large fishes the duct at the 
pointed end of the heart is a tube, white-coloured and 
exceedingly thick. 

10 Fishes in some few cases have an oesophagus, as the 
conger and the eel ; and in these the organ is small. 

In fishes that are furnished with an undivided liver, the 
organ lies entirely on the right side; where the liver is cloven 
from the root, the larger half of the organ is on the right 
side : for in some fishes the two parts are detached from one 

15 another, without any coalescence at the root, as is the case 
with the dog-fish. And there is also a species of hare 5 in what 
is named the Fig district, near Lake Bolbe, 6 and elsewhere, 

1 H.A. iii. 15. $i9 b 15 ; v. 5. 54i a 9; P. A. iii. 8. 671* 28; iv. I. 676* 
29 ; G. A. i. 13. 720* 6. 

1 H.A. i. 17. 496* 15. 3 Plin. xi. 69. 

4 Reading with A. and W. aiXw for auraJ; cf. de Resp. 16. 478 b 7 

rols l\6v<Tl TTpOS TO (TTOfld fj KdpftlO, TO 6l> f\Cl. TflVfl 8' OKpOV Tt)S KapStdS 

av\bs <p\fftovfvp<t)br]s fls TO /zeVov, 17 (TvvdrrTovo'iv d\\r)\ots irdvra TO /Spay^tp. 
fjifyiaros nfv ovv ovr6s f&Tiv fvdfv 8f KOI tvOtv Ttjs xapbias p.(v T(poi 
Tfivovo-iv fls nKpov c/caorou T>V fipayxiav, 8C <Sv 17 *cara\j^u^ty yiveTai npbs Tq 

del TOV 

6 Piin. xi. 73 ; Arist. Mirab. 122. 842* ; Theophr. ap. Athen. ix. 401 ; 
Ael. v. 27, xi. ii. 

6 In Macedonia, on the left bank of the Axios (Schn.) ; cf. Aesch. 
Persae, 494, Thuc. i. 58. 

BOOK II. 17 507 

which animal might be taken to have two livers owing to 
the length of the connecting ducts, 1 similar to the structure 
in the lung of birds. 

The spleen in all cases, when normally placed, is on the 
left-hand side, and the kidneys also lie in the same position 20 
in all creatures that possess them. 2 There have been known 
instances of quadrupeds under dissection, where the spleen 
was on the right hand and the liver on the left ; but all 
such cases are regarded as supernatural. 

In all animals the wind-pipe extends to the lung, and 
the manner how, we shall discuss hereafter; and the oeso- 25 
phagus, 3 in all that have the organ, extends through the 
midriff into the stomach. For, by the way, as has been 
observed, most fishes have no oesophagus, but the stomach 
is united directly with the mouth, so that in some cases 
when big fish are pursuing little ones, the stomach 4 tumbles 
forward into the mouth. 

All the afore-mentioned animals have a stomach, and 30 
one similarly situated, that is to say, situated directly under 
the midriff ; and they have a gut connected therewith and 
closing at the outlet of the residuum and at what is termed 
the ' rectum '. However, animals present diversities in the 
structure of their stomachs. 5 In the first place, of the 
viviparous quadrupeds, such of the horned animals as are 
not equally furnished with teeth in both jaws are furnished 35 
with four such chambers. 6 These animals, by the way, are 
those that are said to chew the cud. 7 In these animals the 
oesophagus extends from the mouth downwards along 
the lung, from the midriff to the big stomach (or paunch) ; 
and this stomach is rough inside and semi-partitioned. 8 

For Tropovr, Scaliger cj. /xo/na, Schn. \ofiovs or TOTTQVS. 

2 The passage ol vt^pol KT\. is probably either corrupt or mis- 
placed. Cf. H. A. i. 17. 4Q6 b 17, on the model of which passage I 
should be inclined to read KCU ev anaa-i roty exovcri Kfipevos TOV avrbv 
rponov. 3 H. A. iii. 3. 5I3 b 23. 

* Not the stomach, but the air-bladder, which often everts when a 
fish is brought up quickly from deep water. 

; Cf. P. A. iii. 14. 

1 Schn. cj. TOTTOVS. Cf. P. A. iii. 14. 67 4 b 13 ra roiaCra ratv (pa>v 
nXeiovs e^ei TOTTOVS Kal p.6pia. 

7 H.A. ix. 50. 632 b i. 

8 &iei\T)p.p.wr) ) loculis disseptuS) Schn. A kink in the paunch appears 
internally as a prominent fold or partial dissepiment. 

F 2 



And connected with it near to the entry of the oesophagus 
is what from its appearance is termed the ' reticulum ' (or 
honeycomb bag) ; for outside it is like the stomach, but 
5 inside it resembles a netted cap ; and the reticulum is a 
great deal smaller than the stomach. Connected with this 
is the ' echinus ' (or many- plies), rough inside and laminated, 
and of about the same size as the reticulum. .Next after 
this comes what is called the * enystrum ' (or abomasum), 

10 larger and longer than the echinus, furnished inside with 
numerous folds or ridges, large and smooth. After all this 
comes the gut. 

Such is the stomach of those quadrupeds that are horned 
and have an unsymmetrical dentition ; and these animals 
differ one from another in the shape and size of the parts, 
and in the fact of the oesophagus reaching the stomach 

*5 centralwise in some cases and sideways in others. Animals 
that are furnished equally with teeth in both jaws have one 
stomach ; as man, the pig, the dog, the bear, the lion, the 
wolf. [The Thos, 1 by the by, has all its internal organs 
similar to the wolfs.] 

All these, then have a single 2 stomach, and after that 
the gut ; but the stomach in some is comparatively large, 

20 as in the pig and bear, and the stomach of the pig has a 
few smooth folds or ridges ; others have a much smaller 
stomach, not much bigger than the gut, as the lion, the dog, 
and man. In the other animals the shape of the stomach 
varies in the direction of one or other of those already 
mentioned ; that is, the stomach in some animals resembles 
that of the pig ; in others that of the dog, alike with the 
larger animals and the smaller ones. In all these animals 

25 diversities occur in regard to the size, the shape, the thick- 
ness or the thinness of the stomach, and also in regard to 
the place 3 where the oesophagus opens into it. 

There is also a difference in structure in the gut of the 
two groups of animals above mentioned (those with unsym- 

1 Probably Viverra civetta, or allied species. Cf. Plin. viii. 52 (34). 

2 A. and W. delete /iiW as incorrect in respect to the ruminants ; or 
alternatively, would read navra TaGra, or Trdvra TO. d/i^coSovra. 

3 rfj Oeo-fi rrjv o-iWpjjcrii/, MSS. et edd. ; Kara Trjvrov (TTOfJ.a)(ov Qtvw Kal 

, Pice. ; Kara ToO or. rrjv 6. K. triWp., A, and W. 

BOOK II. 17 5 o7 b 

metrical and those with symmetrical dentition) in size, in 
thickness, and in foldings. 30 

The intestines in those animals whose jaws are unequally 
furnished with teeth are in all cases the larger, for the 
animals themselves are larger than those in the other 
category ; for very few of them are small, and no single one 
of the horned animals is very small. And some possess 
appendages (or caeca) to the gut, but no animal that has 
not incisors in both jaws has a straight gut. 

The elephant has a gut constricted into chambers, 1 5035 
constructed that the animal appears to have four stomachs ; 
in it the food is found, but there is no distinct and separate 
receptacle. Its viscera resemble those of the pig, only that 
the liver is four times the size of that of the ox, and5o8 a 
the other viscera in like proportion, while the spleen is 
comparatively small. 

Much the same may be predicated of the properties 
of the stomach and the gut in oviparous quadrupeds, as in 
the land tortoise, the turtle, the lizard, both crocodiles, 2 and, 5 
in fact, in all animals of the like kind ; that is to say, their 
stomach is one and simple, resembling in some cases that 
of the pig, and in other cases that of the dog. 

The serpent genus is similar and in almost all respects 
furnished similarly to the saurians among oviparous land 
animals, if one could only imagine these saurians to beio 
increased in length and to be devoid of legs. That is to 
say, the serpent is coated with tessellated scutes, and 
resembles the saurian in its back and belly ; only, by the 
way, it has no testicles, but, like fishes, has two ducts con- 
verging into one, and an ovary long and bifurcate. The 
rest of its internal organs are identical with ihose of the 
saurians, except that, owing to the narrowness and length 15 
of the animal, the viscera are correspondingly narrow and 
elongated, so that they are apt to escape recognition from 
the similarities in shape. Thus, the windpipe of the creature 
is exceptionally long, and the oesophagus is longer still, 

1 Plin. xi. 79. 

2 i.e. land and water, the former being a large lizard, e.g. Varanus 
or Stellio : cf. fr. 320, I532 a 25. 


and the windpipe commences so close to the mouth that 
the tongue appears to be underneath it ; and the windpipe 

20 seems to project over the tongue, owing to the fact that 
the tongue draws back into a sheath and does not remain 
in its place as in other animals. The tongue, moreover, is 
thin and long and black, and can be protruded to a great 
distance. And both serpents and saurians have this alto- 
gether exceptional property in the tongue, that it is forked 

25 at the outer extremity, 1 and this property is the more 
marked in the serpent, for the tips of his tongue are 
as thin as hairs. The seal, also, by the way, has a split 
tongue. 2 

The stomach of the serpent is like a more spacious 
gut, resembling the stomach of the dog ; then comes the 
gut, long, narrow, and single to the end. The heart is 

30 situated close to the pharynx, small 3 and kidney-shaped ; 
and for this reason the organ might in some cases 4 appear 
not to have the pointed end turned towards the breast. 
Then comes the lung, single, and articulated with a mem- 
branous passage, very long, and quite detached from the 
heart. The liver is long and simple ; the spleen is short 
and round : as is the case in both respects with the 

35 saurians. Its gall resembles that of the fish ; the water- 
5o8 b snakes have it beside the liver, and the other snakes have 
it usually beside the gut. These creatures are all saw- 
toothed. Their ribs are as numerous as the days of the 
month ; in other words, they are thirty in number. 

Some affirm that the 'same phenomenon is observable 

5 with serpents as with swallow-chicks ; in other words, they 

say that if you prick out a serpent's eyes they will grow 

again. 5 And further, the tails of saurians and of serpents, 

if they be cut off, will grow again. 

With fishes the properties of the gut and stomach are 
similar ; that is, they have a stomach single and simple, 

1 P. A, ii. 17. 6o6 b 6. 2 P. A. iv. n. 691* 8. 

3 naKpd A. and W., /ui*pa *ai /za*pa Aid. and most MSS., others 

/JiKpd, fie Kill. 

4 For eviorc Schn. cj. ev TOVTOIS, ' in these creatures.' 

5 H. A. vi. 5. 563* 14 ; G.A. iv. 6. 774 b 31 ; Plin. viii. 41 ; Antig. 
H. Mirab. 72, 98 ; AeLxvii. 20. 

BOOK II. 17 5o8 b 

but variable in shape according to species. For in some 10 
cases the stomach is gut-shaped, 1 as with the scarus, or 
parrot-fish ; which fish, by the way, appears to be the only 
fish that chews the cud. 2 And the whole length of the gut 
is simple, and if it have a reduplication or kink it loosens 
out again into a simple form. 3 

An exceptional property in fishes and in birds for the 
most part ig the being furnished with gut-appendages or 
caeca. Birds have them low down and few in number. 15 
Fishes have them high up about the stomach, and some- 
times numerous, as in the goby, the galeos, 4 the perch, 
the scorpaena, the citharus, the red mullet, and the sparus ; 5 
the cestreus or grey mullet has several of them on one 
side of the belly, and on the other side only one. Some 
fish possess these appendages but only in small numbers, 
as the hepatus and the glaucus ; and, by the way, they are ao 
few also in the dorado. 6 These fishes differ also from one 
another within the same species, for in the dorado one 
individual has many and another few. Some fishes are 
entirely without the part, as the majority of the selachians. 
As for all the rest, 7 some of them have a few and some 
a great many. And in all cases where the gut-appendages 
are found in fish, they are found close up to the stomach. 25 

In regard to their internal parts birds differ from other 
animals and from one another. Some birds, for instance, 
have a crop in front of the stomach, 8 as the barn-door cock, 
the cushat, the pigeon, and the partridge ; and the crop con- 
sists of a large hollow skin, into which the food first enters 

1 Read eWfpoetSj) with Bekk. and Pice. Most MSS. eVfpofifiiJ. 
a H. A. viii. 2. 59i b 22 ; P. A. iii. 14. 675* 4 ; Ael. ii. 54 ; Plin. ix. 
29; Ovid, Hal. 119; Opp. Hal. i. 134. 

3 icaf avadiir\QMTiv txtit dvaXverm ds ev, PlCC. 

4 ya\(6f or the dog-fish, a selachian, has no caeca. Schn. suggests 
yaXrj (cf. Ael. xv. ii), mod. Gk. ynXi'a, Lota vulgaris, the burbot. 

5 Probably Sargus sp., still called airdpos in the Cyclades (Erhard, 
p. 88). ^ 

6 xpwro<ppvf, in all probability, Chrysofihrys attrata, Cuv. KiQapo?, 
TJTTaros, and y\ai>Kos are not identified. 

7 Presumably, * the rest of fishes.' P. A. iii. 14. 675* 1 1 o! 8c rroXXoi 
Trapa rfjv KoiXiav dfrofpvddas irtKvus. No true selachian possesses caeca. 
The ftdrpaxos or fishing-frog is the only other fish which A. includes 
among the Selachia, and it has two. 

8 P. A. iii. 14. 674 b 22. 


30 and where it lies undigested. Just where the crop leaves the 
oesophagus it is somewhat narrow ; by and by it broadens 
out, but where it communicates with the stomach it narrows 
down again. The stomach (or gizzard) in most birds is 
fleshy and hard, and inside is a strong skin which comes 

35 away from the fleshy part. Other birds have no crop, but 
instead of it an oesophagus wide and roomy, either all the 
5og a way or in the part leading to the stomach, as with the daw, 
the raven, and the carrion-crow. The quail also has the 
oesophagus widened out at the lower extremity, and in the 
aegocephalus and the owl the organ is slightly broader at 
the bottom than at the top. The duck, the goose, the gull, the 
catarrhactes, and the great bustard have the oesophagus wide 
5 and roomy from one end to the other, and the same applies 
to a great many other birds. In some birds there is a portion 
of the stomach * that resembles a crop, as in the kestrel. 
In the case of small birds like the swallow and the sparrow 
neither the oesophagus nor the crop is wide, but the stomach 
is long. Some few have neither a crop nor a dilated 

10 oesophagus, but the latter is exceedingly long, as in long- 
necked birds, such as the porphyrio, 2 and, by the way, in 
the case of all these birds the excrement is unusually moist. 3 
The quail is exceptional in regard to these organs, as com- 
pared with other birds ; in other words, it has a crop, and 
at the same time its oesophagus is wide and spacious in 

15 front of the stomach, and the crop is at some distance, 
relatively to its size, from the oesophagus at that part. 

Further, in most birds, the gut is thin, and simple when 
loosened out. 4 The gut-appendages or caeca in birds, as 
has been observed, are few in number, and are not situated 
high up, as in fishes, but low down towards the extremity 

20 of the gut. Birds, then, have caeca not all, but the greater 

So Camus. Most MSS. have rfjv <oi\iav avrfjv c^ovo-iv opoiav. Cf. 
P. A. iii. 14. 674^ 25 % TTJS KoiXias avTrjS n (TravedTrjKos. 

2 Possibly the flamingo, though 7rop<j>vpia>v and (poiviKOTrrepos are 
mentioned as distinct by Aristophanes. 

1 Cf. P. A. iii. 14. 674^ 30 fieri Se rtvfs oi TOVTWV ovdev f \ovcnv, dXXa 
TOV 7rpdXo/3oj/ (JiaKpoVj ova p.aKpocrK(\r) KOI eAeia, 8ta rfjv rrjs rpo(prjs vypoTrjTa. 

4 The sense is by no means clear. Cf. Schneider's note, vol. iii. 
P- 3I3- 

BOOK II. 17 509 

part of them, such as the barn-door cock, the partridge, the 
duck, the night-raven, [the localus, 1 ] the ascalaphus, 2 the 
goose, the swan, the great bustard, and the owl. Some 
of the little birds also have these appendages ; but the caeca 
in their case are exceedingly minute, as in the sparrow. 

does not occur elsewhere. . Gaza has ciccnia^ Gesner (in 
Alucone, p. 94) says ' hoc nomen Italicum esse avis nocturnae [aluco, 
aloco, alucolo], ab aliquo forte adscriptum, ut vocem ascalaphum 
interpretaretur, et a librariis postea insertum ' (J. G. S.). 
2 Perhaps an owl ; cf. Ov. Met. v. 539. 


5og a Now that we have stated the magnitudes, the properties, I 
and the relative differences of the other internal organs, it 
remains for us to treat of the organs that contribute to 
3 o generation. These organs in the female are in all cases 
internal ; in the male they present numerous diversities. 

In the blooded animals some males are altogether devoid 
of testicles, 1 and some have the organ but situated in- 
ternally ; and of those males that have the organ internally 
situated, some have it close to the loin in the neighbour- 
hoed of the kidney and others close to the belly. Other 
35 males have the organ situated externally. In the case of 
these last, the penis is in some cases attached to the belly, 

5C9 b whilst in others it is loosely suspended, as is the case also 
with the testicles; and, in the cases where the penis is 
attached to the belly, the attachment varies accordingly as 
the animal is emprosthuretic or opisthuretic. 

No fish is furnished with testicles, nor any other creature 
that has gills, nor any serpent whatever : nor, in short, any 
5 animal devoid of feet, save such only as are viviparous 
within themselves. 2 Birds are furnished with testicles, but 
these are internally situated, close to the loin. The case is 
similar with oviparous quadrupeds, such as the lizard, the 
tortoise and the crocodile ; and among the viviparous 
animals this peculiarity is found in the hedgehog. 3 Others 
among those creatures that have the organ internally 
situated have it close to the belly, as is the case with the 

1 Cf. G. A. i. 3. 7l6 b 15 TO. p.V yap oXtoy op\(is OVK 


P.OVOV St'o o-neppariKoif. A. did not recognize the essential function of 
the opxfis: cf. G.A. i. 4. 717* 34 olQtv yap ela-t poptov TWV nopw ol 
op^fis,nXXa 7rpo'crKfii/Tm KgdaTrep ray Xatas 7rpocrcniTovo~iv at i<paivovo~at Tols 
tcrTotr* d<paipovpft>o)v yap avT&v avao~Tru>vrai 01 nopoi CVTOS, &CTT ov oivavTai 
TCI eKTfp.i-6p.tva : cf. H. A. iii. I. 5io b 3 ; Galen, iv. 556, 575 K, c. 

' i. e. ' with the exception of the Cetacea.' 

3 G.A. i. 5. 7i7 b 27 ; 12. 7i9 b 16. 

BOOK III. I 509 

dolphin amongst animals devoid of feet, and with the 10 
elephant among viviparous quadrupeds. 1 In other cases 
these organs are externally conspicuous. 

We have already 2 alluded to the diversities observed in 
the attachment of these organs to the belly and the 
adjacent region ; in other words, we have stated that in 
some cases the testicles are tightly fastened back, 3 as in the 
pig and its allies, and that in others they are freely 
suspended, as in man. 15 

Fishes, then, are devoid of testicles, as has been stated, 
and serpents also. 4 They are furnished, however, with two 
ducts connected with the midriff and running on to either 
side of the backbone, coalescing into a single duct above 
the outlet of the residuum, and by 'above' the outlet 
I mean the region near to the spine. These ducts in the 20 
rutting season get filled with the genital fluid, and, if the 
ducts be squeezed, the sperm oozes out white in colour. 
As to the differences observed in male fishes of diverse 
species, the reader should consult my treatise on Anatomy, 5 
and the subject will be hereafter more fully discussed when 
we describe the specific character in each case. 6 

The males of oviparous animals, whether biped or quad- 
ruped, are in all cases furnished with testicles close to the 3 5 
loin underneath the midriff. With some animals the organ 
is whitish, in others somewhat of a sallow hue ; in all cases 
it is entirely enveloped with minute and delicate veins. 
From each of the two testicles extends a duct, and, as in 
the case of fishes, the two ducts coalesce into one above 

1 Plin. xi. no ' delphino (testes) praelongi ultima conduntur alvo, et 
elephanto occulti '. Cf. G. A. i. 3. ;i6 b 27 ; 12. ;i9 b 9, &c. 

2 ii. i. 5oo b 3. 

3 Cf. G.A. i. 3. 7l6 b 29 TO. ' co>* KO\ Totroov TII p.ev dirr}pTr)fjLfvovs, 
uxTTTCp ol avdpairoi, TO, &e npbs rjj fy>o, KaBcnrcp ol ves. Here Schn. 
suggests npbs TJj fdpa KOI a-vvexfts, and Gaza tr. ' alia annexes ad sedem 
sessiles, tit sues.' 4 ii. 17. 508* 12 ; v. 5. 54o b 30, c. 

5 The frequent references to at avarofioi seem mostly to point to the 
lost treatise, but it sometimes is an open question whether we should 
not simply translate 'anatomy' or 'dissection'. The passages have 
been collated and discussed by Hoffner, Heitz, &c. (cf. note on iv. i. 525 a 
8). It is not impossible that the treatise may still exist in an Arabic , 

version ; cf. Dschemaluddin ap. Wenrich, de Autor. Gr. vcrsicnMrab. 
c., 1842, p. 148. 

6 H.A.v.5. 



the outlet of the residuum. 1 This constitutes the penis, 
30 which organ in the case of small ovipara is inconspicuous ; 
but in the case of the larger ovipara, as in the goose and 
the like, the organ becomes quite visible just after 

The ducts in the case of fishes and in biped and quaa- 

ruped ovipara are attached to the loin under the stomach 

and the gut, in betwixt them 2 and the great vein, from 

which ducts or blood-vessels extend, one to each of the two 

35 testicles. And just as with fishes the male sperm is found 

5io a in the seminal ducts, and the ducts become plainly visible 

at the rutting season and in some instances become in- 

visible after the season is passed, so also is it with the 

testicles of birds ; before the breeding season the organ is 

small in some birds and quite invisible in others, but 

during the season the organ in all cases is greatly enlarged. 3 

5 This phenomenon is remarkably illustrated in the ring-dove 

and the partridge, so much so that some people are 

actually of opinion that these birds are devoid of the organ 

in the winter-time. 

Of male animals that have their testicles placed front- 
wards, some have them inside, close to the belly, as the 
dolphin ; some have them outside, exposed to view, close 
10 to the lower extremity of the belly. These animals re- 
semble one another thus far in respect to this organ ; but 
they differ from one another in this fact, that some of them 
have their testicles situated separately by themselves, while 
others, which have the organ situated externally, have them 
enveloped in what is termed the scrotum. 4 

Again, in all viviparous animals furnished with feet the 

following properties are observed in the testicles them- 

selves. From the aorta there extend vein-like ducts to the 

15 head of each of the testicles, and another two from the 

kidneys ; 5 these two from the kidneys are supplied with 

1 H. A. v. 3. 54o a 30. 

2 Reading with Scaliger KCU rS>v eWepcoi/ /WTO^U. Dittm. pfragv T>V 

G. A. i. 4. ;i7 b 8 ; H.A. vi. 9. 564 b 10. 

4 Dittm. stigmatizes the whole paragraph. Cf. G. A. i. 12. 7i9 b 4. 

5 The spermatic arteries and veins. 

BOOK III. I 5io a 

blood, 1 while the two from the aorta are devoid of it. 
From the head of the testicle alongside of the testicle 
itself is a duct, thicker and more sinewy than the other 
just alluded to a duct that bends back again at the end of 
the testicle 2 to its head ; and from the head of each of the 20 
two testicles the two ducts extend until they coalesce in 
front at the penis. The duct that bends back again and 
that which is in contact with the testicle are enveloped in one 
and the same membrane, 3 so that, until you draw aside the 
membrane, they present all the appearance of being a 
single undifferentiated duct. Further, the duct in contact 
with the testicle has its moist content qualified by blood, 
but to a comparatively less extent than in the case of the 
ducts higher up which are connected with the aorta ; in 25 
the ducts that bend back towards the tube of the penis, the 
liquid is white-coloured. There also runs a duct from 
the bladder, opening into the upper part of the canal, 
around which lies, sheath-wise, what is called the 'penis '. 

All these descriptive particulars may be regarded by the 
light of the accompanying diagram ; wherein the letter A 3 
marks the starting-point of the ducts that extend from the 
aorta ; the letters KK mark the heads of the testicles and 
the ducts descending thereunto ; the ducts extending from 
these along the testicles are marked fin, ; the ducts turning 
back, in which is the white fluid, are marked BB ; the 
penis A the bladder E ; and the testicles W^F. 35 

[By the way, when the testicles are cut off or removed, 
the ducts draw upwards by contraction. 4 Moreover, when 5 J b 
male animals are young, their owner sometimes destroys 
the organ 5 in them by attrition ; sometimes they castrate 
them at a later period. And I may here add, that a bull 
has been known to serve a cow immediately after castration, 
and actually to impregnate her.] 6 

1 The left spermatic vein falls into the renal vein close to the kidney, 
the right into the inferior vena caya near to the renal vein. 

2 ev eV^aro), conj. A. and W., for eV eKarcpu, codd. and edd. 

3 The tunica vaginalis. The convoluted ducts form an fVavaSi- 
TrXaxm (G. A. i. 4. 7i7 a 33), which is the epididymis of later authors. 

4 Cf. supra, p. 509* 32, footnote. 5 H. A. ix. 50. 632 a 15. 
6 [ ] A. and W. 


_ spa. 

A cudoiop. 


*. i \ *- \ * * 
AA T(t)V Tropcoy upx*? T 05 ** OTTO Ti^s aopTf]?. 

KK Ke<pa\ai TUV op\e<t>v Kal ot KadrjKovTCS Tropoi. 


BB oi dvaKa/JTrrovrer, V ois rj vypoTqs f) 

>. z/. sp. a. spermatic vein and artery : ur. ureters. 


* testis. 

ft corpus epididymis. 

K caput epididymis. 
B vas deferens. 


Y vcrTepa 17 &f\<j)vs. M 

KK Kcpana. EE f\iyp.oi (Fallopian tubes). 

BOOK III. i 5io b 

So much then for the properties of testicles in male 5 

In female animals 'furnished with a womb, the womb is 
not in all cases the same in form or endowed with the same 
properties, but both in the vivipara and the ovipara great 
diversities present themselves. In all creatures that have 
the womb close to the genitals, the womb is two-horned, 
and one horn lies to the right-hand side and the other to 10 
the left ; l its commencement, however, is single, and so is 
the orifice, resembling in the case of the most numerous and 
largest animals a tube composed of much flesh and gristle. 
Of these parts one is termed the hystera or delphys, whence 
is derived the word a&?A06?, and the other part, the tube 
or orifice, is termed metra. In all biped or quadruped 15 
vivipara the womb is in all cases below the midriff, 2 as in 
man, the dog, the pig, the horse, and the ox ; the same is 
the case also in all horned animals. At the extremity of 
the so-called ceratia, or horns^ the wombs of most animals 
have a twist or convolution. 

In the case of those ovipara that lay eggs externally, the 20 
wombs are not in all cases similarly situated. Thus the 
wombs of birds are close to the midriff, and the wombs of 
fishes down below, just like the wombs of biped and 
quadruped vivipara, only that, in the case of the fish, the 
wombs are delicately formed, membranous, and elongated ; 
so much so that in extremely small fish, each of the two 
bifurcated parts looks like a single egg, and those fishes 25 
whose egg is described as crumbling 3 would appear to have 
inside them a pair of eggs, whereas in reality each of the 
two sides consists not of one but of many eggs, and this 
accounts for their breaking up into so many particles. 

The womb of birds has the lower and tubular portion 
fleshy and firm, and the part close to the midriff mem- 
branous and exceedingly thin and fine: so thin and fine 30 
that the eggs might seem to be outside the womb alto- 
gether. In the larger birds the membrane is more 

1 G.A. i. 3. ;i6 b 32. 

2 Plin. xi. 84 ' ova generantium annexa praecordiis '. 

3 i. e. is designated a ' roe '. 


distinctly visible, and, if inflated through the tube, lifts and 
swells out ; in the smaller birds all these parts are more 

The properties of the womb are similar in oviparous 

35 quadrupeds, as the tortoise, the lizard, the frog and the 

5ii a like ; for the tube below is single and fleshy, and the cleft 

portion with the eggs is at the top close to the midriff. 

With animals devoid of feet that are internally oviparous 

and viviparous externally, as is the case with the dogfish 

5 and the other so-called Selachians (and by this title we 

designate such creatures destitute of feet and furnished 

with gills as are viviparous), with these animals the womb 

is bifurcate, and beginning down below l it extends as far as 

the midriff, as in the case of birds. There is also a narrow 

part between the two horns running up as far as the 

midriff, 2 and the eggs are engendered here and above at 

10 the origin of the midriff; afterwards they pass into the 

wider space and turn from eggs into young animals. 

However, the differences in respect to the wombs of these 

fishes as compared with others of their own species or with 

fishes in general, would be more satisfactorily studied in 

their various forms in specimens under dissection. 

The members of the serpent genus also present diver- 

gencies either when compared with the above-mentioned 

15 creatures or with one another. Serpents as a rule are 

oviparous, the viper being the only viviparous member 

of the genus. 3 The viper is, previously to external partu- 

dpap.VT] is transferred here from the next line, as by Schn. 
and Pice. 

2 The received text is plainly at fault. We translate, after Piccolos, 
eon 5e 8iq p.fcrov ro)V Sixpocoi/ fif'xpi npos TO VTrofapa orei/r/, which render- 
ing is supported by Gaza ' ^sJnus arctior ad septum usque pertendit ', 
and tampers but little with the text of the MSS. I suspect, however, 
that this emendation is inadequate. The subject-matter of the 
clause was doubtless the fact that in selachians, but not in birds, the 
ovaries lie between the ' oviducts ' or horns of the uterus, and this fact 
is elsewhere simply and clearly stated; e.g. H.A. vi. 10. 564** 20 

6e (17 TU>V creXa^coi'^ Trjy T&V ppvid&v vcrrepay, on ou Ttpot ro> VTTO- 
eviois (rvj>iOTarat TO <ua, aXXa /ierau Kara rr)V pd\iv t fK.el6fV 5' ava- 
pfTaftaivd. Cf. also 565* 14, b I and further the passage descrip- 

tive of the ovary in serpents, 511* 18, the parallel phraseology of which 

may have helped to confuse the present reading. 

3 H.A. v. 34. 558* 25 ; Plin. x. 82, &c. 

BOOK III. i 5n a 

rition, oviparous internally ; and owing to this peculiarity 
the properties of the womb in the viper are similar to those 
of the womb in the selachians. The womb of the serpent 
is long, in keeping with the body, and starting below from 
a single duct extends continuously on both sides of the 
spine, so as to give the impression of thus being a separate 20 
duct on each side of the spine, until it reaches the midriff, 
where the eggs are engendered in a row ; and these eggs are 
laid not one by one, but all strung together. 1 [And all 
animals that are viviparous both internally and externally 
have the womb situated above the stomach, 2 and all the 
ovipara underneath, near to the loin. Animals that are 
viviparous externally and internally oviparous present an 25 
intermediate arrangement ; for the underneath portion of 
the womb, in which the eggs are, is placed near to the loin, 
but the part about the orifice is above the gut.] 3 

Further, there is the following diversity observable in 
wombs as compared with one another : namely that the 
females of horned non-ambidental animals are furnished 
with cotyledons 4 in the womb when they are pregnant, and 30 
such is the case, among ambidentals, with the hare, the mouse, 
and the bat ; whereas all other animals that are ambiclental, 
viviparous, and furnished with feet, have the womb quite 
smooth, and in their case the attachment of the embryo 
is to the womb itself and not to any cotyledon inside it. 

The parts, then, in animals that are not homogeneous 35 
with themselves and uniform in their texture, both parts 
external and parts internal, have the properties above 5 Ijb 
assigned to them. 

1 Plin. /. c. ' contexta ova'. Cf. G. A. iv. 3. 730* 26. 

2 This passage is apparently an inaccurate abstract of G.A. i. 12, 13, 
which passage is itself somewhat obscure. It is there stated that the 
ixrrfpa in animals that are internally and externally viviparous is fVi 
TTJS yavTpos (7i9 b 24, 72O a 21), though it is alluded to afterwards 
(72O a i) as VTTO TJ? yaarpi. In the ovipara oan cpc-roKet piv t areXes 6* pdi>, 
oioj; ocroi T&V l\6v<V a5oroKOtcnj>, OITOI 8' ov\ VTIO rfj ycurrpl aXXa Trpoy rfj 
<Ja<pvi cravat ray i<rr(pas. In those, lastly, that are internally oviparous 
and viviparous externally, (720* 19) TCI pev avu TTJS va-repas *ai / yiyvtrai 
TO. coa VTTO TO V7ro^o)/ua npos TJJ oatpvl car*. KOI Tols Trpavccri, trpoiovcrfs 8( 
Kara) (ir\ TTJ yntrrpi' TOVTIJ yap <BoroKei ij$?. 

3 [ ] Schn. 

4 H. A. viii. 8. 586 b 12 ; G. A. ii. 7. 745 b 29. 

AR. H.A. 


1 In sanguineous animals the homogeneous or uniform 2 
part most universally found is the blood, and its habitat the 
vein ; next in degree of universality, their analogues, lymph 
and fibre, and, that which chiefly constitutes the frame of 
5 animals, flesh and whatsoever in the several parts is 
analogous to flesh ; then bone, and parts that are analogous 
to bone, as fish-bone and gristle ; and then, again, skin, 
membrane, sinew, hair, nails, and whatever corresponds to 
these ; and, furthermore, fat, suet, and the excretions : and 

ro the excretions are dung, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. 
Now, as the nature of blood and the nature of the veins 
have all the appearance of being primitive, 2 we must discuss 
their properties first of all, and all the more as some previous 
writers have treated them very unsatisfactorily. And the 
cause of the ignorance thus manifested is the extreme 
difficulty experienced in the way of observation. For 
in the dead bodies of animals the nature of the chief 

15 veins is undiscoverable, owing to the fact that they collapse 
at once when the blood leaves them ; for the blood pours 
out of them in a stream, like liquid out of a vessel, since 
there is no blood separately situated by itself, except a little 
in the heart, 3 but it is all lodged in the veins. In living 
animals it is impossible to inspect these parts, for of their 

20 very nature they are situated inside the body and out of 
sight. For this reason anatomists who have carried on 
their investigations on dead bodies in the dissecting-room 
have failed to discover the chief roots of the veins, while 
those who have narrowly inspected bodies of living men 
reduced to extreme attenuation 4 have arrived at conclusions 

1 The rest of this Book is devoted to a consideration of the pepr) TO. 
ofioio/ifpj), the simple parts or ' tissues ', the constituents or components 
of the organs. The foregoing chapter is rather a continuation of the 
Second than a beginning of the Third Book. 

2 dpxn- Lit. a beginning, i. e. an efficient cause of development and 
other vital phenomena. Cf. G. A. ii. 4. 740* 17 &6 irpurov f) Kapbia 
(paivtrat 8io>pi(rp.ei/r) Trncrt rot? fVat/uo/S'* ap\f) yap avrrj KOI TO>I> 6/iOto/iepa>i> 
KOI TO>V avopoinptpuv. Cf. ibid. iii. II. 762^ 25. 

5 H. A. i. 17. 496 b 7. 

* The same method of investigation is alluded to by Galen, ii. 
500 K, in describing the intercostal muscles : oro> 81 mil TO (uov ivxvbv 
Ka\ naXatov, f<p' ov Tdvrd xpf) QfavaaBai, /ndAiora yap eVl rovratv tvapyws 
opa&Qai Trf<pvKd<nv at ru>v p.v<av Ivts. 


regarding the origin of the veins from the manifestations 
visible externally. Of these investigators, Syennesis, the 
physician of Cyprus, writes as follows : 

* The big veins run thus l : from the navel, across the 25 
loins, 2 along the back, past the lung, in under the breasts ; 
one from right to left, and the other from left to right ; 
that from the left, through the liver to the kidney and the 
testicle, that from the right, to the spleen and kidney and 
testicle, and from thence to the penis/ 

Diogenes of Apollonia 3 writes thus : 3 

' The veins in man are as follows : There are two veins 
pre-eminent in magnitude. These extend through the 
belly along the backbone, one to right, one to left ; either 
one to the leg on its own side, and upwards to the head, 
past the collar bones, through the throat. From these, 
veins extend all over the body, from that on the right hand 512 
to the right side and from that on the left hand to the left 
side; the most important ones, two in number, to the heart in 
the region of the backbone ; other two a little higher up 
through the chest in underneath the armpit, 4 each to the 
hand on its own side : of these two, one being termed the vein 5 
splenitis, and the other the vein hepatitis. Each of the pair 
splits at its extremity ; the one branches in the direction of 
the thumb and the other in the direction of the palm ; and 
from these run off a number of minute veins branching off 
to the fingers and to all parts of the hand. Other veins, 
more minute, extend from the main veins ; from that on the 10 
right towards the liver, from that on the left towards the 

1 Ps. Hippocn de nat. ossium^ ix. p. 174 (Littre) ; i. p. 507 (Kiihn). 

2 In spite of the divided testimony of the codices, against the judge- 
ment of Bekker and of Piccolos, and in opposition to the Hippocratic 
text of Kiihn and Littre, I cannot think but that /c roO o/u$aAoC napa 
TTJV 6o-<f>vv is the ancient and correct reading. It is supported by Plin. 
xi. 89 ' venarum in umbilico nodus ac coitus ', it is in harmony with 
the citation from Diogenes of Apollonia, and it is intelligible in the 
light of actual fact. Schneider, who adopted in his text the now 
commoner reading e< roO 6<f>da\fiov -nnpa rr]v 6(j)pvv, leans to the other 
in his Curae post. iv. p. 322. Guil. de Moerbeke is divided between 
the two readings, ' ab umbilico iuxta supercilium.' From the point of 
view of embryology it is not inappropriate to call the umbilicus the 
origin of the veins. 

1 Cf. Littre, i. p. 220, ix. p. 163. 
4 Subclavian or axillary. 



spleen and the kidneys. 1 The veins that run to the legs 2 
split at the juncture 3 of the legs with the trunk and extend 
right down the thigh. The largest of these 4 goes down 
the thigh at the back of it, and can be discerned and traced 
as a big one ; the second one 5 runs inside the thigh, not 

15 quite as big as the one just mentioned. After this they pass 
on along the knee to the shin and the foot (as the upper 
veins were described as passing towards the hands), 6 and 
arrive at the sole of the foot, and from thence continue 
to the toes. Moreover, many delicate veins separate off 
from the great veins towards the stomach and towards 
the ribs. 

20 ' The veins that run through the throat to the head 7 can 
be discerned and traced in the neck as large ones ; and 
from each one of the two, where it terminates, there branch 
off a number of veins to the head ; some from the right 
side towards the left, and some from the left side towards 
the right ; and the two veins terminate near to each of the 
two ears. There is another pair of veins 8 in the neck 

25 running along the big vein on either side, slightly less in 
size than the pair just spoken of, and with these the greater 
part of the veins in the head are connected. This other 
pair runs through the throat inside ; and from either one of 
the two there extend veins in underneath the shoulder 
blade 9 and towards the hands ; 10 and these appear along- 

30 side the veins splenitis and hepatitis as another pair of veins 
smaller in size. 11 When there is a pain near the surface of 
the body, the physician lances 12 these two latter veins ; 10 but 
when the pain is within and in the region of the stomach 

I It is unreasonable to assume that D. meant ' and from both to the 
kidneys '. 

8 iliacs. 

3 A. and W. suggest that npootyvo-tv is possibly a misreading for 
oaQvv. Alb. tr. ' a radicibus coxae sive a iuncturis coxarum.' 

4 The femoral. 5 The int. saphenous. 

6 Reading KaQcmfp KOI. 7 int. jugular. 

8 ext. jugular. e suprascapular. 10 v. cephalicae. 

II The passage is difficult ; I adopt Dittmeyer's punctuation. 

12 The technical words are aTroo-^d^tv (infra, 4. 5i4 b ), K.ara(Tx < - l C (lv i 
Phrynich., Lob., p. 219, anoaxav, Pollux, or o-xafeii', Xen. Hell. v. 4. 58. 
A. and W. cj. vTro&xi^pvviv of ^epaTTfiWres for VTTOO*^. of i 
For variants rf. Dittm 


BOOK III. 2 512 

he lances the veins splenitis and hepatitis. 1 And from these , 
other veins depart to run below the breasts. 

' There is also another pair running on each side through 5i2 b 
the spinal marrow to the testicles, thin and delicate. There 
is, further, a pair running a little underneath the cuticle 
through the flesh to the kidneys, and these with men ter- 
minate at the testicle, and with women at the womb. These 5 
veins are termed the spermatic veins. 2 The veins that leave 
the stomach are comparatively broad just as they leave; but 
they become gradually thinner, until they change over from 
right to left and from left to right. 

' Blood is thickest when it is imbibed 3 by the fleshy parts ; 
when it is transmitted to the organs above-mentioned, it 10 
becomes thin, warm, and frothy.' 

3 Such are the accounts given by Syennesis and Diogenes. 
Polybus 4 writes to the following effect : 

' There are four pairs of veins. The first extends from 
the back of the head, through the neck on the outside, past 
the backbone on either side, until it reaches the loins and 15 
passes on to the legs, after which it goes on through the 
shins to the outer side of the ankles and on to the feet. 
And it is on this account that surgeons, for pains in the 
back and loin, bleed in 5 the ham and in the outer side 
of the ankle. Another pair of veins runs from the head, 
past the ears, through the neck ; which veins are termed 20 
the jugular veins. This pair goes on inside along the 
backbone, past the muscles of the loins, on to the testicles, 

Venae basilicae. 

2 I have transposed this clause from the end of the following 

3 For e'/c7nWcu some MSS. have cyyivfrai. 

4 Polybus s. Polybius, pupil and son-in-law of Hippocrates (cf. Epist. 
Hippocr., Btiihn, iii, p. 842, Littre, ix. p. 418). The following quotation 
appears in the treatise de Nat. Horn. (vi. p. 58 L, i. p. 364 K), which 
treatise is accordingly ascribed to Polybus (cf. K. i. p. cxlvii), and in 
the composite treatise de Nat. Oss. (ix. p. 174 L, i. p, 506 K), cf. 
Littre, ix. p. 162. The essential point is the opinion that the blood- 
vessels originate in the head (cf. Littre, i, p. 217, but see also note, 
infra, p. 5 13 a 22). According to Galen (in lib. Hippocr. de nat. human, 
comment, xv. 11 K), P. taught the genuine doctrines of Hippocrates, 

tdfjievos rrjv TCOI> veow SiSaovcaAiaj/, os ovdfv o\as <j>aiveTai 
ImroKparovs Soy/iarcoj/. 

5 Dittm. cj. /uerai>, ' between.' 


and onwards to the thighs, and through the inside of the 
hams and through the-shins down to the inside of the ankles 
and to the feet ; and for this reason, surgeons, for pains in 

25 the muscles of the loins and in the testicles, bleed on the 
hams and the inner side 1 of the ankles. The third pair 
extends from the temples, through the neck, in underneath 
the shoulder-blades, into the lung ; those from right to left 
going in underneath the breast and on to the spleen and 
the kidney ; those from left to right running from the lung 

30 in underneath the breast and into the liver 2 and the kidney ; 
and both terminate in the fundament. The fourth pair 
extend from the front part of the head and the eyes in 
* underneath the neck and the collar-bones ; from thence 
they stretch on through the upper part of the upper arms 
to the elbows 3 and then through the fore-arms on to the 
wrists and the jointings of the fingers, and also through 
the lower part of the upper-arms to the armpits, and so on t 
5 keeping above the ribs, 4 until one of the pair reaches the 
spleen and the other reaches the liver ; and after this they 
both pass over the stomach and terminate at the penis.' 5 

The above quotations sum up pretty well the statements 
of all previous writers. 6 Furthermore, there are some 
writers on Natural History who have not ventured to lay 
o down the law in such precise terms as regards the veins, but 
who all alike agree in assigning the head and the brain 7 as 
the starting-point of the veins. And in this opinion they 
are mistaken. 

', Dittm., from Ps. Hippocr. 

2 fls TO r)nap, Pice., from Ps. Hippocr. 

3 Ps. Hippocr. (i. pp. 365, 509 K) has auynannas for Kaunas and 
daKTvXovs for crvyKapTrds in the line following. 

1 Reading eVt ro>i> irXtvpuv awdtv. 

5 Cf. Hippocr. G. A. i. p. 371 K <f>\(jB(s *a\ vevpa anb navros roC 
aunaTos retvownv ts TO aiSotoi/. 

6 Cf. Dionys. Aeg., AIKTIKIKO, in Phot. Bibl., p. 219 (Hoeschel), and 
Littre, i. p. 216 et seq. 

7 These words form an obvious difficulty in the way of accepting 
the reading (51 i b 25) Vc TOV op(pa\ov napn Trjv cxrtpvv in the version of 
Syennesis ; but it is also obvious that they are equally incompatible 
with the account given of the views of Diogenes of Apollonia. Neither 
do they apply to the Platonic theory, which was identical with Aris- 
totle's ; but they probably refer to a common tenet of the Hippocratic 
school. Cf. note, p. 5ti b 25. 

BOOK III. 3 513' 

The investigation of such a subject, as has been remarked, 
is one fraught with difficulties ; but, if any one be keenly 
interested in the matter, his best plan will be to allow his 
animals to starve to emaciation, then to strangle them on 
a sudden, and thereupon to prosecute his investigations. 

We now proceed to give particulars regarding the 15 
properties and functions of the veins. 1 There are two 
blood-vessels in the thorax by the backbone, and lying to 
its inner side ; and of these two the larger one is situated 
to the front, and the lesser one is to the rear of it ; and the 
larger is situated rather to the right-hand side of the body, 
and the lesser one to the left ; and by some this vein is 20 
termed the ' aorta ', from the fact that even in dead bodies 
part of it is observed to be full of air. 2 These blood-vessels 
have their origins in the heart, 3 for they traverse the other 
viscera, in whatever direction they happen to run, without 
in any way losing their distinctive characteristic as blood- 
vessels, whereas the heart is as it were a part of them (and 
that too more in respect to the frontward and larger one of 25 
the two), 4 owing to the fact that these two veins are above 
and below, with the heart lying midway. 

The heart in all animals has cavities inside it. 5 In the 
case of the smaller animals even the largest of the chambers 
is scarcely discernible ; the second larger is scarcely discer- 
nible in animals of medium size ; but in the largest animals 30 

1 It is plain that (p\ty is used indiscriminately of vein and artery, 
whence (not without hesitation) we translate it more often ' blood- 
vessel'. Only in the spurious treatise de Spiritu are the arteries 
distinguished as dp-njpun. They were clearly distinguished, however, 
by the Hippocratics. 

2 The received text is meaningless. For TfQvfaxri [TO] vfvp&des, I 
have substituted TcOvevo-iv dfpcofiey. 

3 P. A. iii. 4. 66s b 16, 666 b 25, 5. 66; b 15, de Resp. 14 (8). 474 b 7, &c. 
This view was held by Plato, Tim. 45 Trjv Kapftiav TWV <p\/3a>j> *at 
nrjyfjv rov Trfpifapopevov . . . cup.aro? ; and by the Hippocratics, cf. 
Hippocr. (?) de Morbo, vii. p. 544 L ro> pei> drj alp-an t) Kapbirj Trrjyr} to-riv : 
cf. de Morb. Sacr. vi. p. 392 L f arrai/ro? yap rov <rayiaros (pXefta els 
a\>TT]v (ruvTcivovat, &c., though Littre' (Hippocr. i. p. 1 20) says : ' Tous Jes 
livres [Hippocratiques], ou Torigine des vaisseaux sanguins est placee 
dans le coeur, appartiennent a une e'poque posterieure a 1'enseignement 

4 i.e. the vena cai>a. 

5 Cf. H. A. i. 17. 496* 4 ; P. A. iii. 4. 666 b 21 ; Galen, de Usu. Part. 
iii. 480 K, &c. 


all three chambers are distinctly seen. 1 In the heart then 
(with its pointed end directed frontwards, as has been 
observed) the largest of the three chambers 2 is on the 
right-hand side and highest up ; the least one is on the left- 
hand side ; and the medium-sized one lies in betwixt the 
other two ; and the largest one of the three chambers is 
35 a great deal larger than either of the two . others. 3 All 

1 Aristoph. Epit. H. An. (ed. Lambros, Berlin, 1885) i. ill 
avdporrrov r) Kapbla rpcls KOtXias ?X l T&V a\Aj> a>a>i> dvo. 

2 The right auricle and ventricle. 

3 The Aristotelian account of the vascular system is remarkable for 
its wealth of detail, for its great accuracy in many particulars, and for 
its extreme obscurity in others. It is so far true to nature that it is 
clear evidence of minute inquiry, but here and there so remote from 
fact as to suggest that things once seen had been half-forgotten, or 
that superstition was in conflict with the results of observation. The 
account of the vessels connecting the left arm with the liver and the 
right with the spleen, an account embodied also in the obsolete and 
refuted versions of Polybus, Diogenes, and (though obscurely) even of 
Syennesis, is a surviving example of mystical or superstitious belief. 
It is possible that the ascription of three chambers to the heart was 
also influenced by tradition or mysticism, much in the same way as 
Plato's notion of the three corporeal faculties. The whole subject is 
discussed and variously interpreted by Galen, Haller, Hoffmann, 
Philippson (v\rj dv6pa>nivr), p. 7), Schneider, Littre, Aubert and 
Wimmer, Huxley, Pouchet, Ogle, and others. 

A chief cause of difficulty in interpreting the whole account is the 
lack of precise reference to the pulmonary artery. We should have 
expected the two great sinewy tubes of equal size, running side by side 
and leading one from one and one from the other side of the heart, to 
have been indicated clearly above all other landmarks : but of the two 
great vessels connected with the heart, one is the ' aorta ' and the other, 
the <p\ty p.eyd\r), pcyivrrj, icoiX?;, KoiXorem;, is undoubtedly the vena cava ; 
the pulmonary artery must be included under, or indicated in con- 
nexion with, one or other of these two. 

We may on the one hand argue (as Huxley and others have done) 
that the pulmonary artery, connected as it is with the right side of the 
heart, was associated by A. with the veins that are likewise connected 
with that side; and so ($i3 b i) that his 'great blood-vessel' corre- 
sponds to the superior and inferior venae cavae together with the 
right auricle, that the * largest chamber ' was the right ventricle, that 
it was in this ventricle that the blood ' broadens its channel as a river 
widening in a lake ', and that the pulmonary artery was that ' by 
which the great blood-vessel comes out as blood-vessel again '. If we 
further accept the statement of 5i3 b 6, 7, that * the great blood-vessel, 
passing through the heart, runs from the heart into the aorta', then 
(especially if we assume that it was the foetal heart which A. dis- 
sected) we may discern a reference to the ductus arteriosus, by which 
the pulmonary artery is connected with the aorta. 

This rendering brings A.'s description into close agreement with 
the facts, but it is nevertheless difficult to accept, and for the following 
reasons : (i) it is hard to suppose that A. knew or believed the venae 
cavae and pulmonary artery to be in so close a connexion, or was 

BOOK III. 3 513 

three, however, are connected with passages leading in the- 

aware that the venous circulation of the body was continued directly 
through the heart into the pulmonary circulation ; (2) to include the 
pulmonary artery in A.'s enumeration of the veins is to lose the force 
of his well-marked distinction between the sinewy texture of artery 
and the membranous texture of vein ; (3) the aorta is not * much 
narrower ' than the pulmonary artery, but as near as may be of the 
same size ; (4) we are afterwards told that the aorta and its branches 
follow the whole course already ascribed to the veins, including 
therefore a distribution to the lungs ; (5) it seems to me unlikely 
that the ductus arteriosus was ever dissected and recognized by 

It seems to me much more likely that the pulmonary artery and 
aorta, both alike empty of blood in the dead subject and so similar in 
texture and appearance to one another and so plainly different from 
the veins, were together spoken of as * the aorta ', in other words as 
the arterial system : though this hypothesis would force us to admit 
that A. did not detect the simple fact of these two vessels communi- 
cating with opposite sides of the heart. This interpretation is supported 
by Galen (ii. 780 K), ourw 8e /ecu rS>v dpTrjpiatv CK rrjs KapSias ire(pvKviS)v 
at fjiev (Is TOV irvf vfiova K.aTa<r\i6}t.eva.i. plfais TUT\V foittaatv' TJV &e 'Aptorore- 
\r)s fiei> doprfjv, of 8f aXXot dprrjpiav p.fyd\rjv ovofjid^ovcriv. 

According to this view, the great vein which passes through the 
heart and is continued again is simply the vena cava, whose inferior 
and superior portions meet ' as in a reservoir ' in the right auricle, and 
are thereby attached to the right ventricle, the largest of the cavities. 
The part of the great vein above the heart includes the pulmonary 
veins (their distinctness from the superior vena cava, and their 
communication with another auricle, being overlooked) ; and these 
veins stretch away to the lung and to the point of its attachment to 
the artery, while the other portion, that is to say the superior vena 
cava itself, goes on towards the backbone and splits into the two 
innominate veins from which come the jugular and subclavian 
branches. With all this system of veins an arterial system, the 
pulmonary artery and the branches of the aorta, runs parallel. The 
big vein that Antilochus cleft, smiting Thoon in the rear, was the whole 
venous trunk of the superior and inferior venae cavae. The courses 
of the aorta and inferior vena cava in the region below the heart are 
related with general accuracy. 

In short, however we regard the account left us, there is one point 
of weakness, not to be reconciled with anatomical fact, the description 
of the heart itself and of its precise relation to the orifices of the great 
vessels : we may, as we please, ascribe the defect to imperfect dis- 
section, to a corrupt or mutilated text, or possibly to the persistence 
of archaic and traditional views in regard to this central organ. 
(' Verum aut subtilis aliquis ordinis amor magno viro imposuit, aut 
loca ab Apellicone interpolata sunt, quae C. Hoffmanni est excusatio ' : 

The Hippocratics appear to have recognized, correctly, two cavities 
(cf. Hippocr. de Corde, i. 486 K ; Galen, ii. 621, iii. 442 K ; Aristoph. 
Epit. ii. 21), and it was not till afterwards that the auricles were 
distinguished as appendages of these (cf. Galen, ii. 624 K). 

Galen suggests that A.'s third or middle cavity was a portion of the 
right-hand chamber, evda rqv Tpirrjv evofjufcv fivai K.oi\iai> 6 ' A.pi(TTOTf\T]S' 
8f ftrriif T) Kara TO rrXarv TTJS Kapdias popiov ovcra rr)s dcids, OVK 



direction of the lung, but all these communications are 
indistinctly discernible by reason of their minuteness, except 
one. 1 

5i3 b The great blood-vessel, then, is attached to the biggest 
of the three chambers, the one that lies uppermost 2 and on 
the right-hand side ; it then extends right through the 
chamber, coming out as blood-vessel again ; just as though 
the cavity of the heart were a part of the vessel, in which 
the blood broadens its channel as a river that widens out 
5 in a lake. 3 The aorta is attached to the middle chamber ; 4 
only, by the way, it is connected with it by a much narrower 

TIS (de Diss. Art. ii. 817 K). I am inclined to accept this 
hypothesis as a partial solution of the riddle, and to suppose that this 
was the middle chamber in which fj SiaKpuns took place, that part of 
the ' aorta ' or arterial system now known as the pulmonary artery 
opening into it. 

Plain to be seen as the aorta is elsewhere, it is concealed in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the heart by the pulmonary artery, which 
is there the most conspicuous of all vessels ; and it is undoubtedly the 
pulmonary artery that is referred to in Aristoph. Epit. ii. 21 fapovo-t 
fie KCU ety TOV Trvtvpova rropoi Xerrrol 0776 rfjs Kupfii'ay, K.OI <r\iovT<u Kara 
Trdvra. TOV irvcvuova, olrwts rfj Kapfita, wy Trpoetrroi/, fiiafiifioacrt TO 7n>eD/ia. 

The account of the heart in the de Somn. et Vig. 3. 458 a 15 is of 
interest : numbs fie TOV ai/iaroy ap\f], eoo-Trep eiprjTcu KOI cvTavQa KOI V 
nXXoir, 17 Kapfii'a. Ta>j/ fi' ev Tfj Kapoia eKOTCpas TTJS BaXdfJLTjs Koivrj rj fjiffftj' 
(Kfivwv 8' CKdTepa Se'^trnt e^ cKcrrepaf TTJS 0Xf/3oV, TTJS Tt fj.fyd\r)s Ka\ovp.evrjf 
KOI Ttjs dopr^t* fv 8e TTJ yivTai fj StciKptatr. For Koivf), Y (Vaticanus, 
261) has Ktvf). It is plain that the three chambers are not named or 
arranged here as in the other books, and also that one of the three, in 
this case the middle one, is recognized as being of very secondary 
anatomical importance. 

If we take, in conclusion, the account of the veins in the Hippocratic 
treatise de Carne, 5 (viii. p. 590 L), an account closely comparable with 
Aristotle's, we again find no possible opportunity to suppose that the 
pulmonary artery was ever associated with the venous system : dvb 
yap clo~i KotXeu [? Acotj/ai] <pX/3f s OTTO TTJS Kapbir/s' TTJ piy ovvop.a aprijpir;, 777 
fie Koi'Xr; (p\(\^ ... 17 fie KOiXorarq (pXeX// 1 , irpos fj f) Kapoir), fiia TTJS KOiXirjs 
cnrdo~r]s fitr;cei ai fita T)V <ppi>>, KOI a^iferai <V fKaTfpov T&V vffpp&v . . . 
eVi fie Xdya) dno Ttjs KOI\TJS 0Xe/36f Kat aTro T^f apr/jpi'fjy at aXXai 0X^f? 
ftr^lfffKVCu fl(T\ Kara nav TO crco/za. 

We may also add that were the pulmonary artery not as naturally 
associated with the aorta as the arteries are easy to distinguish from 
the veins, the view could never have arisen that the veins sprang from 
the liver and the arteries from the heart (cf. Hippocr. de Aliment. 31, ii. 
p. 22 K, ix. p. IIO L, pifao-is <pXe/3co> rjtrap, pt'axm aprqpiW KapKij). 

1 The pulmonary artery. 

2 Uppermost, i. e. when the body is lying supine under dissection. 

3 Dante, 'nel lago del cor.' 

4 i.e. the left ventricle. 

BOOK III. 3 513 

The great blood-vessel then passes through the heart 
[and runs from the heart into the aorta]. 1 The great 
vessel looks as though made of membrane or skin, while 
the aorta is narrower than it, and is very sinewy ; and as it 
stretches away to the head and to the lower parts it becomes 10 
exceedingly narrow and sinewy. 

First of all, then, upwards from the heart there stretches 
a part of the great blood-vessel towards the lung and the 
attachment of the aorta, a part consisting of a large 
undivided vessel. But there split off from it two parts ; 
one towards the lung and the other towards the backbone 15 
and the last vertebra of the neck. 2 

The vessel, then, that extends to the lung, as the lung 
itself is duplicate, divides at first into two ; and then extends 
along by every pipe and every perforation, greater along 
the greater ones, lesser along the less, so continuously that ao 
it is impossible to discern a single part wherein there is 
not perforation and vein ; for the extremities are indis- 
tinguishable from their minuteness, and in point of fact the 
whole lung appears to be filled with blood. The branches 
of the blood-vessels lie above the tubes that extend from 
the windpipe. And that vessel 3 which extends to the 
vertebra of the neck and the backbone, stretches back again 25 
along the backbone ; as Homer represents in the lines 4 : 

(Antilochus, as Thoon turned him round), 
Transpierc'd his back with a dishonest wound ; 
The hollow vein that to the neck extends, 
Along the chine, the eager javelin rends. 

1 See note, p. 513*35. This passage has been a stumbling-block to 
all interpreters, and brings confusion into the whole Aristotelian account 
of the vascular system. The statement is contrary to fact, and even 
the construction invites suspicion. I have no doubt but that the 
reading is corrupt. Sylb., Scnn., A. and W., and Pice. conj. fj 5' doprq, 
i.e. 'and the aorta runs from the heart.' Dittm. inserts <7rdpos), 
i.e. 'and a passage leads from the heart into the aorta.' Neither of 
these emendations is satisfactory. We have no clue to the restoration 
of the passage, but, indulging in surmise, I would suggest q ' aoprfj tls 
rfjv apifTTfpfjv drro rrjs Kapdiae Tiivft. 

8 I translate literally, without attempting to force the text into 
precise agreement with the facts. I take it that A. knew the lung to 
be supplied with blood somehow, but did not understand the real 
distribution of the veins. 

3 The vena cava. 4 //. xiii. 546. 



From this vessel there extend small blood-vessels past each 
30 rib and each vertebra ; and at the vertebra above the 
kidneys the vessel bifurcates. And in the above way the 
parts branch off from the great blood-vessel. 

But up above all these, from that part which is connected 
with the heart, the entire vein branches off in two directions. 
35 For its branches l extend to the sides and to the collar- 
bones, and then pass on, in men through the armpits to the 




A. Superficial veins of the arm. i. Vena 
cephalica,) sometimes prolonged (la) to enter 
the external jugular. 2. Vena basilica s. 
hepatitis, passing upwards to join the venae 
co mite s brachiales. 3. Vena media super- 

B. The Superior Vena Cava and its 
branches, i. Sup. vena cava. 2. Innomi- 
nate veins. 3. Int. jugular. 4. Ext. jugular. 
5. Subclavian. 

514* arms, in quadrupeds to the forelegs, in birds to the wings, 
and in fishes to the upper or pectoral fins. The trunks 
of these veins, where they first branch off, are called the 
1 jugular' veins 2 ; and, where they branch off to the neck 
5 [from the great vein] 3 they run alongside the windpipe ; 
and, occasionally, if these veins are pressed externally, men, 

The innominate and subclavian veins. 

2 The internal jugular veins of modern anatomy ; literally, perhaps, 
the 'cut-throat' veins. Cf. Celsus, 4. I ' dextra sinistraque circum 
guttur venae grandes quae a-<f>ayiTid;s nominantur, itemque arteriae 
quas KapuTidas vocant sursum precedentes ultra aures feruntur '. 

3 Om. Gaza. 


though not actually choked, become insensible, shut their 
eyes, and fall flat on the ground. Extending in the way 
described and keeping the windpipe in betwixt them, they 
pass on until they reach the ears at the junction of the 
lower jaw with the skull. Hence again they branch off 10 
into four veins, 1 of which one 2 bends back and descends 
through the neck and the shoulder, 3 and meets the previous 
branching off of the vein 4 at the bend of the arm, while 
the rest of it terminates at the hand and fingers. 

Each vein of the other 5 pair stretches from the region of 15 
the ear to the brain, 6 and branches off in a number of fine 
and delicate veins into the so-called meninx, or membrane, 
which surrounds the brain. The brain itself in all animals 
is destitute of blood, and no vein, great or small, holds its 
course therein. But of the remaining veins that branch off 20 
from the last-mentioned vein some envelop the head, others 
close their courses in the organs of sense and at the roots 
of the teeth in veins exceedingly fine and minute. 

4 And in like manner the parts of the lesser one of the two 
chief blood-vessels, designated the aorta, branch off, accom- 
panying the branches from the big vein ; only that, in 25 
regard to the aorta, the passages are less in size, and the 
branches very considerably less than are those of the great 
vein. So much for the veins as observed in the regions 
above the heart. 

The part of the great vein that lies underneath the heart 7 
extends, freely suspended, right through the midriff, and is 30 
united both to the aorta and the backbone by slack mem- 
branous communications. From it one vein, short and 

1 i.e. two on each side. The one branch doubtless includes the 
facial veins, and also the external jugular, whose independent entry 
into the subclavian is not described, A. supposing it to pass directly 
into the cephalic vein. 

2 i. e. one on either tide (the external jugular). 

3 i.e. as the cephalic vein. While this vein more commonly enters 
the axillary, it is not infrequently prolonged over the clavicle to join 
the external jugular. 

4 i. e. communicates with the brachial or subclavian by means of its 
anastomosis with the vena basilica. 

c internal jugular. c As the lateral sinus, c. 

7 vena cava inferior. 


wide, extends through the liver, 1 and from it a number of 
minute veins branch off into the liver and disappear. From 
35 the vein that passes through the liver two branches separate 
off, of which one 2 terminates in the diaphragm or so-called 
5i4 b midriff, and the other runs up again through the armpit 
into the right arm 3 and unites with the other veins at the 
inside of the bend of the arm ; and it is in consequence of 
this local connexion that, when the surgeon opens this vein 
in the forearm, the patient is relieved of certain pains in 
the liver ; and from the left-hand side of it there extends a 
short but thick vein to the spleen and the little veins 

5 branching off it disappear in that organ. Another part 
branches off from the left-hand side of the great vein, and 
ascends, by a course similar to the course recently described, 
into the left arm ; 4 only that the ascending vein in the one 
case is the vein that traverses 5 the liver, while in this case 
it is distinct from the vein that runs into the spleen. 

10 Again, other veins branch off from the big vein ; one to 
the omentum, and another to the pancreas, from which vein 
run a number of veins through the mesentery. All these 
veins coalesce in a single large vein, along the entire gut 
and stomach to the oesophagus ; about these parts there 

15 is a great ramification of branch veins. 6 

As far as the kidneys, each of the two remaining 
undivided, the aorta and the big vein extend ; and here 
they get more closely attached to the backbone, and branch 
off, each of the two, into a A shape, and the big vein gets 

20. to the rear of the aorta. But the chief attachment of the 
aorta to the backbone takes place in the region of the heart ; 
and the attachment is effected by means of minute and 
sinewy vessels. The aorta, just as it draws off from the 
heart, is a tube of considerable volume, but, as it advances 

1 hepatic and portal veins. 2 inferior phrenic. 

3 No such vein exists, but the account is probably based on imperfect 
knowledge of the vena azygos, which A. would seem to have supposed 
to communicate with the vena basilica. 

* Perhaps based, in like manner, on the left upper azygos. 

5 Reading f} did. 

6 The general distribution of the mesenteric veins is fairly correct, 
but Aristotle is unacquainted with their relation to the liver through 
the portal vein. Cf., however, H. A. vii. 9. 586 b 18. 


in its course, it gets narrower and more sinewy. And from 
the aorta there extend veins to the mesentery l just like the 
veins that extend thither from the big vein, only that 25 
the branches in the case of the aorta are considerably less 
in magnitude; they are, indeed, narrow and fibrillar, and 
they end in delicate hollow 2 fibre-like veinlets. 

There is no vessel that runs from the aorta into the liver 
or the spleen. 

From each of the two great blood-vessels there extend 
branches to each of the two flanks, 3 and both branches 
fasten on to the bone. Vessels 4 also extend to the kidneys 30 
from the big vein and the aorta ; only that they do not 
open into the cavity of the organ, but their ramifications 
penetrate into its substance. From the aorta 5 run two 
other ducts to the bladder, firm and continuous ; and there 
are other ducts from the hollow of the kidneys, in no way 35 
communicating with the big vein. From the centre of each 
of the two kidneys springs a hollow sinewy vein, running 
along the backbone right through the loins ; G by and by 515* 
each of the two veins first disappears in its own flank, and 
soon afterwards reappears stretching in the direction of 
the flank. The extremities of these attach to the bladder, 7 
and also in the male to the penis and in the female to 
the womb. From the big vein no vein extends to the womb, 5 
but the organ is connected with the aorta by veins numerous 
and closely packed. 

1 Coeliac and mesenteric arteries. 

2 Reading KoiXois : Dittm., following Med., Canis., Guil. (variis], 
notKiXots. I conjecture KVK\IKO~IS, with which epithet the facts tally. 

3 The common iliac veins and arteries. 

4 <f)fpov<ri . . . tV^t'of, reproduced almost verbatim from H.A. i. 17. 

497 a 4- 

8 The ducts that are said to run from the aorta to the bladder (as 

also in i. 17) art not easily to be identified. They are, perhaps, the 
spermatic arteries, but A. and W. take them to be the ligamenta 
uesicae lateralia. 

6 $\ep>v, of the MSS., is unintelligible. Pice, reads (with A a ) 
vevp&v, Di. vetppuv: a more probable reading is o-Ttvuv (as in H.A. 
i. 17), and so Dittm., or possibly oo-^iW. These ducts are undoubt- 
edly the ureters, which are well described in P. A. iii. 9. 67i b 16. 
Cf. Celsius, 4. i ' a renibus singulae venae colore albae ad vesicam 
feruntur : ovprjr^pa Graeci vocant '. A. and W. bracket the whole 



passage KO.\ aXXot . . . npbs TO tV^i'oi/, as being apparently a marginal 
gloss to the foregoing sentence, transposed from H.A. i. 17. 
7 Dittm. would omit rr^v KVVTIV /cat. 


Furthermore, from the aorta and the great vein at the 
points of divarication there branch off other veins. Some 
of these run to the groins large hollow veins l and then 

10 pass on down through the legs and terminate in the feet 
and toes. And, again, another set run through the groins 
and the thighs cross-garter fashion, from right to left and 
from left to right, and unite in the hams with the other 
veins. 2 

In the above description we have thrown light upon the 
course of the veins and their points of departure. 

15 Jn all sanguineous animals the case stands as here set 
forth in regard to the points of departure and the courses 
of the chief veins. But the description does not hold equally 
good for the entire vein-system in all these animals. For, 
in point of fact, the organs are not identically situated in 
them all ; and, what is more, some animals are furnished 
with organs of which other animals are destitute. At the 
same time, while the description so far holds good, the 

20 proof of its accuracy is not equally easy in all cases, but 
is easiest in the case of animals of considerable magnitude 
and supplied abundantly with blood. For in little animals 
and those scantily supplied with blood, either from natural 
and inherent causes or from a prevalence of fat in the 
body, thorough accuracy in investigation is not equally 
attainable ; for in the latter of these creatures the passages 
get clogged, like water-channels choked with slush ; 3 and 
the others have a few minute fibres 4 to serve instead of 

25 veins. But in all cases the big vein is plainly discernible, 
even in creatures of insignificant size. 

The sinews of animals have the following properties. 5 
For these also the point of origin is the heart 5 ; for the 
heart has sinews within itself in the largest of its three 
30 chambers, and the aorta is a sinew-like vein ; in fact, at its 

1 The common iliacs, and their branches. 

2 Probably the anastomoses of the saphenous veins. 

3 Plat. Tim. 77 G ; P. A. iii. 5. 668 a 14. 29; Galen, de Nat. Fac. 
ii. 210 K. 

4 oXi'-yay KCU ravTas tvas. Qy. rpijray, * perforated.' 
6 Cf.P.A. iii. 4. 666 b 17. 


BOOK III. 5 515 

extremity it is actually a sinew, for it is there no longer 30 
hollow, and is stretched like the sinews where they termi- 
nate at the jointings of the bones. Be it remembered, 
however, that the sinews do not proceed in unbroken 
sequence from one point of origin, as do the blood-vessels. 

For the veins have the shape of the entire body, like 
a sketch of a mannikin ; 1 in such a way that the whole 
frame seems to be filled up with little veins' 2 in attenuated 5i5 b 
subjects for the space occupied by flesh in fat individuals 
is filled with little veins in thin ones whereas the sinews 
are distributed about the joints and the flexures of the 
bones. Now, if the sinews were derived in unbroken 5 
sequence from a common point of departure, this continuity 
would be discernible in attenuated specimens. 

In the ham, or the part of the frame brought into full 
play in the effort of leaping, is an important system of 
sinews ; and another sinew, a double one, is that called 
* the tendon ', 3 and others are those brought into play when 
a great effort of physical strength is required ; that is to 
say, the epitonos or back-stay and the shoulder-sinews. 4 10 
Other sinews, devoid of specific designation, are situated 
in the region of the flexures of the bones ; for all the bones 
that are attached to one another are bound together by 
sinews, and a great quantity of sinews are placed in the 
neighbourhood of all the bones. Only, by the way, in the 

1 See Schneider's interesting note, vol. iii. p. 28. Hesych. *uVa/3or 

TCI uXu, TTfpl O. TO TrpeOTOI/ of 7rXd(TTai TOV KTJpOV TldfaatV, Bdev Kflt Ol \f7ITol 

/cat aVapKot Kai'aftot \eyovrai. Phot. TO 7rpa>roi/ v\ov VTTO TU>V TrXaoraJf, 
TTfpl o TOV 7rr)\bv TidevTcs n\dao-ovo~iv. Cf. also P. A. ii. 9. 654 b 29 
toO'Trep yap of TrXdrroi/re? e< TT^Xou a)ov fj TWOS a\\r]$ vypas crvo'Tao'ccas 
v(ptoTa<Ji TCOJ/ OTepea>i> TI o'co/iaTcoj/, et$' OVTCO TreptTrXdrrouo't, TOV avTov rpoVoi/ 
f) (Averts 8edrjfjLiovpyrjK(v CK TU>V o~apK.)v TO &>oi>. Thus the technical 
meaning of Kavafios is the rough framework of a statue, but it would 
appear to come to mean the rough outline of the human figure, such 
as children draw upon a wall. Cf. G. A. ii. 6. 743* 2 Kaddnep of TOVS 
Kavdftovs ypd(povTS fv Tols TOI%OIS. 

2 Plin. xi. 89. 

3 Probably the great ligament of the neck, the 'ligamentum nuchae'. 
Hesych. TCV&V' TO e'v TO) rpa^^Xo) i/efpoi/ (cf. Od. iii. 450 ; //. x. 456, &c.). 
Or perhaps the ' tendo Achillis', cf. Ruf. Ephes. p. 43 at rra^etai oc TOV 


4 CTTITOVOS' cf. eirirovoi, Plat. Tim. 84 E. w/xtata, cf. Galen, xviii A., 
386 K. The anatomical meaning of the former is unknown ; the latter 
is probably the deltoid muscle, the SfXroetS^s of Galen (1. c.). 

AR. H.A. H 


head there is no sinew ; but the head is held together by 
the sutures of the bones. 

15 Sinew is fissile lengthwise, but crosswise it is not easily 
broken, but admits of a considerable amount of hard tension. 
In connexion with sinews a liquid mucus is developed, 
white and glutinous, and the organ, in fact, is sustained by 
it and appears to be substantially composed of it. Now, 
vein may be submitted to the actual cautery, but sinew, 
when submitted to such action, shrivels up altogether ; and, 
if sinews be cut asunder, the severed parts will not again 

20 cohere. 1 A feeling of numbness is incidental only to parts 
of the frame where sinew is situated. 2 

There is a very extensive system of sinews connected 
severally with the feet, the hands, the ribs, the shoulder- 
blades, the neck, and the arms. 

All animals supplied with blood are furnished with 
sinews ; but in the case of animals that have no flexures to 
their limbs, but are, in fact, destitute of either feet or hands, 

3 5 the sinews are fine and inconspicuous ; and so, as might 
have been anticipated, the sinews in the fish are chiefly 
discernible in connexion with the fin. 

The ines 3 (or fibrous connective tissue) are a something 6 
intermediate between sinew and vein. Some of them are 
supplied with fluid, the lymph ; and they pass from sinew 
30 to vein and from vein to sinew. 4 There is another kind of 
ines or fibre that is found in blood, but not in the blood 
of all animals alike. If this fibre be left in the blood, the 
blood will coagulate; if it be removed or extracted, the 
blood is found to be incapable of coagulation. While, 
however, this fibrous matter is found in the blood of the 
great majority of animals, it is not found in all. For 

1 Plin. xi. 88. 

8 vcvpa in Ar. are sinews and ligaments, but with these he included 
and confused such nerves as he was acquainted with : cf. Plin. xi. 88 
' neque ii [nervi] solidantur incisi : mirumque, vulneratis summus 
dolor, praesectis nullus*. 

3 Cf. P. A. ii. 4. 

4 The meaning is uncertain. Seal. tr. 'differunt autem a nervis, 
quantum ad venarum naturam vergunt, et a venis distant quantum ad 
nervorum inclinant rationem '. 

BOOK III. 6 5'5 b 

instance, we fail to find it in the blood of the deer, 1 the roe, 
the antelope, 2 and some other animals ; and, owing to this 
deficiency of the fibrous tissue, the blood of these animals 
does not coagulate to the extent observed in the blood of 
other animals. 3 The blood of the deer coagulates to about 5i6 a 
the same extent as that of the hare : that is to say, the 
blood in either case coagulates, but not into a stiff or jelly- 
like substance, like the blood of ordinary animals, but only 
into a flaccid consistency like that of milk which is not 
subjected to the action of rennet. The blood of the 
antelope admits of a firmer consistency in coagulation ; for 
in this respect it resembles, or only comes a little short of, 5 
the blood of sheep. Such are the properties of vein, sinew, 
and fibrous tissue. 

7 The bones in animals are all connected with one single 
bone, 4 and are interconnected, like the veins, in one un- 
broken sequence ; and there is no instance of a bone 
standing apart by itself. 

In all animals furnished with bones, the spine or back- 10 
bone is the point of origin for the entire osseous system. 
The spine is composed of vertebrae, and it extends from 
the head down to the loins. The vertebrae are all per- 
forated, and, above, the bony portion of the head is 
connected with the topmost vertebrae, and is designated 
the ' skull '. And the serrated lines on the skull are 
termed ' sutures '. 

The skull is not formed alike in all animals. In some 15 
animals the skull consists of one single undivided bone, 
as in the case of the dog ; 5 in others it is composite in 
structure, as in man ; and in the human species the suture 
is circular in the female, while in the male it is made up 

1 H. A. iii. 19. 520 b 24 ; P. A. ii. 4. 650^ 15 ; Meteor, iv. 7. 384* 26. 

2 povfiaXos, cf. P. A. iii. 2. 663* ii ; Plin. viii. 15 ; Opp. Cyn. iii. 
300 ; Strabo, xvii. 3. 4, &c. ; identified by Cuvier with Antilope (Alco- 
cephalus] bubalis, of N. Africa. 

3 Cf. Plin. xi. 90. It is said that the blood of animals which have 
been coursed coagulates imperfectly : cf. John Hunter's Works, 
i. p. 239 ; also Hewson's do., edit. Gulliver, p. 25. 

1 P. A. ii. 9. 654 b 12. 
6 Ael. iv. 40. 

H 2 


of three separate sutures, uniting above in three-corner 
fashion j 1 and instances have been known of a man's skull 

20 being devoid of suture altogether. The skull is composed 
not of four bones, but of six ; two of these are in the 
region of the ears, small in comparison with the other 
four. From the skull extend the jaws, constituted of bone. 
[Animals in general move the lower jaw ; the river- 
crocodile 2 is the only animal that moves the upper one.] 3 

35 In the jaws is the tooth-system ; and the teeth are con- 
stituted of bone, and are half-way perforated ; and the 
bone in question is the only kind of bone which it is found 
impossible to grave with a graving tool. 

On the upper part of the course of the backbone 4 are 
the collar-bones and the ribs. The chest rests on ribs ; and 
these ribs 5 meet together, whereas the others do not ; for 

30 no animal has bone in the region of the stomach. 6 Then 
come the shoulder-bones, or blade-bones, and the arm- 
bones connected with these, and the bones in the hands 
connected with the bones of the arms. With animals that 
have forelegs, the osseous system of the foreleg resembles 
that of the arm in man. 

35 Below the level of the backbone, after the haunch-bone, 

comes the hip-socket ; then the leg-bones, those in the 

thighs and those in the shins, which are termed colenes or 

5i6 b limb-bones, a part of which is the ankle, while a part of the 

same is the so-called ' plectrum ' in those creatures that 

1 Herod, ix. 83 ; H. A. i. 7. 49i b 2 ; P. A. ii. 7. 653 b I ; Ruf. Ephes. 
p. 34. The alleged difference between the male and female skull is 
one of the puzzles of Aristotelian anatomy; I am inclined to think 
(with Harduin, ad Plin. xi. 48) that A. imagined the sutures to cor- 
respond with the partings of the hair, but see Ogle's note (Parts of 
Anim. p. 168). 

2 H.A.\. ii. 492 b 23 ; P. A. ii. 17. 66o b 26, iv. n. 69i b 25. 
1 [ ] A. and W. 

4 For the unintelligible reading dnb tic r/)r pdxfus rj re ircpovr) 
(s. TTcpavis) eVri, I have ventured to substitute avot de rrjs pdx*s ,7 
, on the lines of *ara> 8* rj ntpaivei in the following sentence, 
never means a bone in A., and the fibula, which it elsewhere 
means, has no relation to the context, irepaiw, by the way, does not 
necessarily mean to end, but also to extend, to run its course. 
i. e. the upper ones. 6 P. A. ii. 9. 655* I. 

BOOK III. 7 5i6 b 

have an ankle ; l and connected with these bones are the 
bones in the feet. 

Now, with all animals that are supplied with blood and 
furnished with feet, and are at the same time viviparous, 
the bones do not differ greatly one from another, but only 
in the way of relative hardness, softness, or magnitude. 5 
A further difference, by the way, is that in one and the 
same animal certain bones are supplied with marrow, while 
others are destitute of it. Some animals might on casual 
observation appear to have no marrow whatsoever in their 
bones : as is the case with the lion, 2 owing to his having 
marrow only in small amount, poor and thin, and in very 
few bones ; for marrow is found in his thigh and arm-bones. 
The bones of the lion are exceptionally hard ; so hard, in 10 
fact, that if they are rubbed hard against one another they 
emit sparks like flint-stones. The dolphin has bones, and 
not fish-spine. 

Of the other animals supplied with blood, some differ 
but little, 3 as is the case with birds ; others have systems 
analogous, 4 as fishes ; for viviparous fishes, such as the 15 
cartilaginous species, are gristle-spined, 5 while the ovipara 
have a spine which corresponds to the backbone in quadru- 
peds. This exceptional property has been observed in 
fishes, that in some of them there are found delicate spines 
scattered here and there throughout the fleshy parts. The 
serpent is similarly constructed to the fish ; in other words, 
his backbone is spinous. 6 With oviparous quadrupeds, the 20 
skeleton of the larger ones is more or less osseous ; of the 

1 The passage is obscure. TrX^/crpa here can scarcely be the spurs 
of birds, inasmuch as in these an ankle is never mentioned. Hesych. 
indicates another meaning : rrX^Tpoi/' *at TO pepos KaG" 6 17 Ke<nXi) TOV 
Mpov TTJ KoruXfl 7rpco7reXaet, KO.I 8ta TO Trfrr\r)x^ ai T " ^pov. To this 
Schneider adds (iii. p. 143) ' Videtur intelligi hie 6 ?<> Kov8v\os, bv evtoi 
(pacri TO>I> iSia>Taii/ aorpuyaXof Trpocrayopfvecrdai, Ut ait Rufus, p. 70 '. 

2 P. A. ii. 6. 651* 37, 9. 655* 14 ; Plin. xi. 86 ; Antig. Mirab. 80; 
Herod, iv. 53 ; Ael. iv. 34. 

3 sc. in regard to their osseous systems from the above-mentioned 

4 sc. rather than similar. 

' P. A. ii. 9- 655* 24 vyporepav re yap avay<aiov avr&v elvai rrjv Kivrjariv. 
' Ibid. 655* 21 TrXijy TOLS \iav /ueyaXois* TOVTOIS Se, 8C airtp KOI TOIS &o- 
npbs rfjv Icr^vv Icrxyporfpav 8d raw 0Tepea>/zdra>i'. 


smaller ones, more or less spinous. But all sanguineous 
animals have a backbone of either one kind or other : that 
is, composed either of bone or of spine. 

The other portions of the skeleton are found in some 
animals and not found in others, but the presence or the 

25 absence of this and that part carries with it, as a matter of 
course, the presence or the absence of the bones or the 
spines corresponding to this or that part. For animals 
that are destitute of arms and legs cannot be furnished 
with limb-bones : and in like manner with animals that 
have the same parts, but yet have them unlike in form ; for 
in these animals the corresponding bones differ from one 
another in the way of relative excess or relative defect, or 
in the way of analogy taking the place of identity. So 

30 much for the osseous or spinous systems in animals. 

Gristle 1 is of the same nature as bone, but differs from it 8 
in the way of relative excess or relative defect. And just 
like bone, cartilage also, if cut, does not grow again. In 
terrestrial viviparous sanguinea the gristle formations are 
35 unperforated, and there is no marrow in them as there 
is in bones ; in the selachia, however for, be it observed, 
517* they are gristle-spined there is found [in the case of the 
flat species], 2 in the region of the backbone, a gristle-like 
substance analogous to bone, and in this gristle-like sub- 
stance there is a liquid resembling marrow. 3 In viviparous 
animals furnished with feet, gristle formations are found in 
the region of the ears, in the nostrils, and around certain 
5 extremities of the bones. 

Furthermore, there are parts of other kinds, neither 9 
identical with, nor altogether diverse from, the parts above 
enumerated : such as nails, hooves, claws, and horns ; and 
also, by the way, beaks, such as birds are furnished with 
all in the several animals that are furnished therewithal. 
10 All these parts are flexible and fissile ; but bone is neither 
flexible nor fissile, but frangible. 

1 P. A. ii. 9. 655* 32 ; Plin. xi. 87. 

2 Manifestly corrupt : Schn. cj. tv rots 
8 P. A. ii. 6. 6512* 13. 

BOOK III. 9 517 

And the colours of horns and nails and claw and hoof 
follow the colour of the skin and the hair. 1 For according 
as the skin of an animal is black, or white, or of medium 
hue, so are the horns, the claws, or the hooves, as the case 15 
may be, of hue to match. And it is the same with nails. 
The teeth, however, follow after the bones. Thus in black 
men, such as the Aethiopians and the like, the teeth and 
bones are white, but the nails are black, like the whole 
of the skin. ao 

Horns in general are hollow at their point of attachment 
to the bone which juts out from the head inside the horn, 
but they have a solid portion at the tip, and they are 
simple and undivided in structure. In the case of the stag 
alone of all animals the horns are solid throughout, 2 and 
ramify into branches (or antlers). And, whereas no other 
animal is known to shed its horns, the deer sheds its horns 35 
annually, unless it has been castrated ; and with regard to 
the effects of castration in animals we shall have much to 
say hereafter. 3 Horns attach rather to the skin than to the 
bone ; which will account for the fact that there are found 
in Phrygia and elsewhere cattle that can move their horns 
as freely as their ears. 4 

Of animals furnished with nails and, by the way, all 30 
animals have nails that have toes, and toes that have feet, 
except the elephant ; and the elephant has toes undivided 
and slightly articulated, but has no nails whatsoever 5 of 
animals furnished with nails, some are straight-nailed, like 
man ; others are crooked-nailed, as the lion among animals 5*7 
that walk, and the eagle among animals that fly. 

1 Cf. G. A. ii. 6. 745 a 22 ; v. 4. 784** 42, 5. ;8s b 3. 

2 H. A. ii. i. 5oo a 6 ; P. A. iii. 2. 663 b 12 ; Plin. xi. 45. 

3 H. A. ix. 50. 63 1 b . 

4 Opp. Cyn. ii. 94 ^fivrj 5' cv Kepdco-o-t (pvvts Kcivoun rtrvierai* ov yap rot 
KpaTfpycrtv vrrep Ke<pa\jj(ri TTtTrrjye, AiVovcri 8c Kfpara KOI ayK\ivov(T eKarfpQ*. 
Antig. Ixxxi ; Ael. ii. 20, xvi. 33 ; Plin. xi. 45 ; of certain Aethiopian 
cattle, Ael. xvii. 45, Diod. Sic. i. 201, Agatharch. ap. Phot. p. 1363. 
Schn. quotes (p. 147) from Lobus, Descr. de VAbyssinie, i. p. 88 'ceux- 
1k n'ont point de cornes, ou s'ils en ont, elles sont si molles et si 
flexibles qu'elles leur pendent comme des bras rompus ' ; and refers 
also to Beckmann, Litteratur der dltesten Reisebeschreibungen, i. p. 566. 
Similar cattle are known from Madagascar ; cf. Flacourt, Hist, de 
la grande tie Madagascar, 1661. 

5 H.A. ii. i. 497 b 23, &c. 




The following are the properties of hair and of parts 10 
analogous to hair, and of skin or hide. All viviparous 
animals furnished with feet have hair ; l all oviparous 

5 animals furnished with feet have horn-like tessellates ; 
fishes, and fishes only, have scales that is, such oviparous 
fishes as have the crumbling egg or roe. For of the lanky 
fishes, the conger has no such egg, nor the muraena, and 
the eel has no egg at all. 2 

The hair differs in the way of thickness and fineness, 3 and 
of length, according to the locality of the part in which 

10 it is found, and according to the quality of skin or hide on 
which it grows. For, as a general rule, the thicker the 
hide, the harder and the thicker is the hair ; and the hair 
is inclined to grow in abundance and to a great length in 
localities of the bodies hollow and moist, if the localities 
be fitted for the growth of hair at all. The facts are 
similar in the case of animals whether coated with scales 

15 or with tessellates. With soft-haired animals the hair gets 
harder with good feeding, and with hard-haired or bristly 
animals it gets softer and scantier from the same cause. 
Hair differs in quality also according to the relative heat 
or warmth of the locality : just as the hair in man is hard in 

ao warm places and soft in cold ones. Again, straight hair is 
inclined to be soft, and curly hair to be bristly. 

Hair is naturally fissile, and in this respect it differs in II 
degree in diverse animals. In some animals the hair goes 
on gradually hardening into bristle until it no longer re- 

25 sembles hair but spine, as in the case of the hedgehog. 4 
And in like manner with the nails ; for in some animals 
the nail differs as regards solidity in no way from bone. 

Of all animals man has the most delicate skin : that 
is, if we take into consideration his relative size. 5 In the 
skin or hide of all animals there is a mucous liquid, scanty 
in some animals and plentiful in others, as, for instance, in 

30 the hide of the ox ; for men manufacture glue out of it. 

1 Plin. xi. 94. 

2 H.A. vi. 13. 567* 20, 16. 570* 3, &c. s G.A. v. 3. 782* i. 

4 H.A.'i. 6. 490 b 28 ; G. A. v. 3. 78 i b 33. 

5 G. A. v. 5. 785* 8. 

BOOK III. II 5i7 b 

(And, by the way, in some cases glue is manufactured from 
fishes also.) The skin, when cut, is in itself devoid of 
sensation ; 1 and this is especially the case with the skin on 
the head, owing to there being no flesh between it and the 
skull. And wherever the skin is quite by itself, if it be cut Si8 a 
asunder, it does not grow together again, as is seen in the 
thin part of the jaw, 2 in the prepuce, and the eyelid. 3 In 
all animals the skin is one of the parts that extends con- 
tinuous and unbroken, 4 and it comes to a stop only where 
the natural ducts pour out their contents, 5 and at the mouth 
and nails. 

All sanguineous animals, then, have skin ; but not all 5 
such animals have hair, 6 save only under the circumstances 
described above. The hair changes its colour 7 as animals 
grow old, and in man it turns white or grey. 8 With 
animals, in general, the change takes place, but not very 
obviously, or not so obviously as in the case of the horse. 9 
Hair turns grey from the point backwards to the roots. 
But, in the majority of cases, grey hairs are white from the 10 
beginning ; and this is a proof that greyness of hair does 
not, as some believe to be the case, imply withering or 
decrepitude, for no part is brought into existence in a 
withered or decrepit condition. 

In the eruptive malady called the white-sickness all the 
hairs get grey ; and instances have been known where 
the hair became grey while the patients were ill of the 
malady, whereas the grey hairs shed off and black ones 
replaced them on their recovery, [Hair is more apt to 15 
turn grey when it is kept covered than when exposed 
to the action of the outer air.] 10 In men, the hair over the 
temples is the first to turn grey, 11 and the hair in the front 

1 P. A. ii. ID. 6s6 b 6. 

2 i. e. the cheek; 3 H. A. i. 13. 493* 27. 

4 That is to say, the skin forms a connected system as do the blood- 
vessels, but not the sinews : vide supra. 

6 etK/iaovrat : cf. P. A. iii. 14. 675 b 20. A. and W. CJ. f} ra /cara 

6 H.A. i. 6. 490 b 26; cf. ii. I. 498 b 16. 

7 G. A. v. 3-6 ; de Coloribus, 5, 6. 8 Probl. x. 63. 898** 31. 
9 G.A. v. 5. 785"* ii. 30 [ ] Dittm. 

11 Cf. Ar. Eg. 520. 


grows grey sooner than the hair at the back ; and the hair 
on the pubes is the last to change colour. 

Some hairs are congenital, others grow after the maturity 
of the animal ; but this occurs in man only. The congenital 

20 hairs are on the head, the eyelids, and the eyebrows ; of 
the later growths the hairs on the pubes are the first to 
come, then those under the armpits, and, thirdly, those on 
the chin ; for, singularly enough, the regions where con- 
genital growths and the subsequent growths are found are 
equal in number. The hair on the head grows scanty and 

25 sheds out to a greater extent and sooner than all the rest. 
But this remaik applies only to hair in front ; for no man 
ever gets bald at the back of his head. Smoothness on the 
top of the head is termed ' baldness ', but smoothness on 
the eyebrows is denoted by a special term which means 
' forehead-baldness ' ; and neither of these conditions of 
baldness supervenes in a man until he shall have come 

30 under the influence of sexual passion. For no boy ever 
gets bald, no woman, and no castrated man. 1 In fact, if 
a man be castrated before reaching puberty, the later 
growths of hair never come at all ; and, if the operation 
take place subsequently, the after-growths, and these only, 
shed off; or, rather, two of the growths shed off, but not 
that on the pubes. 

Women do not grow hairs on the chin ; except that a 
scanty beard grows on some women after the monthly 
courses have stopped ; and a similar phenomenon is observed 

35 at times in priestesses in Caria, 2 but these cases are looked 
upon as portentous with regard to coming events. The 
other after-growths are found in women, but more scanty 
and sparse. Men and women are at times born consti- 
tutionally and congenitally incapable of the after-growths ; 
and individuals that are destitute even of the growth upon 
the pubes are constitutionally impotent. 

Hair as a rule grows more or less in length as the wearer 

1 H. A. ix. 50. 63i b 31 ; G.A. v. 3. 784*4; ProbL x. 57. 897 b 23; 
Hippocr. Aph. vi. 28 (iv. p. 571 L, iii. p. 753 K) ; Porph. de Abst. p. 233 ; 
Plin. xi. 7. 47 ;. Antig. H. M. 109, 118. 

2 Herod, i. 175, viii. 104. 


grows in age ; chiefly the hair on the head, then that in the 5 
beard, and fine hair grows longest of all. With some 
people as they grow old the eyebrows grow thicker, 1 to 
such an extent that they have to be cut off; and this 
growth is owing to the fact that the eyebrows are situated 
at a conjuncture of bones, and these bones, as age comes 
on, draw apart and exude a gradual increase of moisture 
or rheum. The eyelashes do not grow in size, but they 10 
shed when the wearer comes first under the influence of 
sexual feelings, and shed all the quicker as this influence 
is the more powerful ; and these are the last hairs to 
grow grey. 

Hairs if plucked out before maturity grow again ; but 
they do not grow again if plucked out afterwards. Every 
hair is supplied with a mucous moisture at its root, and 
immediately after being plucked out it can lift light articles 
if it touch them with this mucus. 15 

Animals that admit of diversity of colour in the hair 
admit of a similar diversity to start with in the skin and in 
the cuticle of the tongue. 2 

In some cases among men the upper lip and the chin is 
thickly covered with hair, and in other cases these parts 
are smooth and the cheeks are hairy ; and, by the way, 
smooth-chinned men are less inclined than bearded men 20 
to baldness. 

The hair is inclined to grow in certain diseases, especially 
in consumption, and in old age, and after death ; 3 and 
under these circumstances the hair hardens concomitantly 
with its growth, and the same duplicate phenomenon is 
observable in respect of the nails. 

In the case of men of strong sexual passions the con- 
genital hairs shed the sooner, while the hairs of the after- 35 

1 P. A. iii. 15. 6s8 b 2o. 

2 H.A. vi. 19. 574* 5; G.A. v. 6. ;86 a 21. Cf. Verg. G. iii. 387 
'Ilium autem, quamviS aries sit Candidas ipse, Nigra subest udo 
tantum cui lingua palato, Reice, ne maculis infuscet vellera pullis 
Nascentum '. Cf. Plin. viii. 72 ; Colum. vii. 3 ; Geopon. xviii. 6. 

3 Synes. in Calvitii laude, p. 79 TOVTO yap VTTO TUV fv AlyvtrTu 0epa- 
TTfVT&v ( '? ndvras 8iaT0pv\7]Tai, Kai TIS fv xp<3 Kovpias drrodavtov (Is vecora 

Kofj-rjv Kal TTcoywi/a fiaQvv fjvcyKe. Cf. also Arnob. v. p. 1 66 ; Tertull. de 
Anim. c. 51 (cit. j. G. S.). 


growths are the quicker to come. When men are afflicted 
with varicose veins l they are less inclined to take on bald- 
ness ; and if they be bald when they become thus afflicted, 
they have a tendency to get their hair again. 

If a hair be cut, it does not grow at the point of section ; 
but it gets longer by growing upward from below. In 
fishes the scales grow harder and thicker with age, 2 and 

30 when the animal gets emaciated or is growing old the 
scales grow harder. In quadrupeds as they grow old the 
hair in some and the wool in others gets deeper but 
scantier in amount : and the hooves or claws get larger 
in size ; and the same is the case with the beaks of birds. 

35 The claws also increase in size, as do also the nails. 

5ig a With regard to winged animals, such as birds, no 12 
creature is liable to change of colour by reason of age, 
excepting the crane. 3 The wings of this bird are ash- 
coloured at first, but as it grows old the wings get black. 
Again, owing to special climatic influences, as when un- 
usual frost prevails, a change is sometimes observed to 
take place in birds whose plumage is of one uniform 
5 colour ; 4 thus, birds that have dusky or downright black 
plumage turn white or grey, as the raven, the sparrow, and 
the swallow ; but no case has ever yet been known of 
a change of colour from white to black. [Further, most 
birds change the colour of their plumage at different 
seasons of the year, 5 so much so that a man ignorant of 
their habits might be mistaken as to their identity.] 
10 Some animals change the colour of their hair with 
a change in their drinking-water, 6 for in some countries 
the same species of animal is found white in one district 
and black in another. And in regard to the commerce of 
the sexes, water in many places is of such peculiar quality 
that rams, if they have intercourse with the female after 
drinking it, beget black lambs, as is the case with the water 

1 lia' cf. Poll. iv. 196 Kipaos f) Kpi6s, o"idrjp.n (X$o>i> trtpi Kvrjpas, no8bs 
dtov, (TTtyao'Tpiov, ftrjpovs, ocr^eov, fcaXctrtu 8f KO\ ita. 
8 G. A. v. 3. y83 b 6. 3 G. A. v. 5. 785* 21 ; Plin. x. 42. 

4 Cf. de Coloribus, passim. 6 G. A. v. 6. 786* 29. 

6 Probl. x. 7. 89 1 b 13 ; Plin. viii. 72 ; Varro, R. /?. ii. 2. 

BOOK III. 12 5i9 a 

of the Psychrus (so-called from its coldness), a river in the 
district of Assyritis in the Chalcidic Peninsula, on the coast 15 
of Thrace ; and in Antandria there are two rivers of which 
one makes the lambs white and the other black. 1 The 
river Scamander also has the reputation of making lambs 
yellow, and that is the reason, they say, why Homer 
designates it the * Yellow River '. 2 

Animals as a general rule have no hair on their internal 20 
surfaces, and, in regard to their extremities, they have hair 
on the upper, but not on the lower side. 

The hare, or dasypod, is the only animal known to have 
hair inside its mouth and underneath its feet. 3 Further, 
the so-called mouse-whale 4 instead of teeth has hairs in its 
mouth resembling pigs' bristles. 

Hairs after being cut grow at the bottom but not at 25 
the top ; if feathers be cut off, they grow neither at top 
nor bottom, but shed and fall out. Further, the bee's wing 
will not grow again after being plucked off, nor will the 
wing of any creature that has undivided wings. Neither 
will the sting grow again if the bee lose it, but the creature 
will die of the loss. 5 

13 In all sanguineous animals membranes are found. And 30 
membrane 6 resembles a thin close-textured skin, but its 
qualities are different, as it admits neither of cleavage nor 
of extension. Membrane envelops each one of the bones 
and each one of the viscera, both in the larger and the 
smaller animals ; though in the smaller animals the mem- 5 J 9 b 
branes are indiscernible from their extreme tenuity and 
minuteness. The largest of all the membranes are the two 
that surround the brain, 7 and of these two the one that 
lines the bony skull is stronger and thicker than the one 

1 Antig. H. M. 78 (84) ; Ael. viii. 21. 

2 //. xx. 74. s G. A. iv. 5. 774 a 35 ; Plin. xi. 94. 

4 Plin. xi. 62. I have little doubt that the ^VOTOKIJTOS or p.i>s TO KJJTOS 
was originally the /Mvarn/coK^To?, the ' moustache-whale '. On the 
fabulous stories of the whale-mouse see Plin. ix. 88 ; Plut. Sol. Anim. 
p. 980; Opp. Hal. v. 71 ; Ael. iii. 13 ; Claudian. Eutrop. ii. 425. 

5 Plin. xi. 19 ; H.A. ix. 40. 626* 17 ; Verg. G. iv. 237. 

6 P. A. iii. ii. 673 b 5. 7 H.A. i. 16. 494 b 29. 


that envelops the brain ; l next in order of magnitude 
comes the membrane that encloses the heart. If mem- 
5 brane be bared and cut asunder it will not grow together 
again, and the bone thus stripped of its membrane 

The omentum 2 or caul, by the way, is membrane. All 14 
sanguineous animals are furnished with this organ ; but in 
some animals the organ is supplied with fat, and in others 
it is devoid of it. The omentum has both its starting-point 
10 and its attachment, with ambidental vivipara, in the centre 
of the stomach, where the stomach has a kind of suture; 
in non-ambidental vivipara it has its starting-point and 
attachment in the chief of the ruminating stomachs. 3 

The bladder also is of the nature of membrane, but of 15 
membrane peculiar in kind, for it is extensile. The organ 
is not common to all animals, but, while it is found in all 

15 the vivipara, the tortoise 4 is the only oviparous animal that 
is furnished therewithal. The bladder, like ordinary mem- 
brane, if cut asunder will not grow together again, unless 
the section be just at the commencement of the urethra : 
except indeed in very rare cases, for instances of healing 
have been known to occur. After death, the organ passes 
no liquid excretion ; but in life, in addition to the normal 
liquid excretion, it passes at times dry excretion also, 
which turns into stones in the case of sufferers from that 

20 malady. Indeed, instances have been known of concretions 
in the bladder so shaped as closely to resemble cockle- 

Such are the properties, then, of vein, sinew and skin, of 
fibre and membrane, of hair, nail, claw and hoof, of horns, 
of teeth, of beak, of gristle, of bones, and of parts that are 

35 analogous to any of the parts here enumerated. 

1 The dura mater and pia mater. 

1 P. A. iv. 3. 677 b 14 ; Plin. xi. 80. 

1 Cf. Cuvier, Lemons d'anat. comp. iv. pp. 87, 89. In the P. A. the 
terms povoKoiXia and no\vKoi\ia correspond to what are here called 
TO. afj.(f)<adovTa O>OTOKC[ and TO. /zi) d/i0d>5oi/Ta. 

1 H.A. ii. 16. 5o6 b 27 ; P. A. iii. 8. 671* 31 ; Plin. xi. 83. 


16 Flesh, 1 and that which is by nature akin to it in san- 
guineous animals, is in all cases situated in between the 
skin and the bone, or the substance analogous to bone ; for 
just as spine is a counterpart of bone, so is the flesh-like 
substance of animals that are constructed on a spinous 
system the counterpart of the flesh of animals constructed 30 
on an osseous one. 

Flesh can be divided asunder in any direction, not 
lengthwise only as is the case with sinew and vein. When 
animals are subjected to emaciation the flesh disappears, 
and the creatures become a mass of veins and fibres ; 2 
when they are over fed, fat takes the place of flesh. 3 
Where the flesh is abundant in an animal, its veins arc 520** 
somewhat small and the blood abnormally red ; the viscera 
also and the stomach are diminutive ; whereas with animals 
whose veins are large the blood is somewhat black, the 
viscera and the stomach are large, and the flesh is some- 
what scanty. And animals with small stomachs are 
disposed to take on flesh. 5 

17 Again, fat and suet differ from one another. 4 Suet is 
frangible in all directions and congeals if subjected to 
extreme cold, whereas fat can melt but cannot freeze or 
congeal ; and soups made of the flesh of animals supplied 
with fat do not congeal or coagulate, as is found with 10 
horse-flesh and pork ; but soups made from the flesh of 
animals supplied with suet do coagulate, as is seen with 
mutton and goat's flesh. Further, fat and suet differ as to 
their localities : for fat is found between the skin and flesh, 
but suet is found only at the limit of the fleshy parts. 
Also, in animals supplied with fat the omentum or caul is 
supplied with fat, and it is supplied with suet in animals 
supplied with suet. Moreover, ambidental animals are 15 
supplied with fat, and non-ambidentals with suet. 

Of the viscera the liver in some animals becomes fatty, 
as, among fishes, is the case with the selachia, by the 

1 P. A. ii. 8. 2 H.A. Hi. 5- 5i5 b I. 

1 G.A. i. l8. 7 2 6 a 6 eon yap Kai TJ TTi/ieXq TTf/HTTCO/na di dftoviav 

4 P. A. ii. 5 ; Plin. xi. 85. 


melting of whose livers an oil is manufactured. These 
cartilaginous fish themselves have no free fat at all in 

20 connexion with the flesh or with the stomach. The suet 
in fish is fatty, and does not solidify or congeal. All 
animals are furnished with fat, either intermingled with 
their flesh, or apart. Such as have no free or separate fat 
are less fat than others in stomach and omentum, as the 
eel ; for it has only a scanty supply of suet about the 

25 omentum. Most animals take on fat in the belly, especially 
such animals as are little in motion. 

The brains of animals supplied with fat are oily, as in 
the pig ; of animals supplied with suet, parched and dry. 1 
But it is about the kidneys 2 more than any other viscera 
that animals are inclined to take on fat ; and the right 
kidney is always less supplied with fat than the left kidney, 

30 and, be the two kidneys ever so fat, there is always a space 
devoid of fat in between the two. Animals supplied with 
suet are specially apt to have it about the kidneys, and 
especially the sheep ; for this animal is apt to die from its 
kidneys being entirely enveloped. Fat or suet about the 
kidney is superinduced by overfeeding, as is found at 
52O b Leontini in Sicily ; and consequently in this district they 
defer driving out sheep to pasture until the day is well on, 
with the view of limiting their food by curtailment of the 
hours of pasture. 

The part around the pupil of the eye is fatty 3 in all 18 
animals, and this part resembles suet in all animals that 
5 possess such a part and that are not furnished with hard 
eyes. 4 

Fat animals, 1 whether male or female, are more or less 
unfitted for breeding purposes. 5 Animals are disposed to 

1 The corresponding statement in the P. A. is of the marrow, not of 
the brain. 

3 P. A. iii. 9. 6;2 a 2 ; Plin. xi. 81. 

3 TTIOJ/ is A. and W.'s emendation for KOIVOV ; cf. de Sensu, 2. 438* 20 


H.A. iv. 8. 533 a 9 (lect. dub.} T/)J/ *a\. Koprjv /cat TO KVK\O) TTIOV, and 
Plin. xi. 85 ; it is inserted by Dittm. after o<J>0aX/uois. Scotus tr. ' quod 
prope pupillam oculi est, in omnibus animalibus est multi sebi '. 

4 i. e. like the crab. 

5 G.A. i. 18. 726* 3 ; Plin. /. c., &c. 

BOOK III. 18 52o b 

take on fat more when old than when young, and especially 
when they have attained their full breadth and their full 
length and are beginning to grow depth- ways. 

19 And now to proceed to the consideration of the blood. 10 
In sanguineous animals blood is the most universal and the 
most indispensable part ; and it is not an acquired or adven- 
titious part, but it is a consubstantial part of all animals 
that are not corrupt or moribund. 1 All blood is contained 
in a vascular system, to wit, the veins, and is found nowhere 
else, excepting in the heart. Blood is not sensitive to touch 15 
in any animal, 2 any more than the excretions of the stomach ; 
and the case is similar with the brain and the marrow. 
When flesh is lacerated, blood exudes, if the animal be 
alive and unless the flesh be gangrened. Blood in a healthy 
condition is naturally sweet to the taste, 3 and red in colour ; ao 
blood that deteriorates from natural decay or from disease 

more or less black. Blood at its best, before it under- 
goes deterioration from either natural decay or from disease, 
is neither very thick nor very thin. In the living animal it 
is always liquid and warm, but, on issuing from the body, 
it coagulates in all cases except in the case of the deer, the 
roe, and the like animals ; for, as a general rule, blood 2 5 
coagulates unless the fibres be extracted. 4 Bull's blood is 
the quickest to coagulate. 5 

Animals that are internally and externally viviparous 
are more abundantly supplied with blood than the san- 
guineous ovipara. 6 Animals that are in good condition, 
either from natural causes or from their health having been 3 
attended to, have the blood neither too abundant as 
creatures just after drinking have the liquid inside them in 
abundance nor again very scanty, as is the case with 
animals when exceedingly fat. For animals in this con- 
dition have pure blood, but very little of it, and the fatter 

1 Plin. xi. 90. 2 P. A. ii. 3. 650* 4. 

3 P. A. iv. 2. 6;; a 20. 4 Cf. 5i5 b 34. 

5 P. A. ii. 4. 651* i. 

6 A doubtful sentence, probably leaving a lacuna. 

Alt. H.A, 


an animal gets the less becomes its supply of blood ; for 
whatsoever is fat is destitute of blood. 

A fat substance is incorruptible, but blood and all things 
containing it corrupt rapidly, and this property characterizes 
especially all parts connected with the bones. Blood is 
finest and purest in man ; and thickest and blackest in the 
bull and the ass, of all vivipara. 1 In the lower and the 

5 higher parts of the body blood is thicker and blacker than 
in the central parts. 2 

Blood beats or palpitates in the veins of all animals alike 
all over their bodies, and blood is the only liquid that 
permeates the entire frames of living animals, without 
exception and at all times, as long as life lasts. Blood is. 
developed first of all in the heart of animals 3 before the 

10 body 4 is differentiated as a whole. If blood be removed 
or if it escape in any considerable quantity, animals fall 
into a faint or swoon ; if it be removed or if it escape in an 
exceedingly large quantity they die. If the blood get 
exceedingly liquid, animals fall sick ; for the blood then 
turns into something like ichor, or a liquid so thin that 
it at times has been known to exude through the pores like 
sweat. In some cases blood, when issuing from the veins, 

15 does not coagulate at all, or only here and there. Whilst 
animals are sleeping the blood is less abundantly supplied 
near the exterior surfaces, so that, if the sleeping creature 
be pricked with a pin, the blood does not issue as copiously 
as it would if the creature were awake. Blood is developed 
out of ichor by coction,and fat in like manner out of blood. 
If the blood get diseased, haemorrhoids may ensue in the 
nostril or at the anus, or the veins may become varicose. 

ao Blood, if it corrupt in the body, has a tendency to turn 
into pus, and pus may turn into a solid concretion. 

Blood in the female differs from that in the male, for, 
supposing the male and female to be on a par as regards 
age and general health, the blood in the female is thicker 
and blacker than in the male ; and with the female there is 

1 Plin. xi. 90. 2 Cf. P. A. ii. 2. 647* 34. 

3 P. A. ii. 4. 666 a 7, b 24, &c. 4 sc. of the embryo. 


BOOK III. 19 521 

a comparative superabundance of it in the interior. Of all 25 
female animals the female in man is the most richly supplied 
with blood, 1 and of all female animals the menstruous dis- 
charges are the most copious in woman. 2 The blood of 
these discharges under disease turns into flux. Apart from 
the menstrual discharges, the female in the human species 
is less subject to diseases of the blood than the male. 

Women are seldom afflicted with varicose veins, with 
haemorrhoids, or with bleeding at the nose, and, if any of 30 
these maladies supervene, the menses are imperfectly 
discharged. 3 

Blood differs in quantity and appearance according to 
age ; in very young animals it resembles ichor and is 
abundant, in the old it is thick and black and scarce, and 
in middle-aged animals its qualities are intermediate. In 
old animals the blood coagulates rapidly, even blood at the 52i b 
surface of the body ; but this is not the case with young 
animals. Ichor is, in fact, nothing else but unconcocted 
blood : either blood that has not yet been concocted, or 
that has become fluid again. 

20 We now proceed to discuss the properties of marrow ; 4 
for this is one of the liquids found in certain sanguineous 5 
animals. All the natural liquids of the body are contained 
in vessels : as blood in veins, marrow in bones [and other 
moistures in membranous structures of the skin or gut]. 5 

In young animals the marrow is exceedingly sanguineous, 
but, as animals grow old, it becomes fatty in animals supplied 
with fat, and suet-like in animals with suet. All bones, 10 
however, are not supplied with marrow, but only the hollow 
ones, and not all of these. For of the bones in the lion 
some contain no marrow at all, and some are only scantily 
supplied therewith ; and that accounts, as was previously 
observed, 6 for the statement made by certain writers that 
the lion is marrowless. In the bones of pigs it is found in 15 

1 G.A. iv. i. 76s b 1 8. 2 Cf. G.A. i. 19, &c. 

3 Cf. H. A. vii. ii. 587 b 33 ; G.A. i. 19. 727* 12, c. 

4 P. A. ii. 6 ; Plin. xi. 86. 5 del. A. and W., Dittm. 
6 Cf. 5i6 b 7. 

I 2 


small quantities ; and in the bones of certain animals of this 
species it is not found at all. 

These liquids, then, are nearly always congenital in 
animals, but milk and sperm come at a later time. Of 
these latter, that which, whensoever it is present, is secreted 
in all cases ready-made, is the milk ; l sperm, on the other 

ao hand, is not secreted out in all cases, but in some only, as 
in the case of what are designated thori in fishes. 2 

Whatever animals have milk, have it in their breasts. 3 
All animals have breasts that are internally and externally 
viviparous, as for instance all animals that have hair, as man 
and the horse ; and the cetaceans, as the dolphin, the por- 
poise, 4 and the whale for these animals have breasts and 

25 are supplied with milk. Animals that are oviparous or only 
externally viviparous have neither breasts nor milk, as the 
fish and the bird. 5 

All milk is composed of a watery serum called ' whey ', 
and a consistent substance called curd (or cheese) ; and the 
thicker the milk, the more abundant the curd. The milk, 
then, of non-ambidentals coagulates, 6 and that is why cheese 

30 is made of the milk of such animals under domestication ; but 
the milk of ambidentals does not coagulate, nor their fat 
either, and the milk is thin and sweet. Now the camel's milk 
is the thinnest, and that of the human species next after it, 
and that of the ass next again, but cow's milk is the thickest. 
Milk does not coagulate under the influence of cold, but 

1 yd\a ncire^n^vov al^a eVrii/, G. A. iv. 8. 777* 7- 

2 The passage is difficult, and the text not above suspicion. I accept 
Schneider's interpretation (Cur. post. vol. iv. p. 333), ' Quemadmodum 
lac paratum et in mammis collectum adest, ita semen collectum et 
paratum ad coitum non adest in animalibus aut vase aliquo, velut lag 
mammis, continetur, praeter genus piscium in quo oi Qopoi qui appel- 
lantur cum mammis feminarum comparari possunt. 1 Cf. G. A. i. 5. 
71 7 b 23 Ti 8e TU'IS ye TOVS op\fis f\ov(rii> eo> Sia Trjs Kivrjo-fvs 6fp^aivo- 
fifvov TOV alBoiov, Trpne/r^erai TO o~nepp.a avvadpoicr6fv, dXX' ov% a)s Toifj.ov 
ov (v0vs Oiyovcriv, axryrep TOIS l^dvaiv. Jbid. i. 6. 718* 5 (rtfc coitu 

OVKO(JV 8fl (v TCO o-vi>8vao~fi(a neTTfiv TO cnrtppa avruiv, uxnrtp TO. 
Kat epoTO/ca, aXX* VTTO TTJS Sopns TO (nrepua -rrcTTOfjifvov aBpoov \OV(TLV' 
p.f] fv rep ffiyydveiv aXXr;Xa)i/ TTOICI//, aXXa npoLe<rdat nf-nfp.p.ivov. 

8e pao-Tos VTTodoxr) Knl (Zcnrep ayydov eort yaXa/crof, P. A. iv. II. 
692* II. 

1 (puKaiva, em. Karsch: (paxr), MSS. and edd. Cf. vi. 12. 566 b 9. 
B P. A. iv. n. 692* 10. 6 Plin. xi. 96. 


BOOK III. 20 532' 

rather runs to whey ; but under the influence of heat it 
coagulates and thickens. 1 As a general rule milk only 
comes to animals in pregnancy. When the animal is preg- 
nant milk is found, but for a while it is unfit -for use, 2 and 
then after an interval of usefulness it becomes unfit for use 
again. In the case of female animals not pregnant a small 
quantity of milk has been procured by the employment of 
special food, and cases have been actually known where 5 
women advanced in years on being submitted to the 
process of milking have produced milk, and in some cases 
have produced it in sufficient quantities to enable them to 
suckle an infant. 

The people that live on and about Mount Oeta take 
such she-goats as decline the male and rub their udders 
hard with nettles to cause an irritation amounting to pain; 
hereupon they milk the animals, procuring at first a liquid 
resembling blood, then a liquid mixed with purulent 10 
matter, and eventually milk, as freely as from females 
submitting to the male. 

As a general rule, milk is not found in the male of man 
or of any other animal, though from time to time it has 
been found in a male ; for instance, once in Lemnos a 
he-goat was milked by its dugs (for it has, by the way, two 
dugs close to the penis), and was milked to such effect that T 5 
cheese was made of the produce, and the same phenomenon 
was repeated in a male of its own begetting. 3 Such occur- 
rences, however, are regarded as supernatural and fraught 
with omen as to futurity, and in point of fact when the 
Lemnian owner of the animal inquired of the oracle, the 
god informed him that the portent foreshadowed the acqui- 
sition of a fortune. With some men, after puberty, milk 

1 Galen, vi. 694 K ; Plin. /. c. Cf. G. A. iv. 4. 772* 22. 

2 This first milk, and not (as L. and S. have it) the nvcria of 522 b 3, 
is known as ' beestings ', lat. colostra: cf. Plin. xxviii. 33 'est autem 
colostra prima a partu spongiosa densitas lactis ', also ibid. xi. 96 ; 
Martial, xiii. 38 ' Surripuit pastor quae nondum stantibus haedis, 
De primo matrum lacte colostra damus'. See also Colum. vii. 3; 
Antig. Mirab. 26. 

3 Cf. Antig. Mirab. 26. The phenomenon has been reobserved ; 
cf. Beckmann in loc. Antig. ' Quid quod in vicinia nostra vidimus 
olim hircum, qui magno cum lucro quotidie mulgebatur atque dux erat 
et maritus caprarum '. 


20 can be produced by squeezing the breasts ; cases have been 
known where on their being subjected to a prolonged milking 
process a considerable quantity of milk has been educed. 

In milk there is a fatty element, which in clotted milk 
gets to resemble oil. 1 Goat's milk is mixed with sheep's 
milk in Sicily, and wherever sheep's milk is abundant. 2 
The best milk for clotting is not only that where the cheese 
is most abundant, but that also where the cheese is driest. 3 

25 Now some animals produce not only enough milk to rear 
their young, but a superfluous amount for general use, for 
cheese-making and for storage. This is especially the case 
with the sheep and the goat, and next in degree with the 
cow. Mare's milk, by the way, and milk of the she-ass are 
mixed in with Phrygian cheese. And there is more cheese 
in cow's milk than in goat's milk ; for graziers tell us that 

30 from nine gallons of goat's milk they can get nineteen 
cheeses at an obol apiece, and from the same amount of 
cow's milk, thirty. Other animals give only enough of milk 
to rear their young withal, and no superfluous amount and 
none fitted for cheese-making, as is the case with all animals 
522 b that have more than two breasts or dugs ; for with none 
of such animals is milk produced in superabundance or 
used for the manufacture of cheese. 

The juice of the fig and rennet 4 are employed to curdle 
milk. The fig-juice is first squeezed out into wool ; the 
wool is then washed and rinsed, and the rinsing put into a 
little milk, and if this be mixed with other milk it curdles 
5 it. Rennet is a kind of milk, for it is found in the stomach 
of the animal while it is yet suckling. 

1 Cf. TO \urapov in Tri/zeAi? and in ore'ap, P. A. ii. 5. 651* 24, and 
T) \nrapoTT)s Ka\ TO niov of p.veA6?, ib. J. 652* 29. Here r) XnrapoTrjs is 
simply butter \ cf. ftovrvpov, TO niov TOV ytiAaKror, Hippocr. p. 508, 46; 
see also Arist. fr. 593 ; Plin. xxviii. 35, xi. 96. 

3 Schn., Bk., and most MSS. read ir\tlov, which, however, both 
Gaza and Schn. translate with ulyfiov instead of with 7rpo/3ar (iov. A. 
and W. read (with the Medic.} jriov ; Guil. tr. ' ubi coagulum caprinum 
miscent ', as though he read irvov. Hence we might conjecture as a 
probable reading onov /cai TTVOV aiytiov. 

8 The statement is not clear. avxwpoTaTov perhaps means ' least 
fatty', as it does when applied to the brain, supra, 17. 520*27. 

* P. A. iii. 15. 676 a 6. 

BOOK III. 21 522 b 

21 Rennet then consists of milk with an admixture of 
fire, 1 which comes from the natural heat of the animal, as 
the milk is concocted. 2 All ruminating animals produce 
rennet, and, of ambidentals, the hare. 3 Rennet improves 
in quality the longer it is kept ; and cow's rennet, after 10 
being kept a good while, and also hare's rennet, is good 
for diarrhoea, and the best of all rennet is that of the 
young deer. 

In milk-producing animals the comparative amount of 
the yield varies with the size of the animal and the diversi- 
ties of pasturage. For instance, there are in Phasis small 
cattle that in all cases give a copious supply of milk, and 15 
the large cows in Epirus 4 yield each one daily some nine 5 
gallons of milk, and half of this from each pair of teats, 6 and 
the milker has to stand erect, stooping forward a little, as 
otherwise, if he were seated, he would be unable to reach 
up to the teats. But, with the exception of the ass, all the 
quadrupeds in Epirus 7 are of large size, and, relatively, the 20 
cattle and the dogs are the largest. Now large animals 
require abundant pasture, and this country supplies just 
such pasturage, and also supplies diverse pasture grounds 
to suit the diverse seasons of the year. The cattle are 
particularly large, and likewise the sheep of the so-called 
Pyrrhic breed, the name being given in honour of King 
Pyrrhus. 2 5 

Some pasture quenches milk, as Median grass or lucerne, 8 
and that especially in ruminants ; other feeding renders it 
copious, as cytisus and vetch ; only, by the way, cytisus in 

1 A. and W. read (with Med. and Reg. marg.) rvpov, e< 5e rjjs, but 
the reading nvp 6 < rfjs is strengthened by G. A. ii. 4. 739 b 22 /ou yap 
rj TrvcTia yaXa eVr! ^fp/xor^ra foriKrjV fX ov i V T Oftoiov els ei> ayei KCU 

2 sc. in its stomach. 3 Varro, R. R. ii. II ; Plin. /. c. c. 

4 H.A. viii. 7. 595 b 18 ; Plin. viii. 70; Ael. iii. 33, xii. n ; Ath. 
ix. 376 ; Varro, R. R. ii. 5 ; Colum. vi. I, c. 

5 Four gallons is a fair average yield ; a very good cow may give 

6 We should have expected ' at each of the two^nilkings ' ; accord- 
ingly, for /lacrrou? I am inclined to conjecture fj-avTevo-fis, i.e. ' seekings '. 

7 Cf. de Mirab. 75. 83 5 b 27, &c. 

8 Contra, Sotion in Geofion. 17 TrAe'oi/ yap eou<n yaXa OVTO> rpa<pfT(rai. 
According to Aelian, H. A. xii. II, the bull Onuphis in Egypt crireTrat 


flower is not recommended, as it has burning properties, 
and vetch is not good for pregnant kine, as it causes increased 

30 difficulty in parturition. 1 However, beasts that have access 
to good feeding, as they are benefited thereby in regard to 
pregnancy, so also being well nourished produce milk in 
plenty. Some of the leguminous plants 2 bring milk in 
abundance, as for instance, a large feed of beans with the 
ewe, the common she-goat, the cow, and the small she- 
523* goat ; for this feeding makes them drop their udders. And, 
by the way, the pointing of the udder to the ground before 
parturition is a sign of there being plenty of milk a-coming. 
Milk remains for a long time in the female, if she be kept 
from the male and be properly fed, and, of quadrupeds, this 
5 is especially true of the ewe ; for the ewe can be milked for 
eight months. As a general rule, ruminating animals give 
milk in abundance, and milk fitted for cheese manufacture. 
In the neighbourhood of Torone cows run dry for a few 
days before calving, and have milk all the rest of the time. 
In women, milk of a livid colour is better than white for 

10 nursing purposes ; and swarthy women give healthier milk 
than fair ones. Milk that is richest in cheese is the most 
nutritious, but milk with a scanty supply of cheese is the 
more wholesome for children. 

All sanguineous animals eject sperm. 3 As to what, and 22 
how, it contributes to generation, these questions will be 
discussed in another treatise. Taking the size of his body 

15 into account, man emits more sperm than any other animal. 
In hairy-coated animals the sperm is sticky, but in other 
animals it is not so. It is white in all cases, and Herodotus 
is under a misapprehension when he states that the Aethio- 
pians eject black sperm. 4 

T) Troa, Lucerne, Medicago sativa, L., mod. Gk. 
cf. Diosc. 2. 177, Plin. xviii. 43, Colum. ii. 10, Pallad. v. I, Varro, R. R. 
i. 42, &c. KVTIVOS, Medicago arborea, L., Diosc. iv. 113, Plin. xiii. 47, 
Colum. ii. n, Verg. Ed. i. 79, G. ii. 430; cf. Paulet, Flore de Virg. 
p. 33, &c. ; the chief of fodder-plants in antiquity. opo/3o$-, Vicia 
Eruilia, L., Lat. ervuw, mod. Gk. po/3i, po/3t'6ta. Theophr. H. P. ix. 22, 
Diosc. ii. 131, Verg. Eel. iii. 100, &c. Kvapos, beans, Vicia Faba, L., cf. 
Theophr. H. /*. viii. 3, Plin. xviii. 7, &c. 

2 Or, as commonly translated, ' substances that induce flatulency.' 
See note, vii. 12. 588* 8. Cf. viii. 7. 595^ 6, Herod, iv. 2. 

8 G. A. ii. 2-4, &c. * Herod, iii. 101 ; G. A. ii. 2. 736* 10. 

BOOK III. 22 523 

Sperm issues from the body white and consistent, if it be 
healthy, and after quitting the body becomes thin and 20 
black. In frosty weather it does not coagulate, but gets 
exceedingly thin and watery both in colour and consistency ; 
but it coagulates and thickens under the influence of heat. 
If it be long in the womb before issuing out, it comes more 
than usually thick ; and sometimes it comes out dry and 
compact. Sperm capable of impregnating or of fructifica- 
tion sinks in water ; sperm incapable of producing that 25 
result dissolves away. But there is no truth in what 
Ctesias has written about the sperm of the elephant. 1 

1 G. A. ii. 2. 736* 4 <$)r]O\ yap ovro> (TK\r)pvve(T0ai r]paii>6fjievoi> 
yivecrdai ^AeVrpcp o/iotoj/. roCro 8 ov yiverai. 


523* WE have now treated, in regard to blooded animals, of i. 
3* the parts they have in common and of the parts peculiar to 
this genus or that, and of the parts both composite and 
523 b simple, whether without or within. We now proceed to 
treat of animals devoid of blood. These animals are divided 
into several genera. 

One genus consists of so-called ' molluscs ' ; and by the 
term * mollusc ' we mean an animal that, being devoid of 
blood, has its flesh-like substance outside, and any hard 
structure it may happen to have, inside in this respect 
resembling the red-blooded animals, such as the genus of 
the cuttle-fish. 

5 Another genus is that of the malacostraca. These are 
animals that have their hard structure outside, and their 
soft or flesh-like substance inside, and the hard substance 
belonging to them has to be crushed rather than shattered ; 
and to this genus belongs the crawfish and the crab. 

A third genus is that of the ostracoderms or * testaceans '. 
These are animals that have their hard substance outside 
10 and their flesh-like substance within, and their hard sub- 
stance can be shattered but not crushed ; and to this genus 
belong the snail and the oyster. 

The fourth genus is that of insects ; and this genus com- 
prehends numerous and dissimilar species. Insects are 
creatures that, as the name implies, have nicks either on the 
belly or on the back, or on both belly and back, and have 
15 no one part distinctly osseous and no one part distinctly 
fleshy, but are throughout a something intermediate between 
bone and flesh ; that is to say, their body is hard all 
through, inside and outside. Some insects are wingless, 
such as the iulus and the centipede ; some are winged, as 
the bee, the cockchafer, and the wasp ; and the same kind 

BOOK IV. I 52 3 b 

is in some cases both winged and wingless, 1 as the ant 
the glow-worm. 

In molluscs 2 the external parts are as follows : in the first 
place, the so-called feet ; secondly, and attached to these, 
the head ; thirdly, the mantle-sac, containing the internal 
parts, and incorrectly designated by some writers the head ; 3 
and, fourthly, fins round about the sac. In all molluscs 25 
the head is found to be between the feet and the belly. All 
molluscs are furnished with eight feet, and in all cases these 
feet are severally furnished with a double row of suckers, 
with the exception of one single species 4 of poulpe or 
octopus. 5 The sepia, the small calamary and the large 
calamary have an exceptional organ in a pair of long arms 30 
or tentacles, having at their' extremities a portion rendered 
rough by the presence of two rows of suckers ; 6 and with 
these arms or tentacles they apprehend their food 7 and draw 
it into their mouths, and in stormy weather they cling by 
them to a rock and sway about in the rough water like 
ships lying at anchor. 8 They swim by the aid of the fins 524* 
that they have about the sac. In all cases their feet are 
furnished with suckers. 

The octopus, by the way, uses his feelers either as feet or 
hands ; with the two which stand over his mouth he draws 
in food, and the last 9 of his feelers he employs in the 5 

1 P. A. \. 3. 643 b 2. 

2 i.e. in the Cephalopods ; P. A. iv. 9, &c. ; G.A.\.i$\ Plin. ix. 44 ; 
cf. Aubert,^z> Cephalopoden desAristoteles, Leipzig, 1 862 (Z.f. w. Z. xii) ; 
Aposlolides and Delage, Les Mollusques d'apres Aristote, Arch. zool. 
exp. et gen. ix. pp. 305-420, 1 88 1. 

3 Kf(f)a\r]v seems doubtful; qy. Ke\v$ov? Cf. G. A. i. 15. 72O b 28; 
but KfQaXr) in P. A. iv. 9. 685* 5. 

4 viz. the genus Eledotte ; cf. Leach, Zool. Misc., Cephalop. iii. 
p. 138, 1817. 

We translate noKvTrovs ' octopus ' henceforth. 

6 The suckers are in two rows on the short arms, but more numerous 
on the ends of the long ; perhaps we should here read dta KOTvAo>t>. 

7 Cf. Ovid, Met. iv. 366. 

8 P. A. iv. 9. 685 b ; Plin. ix. 28 ; Athen. vii. 9. 373. Horn. Od. 
v. 432 ; Phocyl. The observation is confirmed by Apostolides and 
Delage, /. c., p. 407. 

3 rfj 8' fax^ r n is f doubtful meaning (* mihi quidem eo-^aroy est 
infimus', Dittm.), and possibly corrupt : it presents similar difficulty 
in a similar passage, still more certainly corrupt, in P. A. iv. 9. 
685* 1 6. 



act of copulation ; J and this last one, by the way is 
extremely sharp, is exceptional as being of a whitish colour, 

Sepia officinal is (a-rjiria). 

I. Body or * mantle-sac ' (KVTOS). 2. Fin (rrTepvyiov). 3. Head 
(K.<f>a\r)). 4. Arms (TroSe?). 5. Tentacles (7rpo/3oo-Ki'Sf?). 4, 5. (TT\- 

and at its extremity is bifurcate ; that is to say, it has an 
additional something 2 on the rachis, and by rachis is meant 

1 H.A.v. 6. 54i b i ; G. A. i. 15. 721* 15, iii. 8. 757 b 3i ; Plin. ix. 74. 

2 eon 8* OUT;/ eVl TTJ pa^ei is unintelligible. A. and W. suggest 
eV^io-rat 8' avrij, Dittm. eari de roiavrrj. I have ventured to write eon 
d' av Tt, and suppose that the ' something ' alluded to is a bladder or 
vesicle. Schn. (vol. iv. p. 336) would invert the order, rfj 8' ((TX^TTJ T>V 
n\( KTava)i> e'ort de aiiTij o^vrdrr) re KOI fjiovrj nepiXevKos avrfav eVt rfj pa^ei 
(KaXetrai 8e pox ty T ^ * OI/ ) ^ Trpdaw at KoTuXrySoz/e? flcriv) KCI\ e'^ anpov 

SiKpoa, TQVTT; *crX. Cf. H. A. v. 12 ; G.A.\.\$\ Plin. ix. 46 'omnes 
brachiis ut pedibus et manibus utuntur : cauda (?) vero, quae est 
bisulca et acuta, in coitu ' (where we are tempted to read something 
like cadiva una earum] ; ibid. 74 ' polypi crine uno feminae naribus 
annexo coeunt '. That A. described the ' hectocotylized ' arm of an 


the smooth surface or edge of the arm on the far side from 
the suckers. 



Hectocotylized arm of an Octopus (Philonexis catenulatus = Ocythoe 


I. The arm (pd^s}. 2. Suckers (xorvXr/So'i/f?). 3. Sac of penis (n 
(?) eVt TJTJ pa^ei). 4. (anpov diKpooi 1 }. 5. * Penis ' (TO ov). 

In front of the sac and over the feelers they have a 
hollow tube, by means of which they discharge any sea- 10 
water that they may have taken into the sac of the body 

Octopod is clear, but to elucidate the details of his description is not 
easy ; indeed Aubert is inclined to think that A. had in mind some 
species not studied by modern naturalists. The arm is but slightly 
modified in the common Octopus, typical hectocotylization being only 
found in Argonauta, Tremoctopus, and Philonexis. In these (and to 
one or other of them I take the description to refer) the arm, when 
freed from a special sac in which it is at first contained, has a long 
hollow terminal filament (the ' penis ' of modern nomenclature, by 
which the spermatophores are transmitted), and at its base another 
sac, or the remains thereof, within which the filament had developed. 
Cf. VeVany, Ann. Sc. Nat. xvii. pp. 148-191, 1852; H. Miiller, 
Z.f. iv. Z. iv. 1852, pp. 1-35, 346-59; Steenstrup, Arch. f. Naturg., 
1856, p. 243, and especially Aubert, op. cit. 


in the act of receiving food by the mouth. 1 They can shift 
the tube from side to side, and by means of it they discharge 
the black liquid peculiar to the animal. 

Stretching out its feet, it swims 2 obliquely in the direc- 
tion of the so-called head, 3 and by this mode of swimming 
15 it can see in front, for its eyes are at the top, and in this 
attitude it has its mouth at the rear. The ' head ', while 
the creature is alive, is hard, and looks as though it were 
inflated. 4 It apprehends and retains objects by means 
of the under-surface of its arms, and the membrane in 
between its feet is kept at full tension ; if the animal get 
on to the sand it can no longer retain its hold, 
ao There is a difference between the octopus and the other 
molluscs above mentioned : 5 the body of the octopus is 
small, and his feet are long, whereas in the others the body 
is large and the feet short ; so short, in fact, that they 
cannot walk on them. Compared with one another, the 
teuthis, or calamary, is long-shaped, 6 and the sepia flat- 
as shaped ; and of the calamaries the so-called teuthus is much 
bigger than the teuthis ; for teuthi have been found as 
much as five ells long. 7 Some sepiae attain a length of 

1 A better description of this region in G. A. i. 14. 720 b 27 tv ro'ts 

f f *t * '\ -JL * *L ' **/1'\ * ' C 

imnois rov ato/zen-or, 17 ro *\v<pos a<f>aTi]KC KOI. r) OaXaTra fiaep^erai : cf. 
P. A. iv. 5. 679* 3. The funnel is on the ventral side of the animal, 
but in Octopus, which animal lies prone on its ventral face, the funnel 
is long enough to curve round one side or other of the head, and so 
to project dorsally. 

1 H. A. i. 5. 489* 35 ; Plin. ix. 74. 

a i.e.. of the trunk. 

4 Hesych. Trpfjfyia' iroXvrrodot /cf^aXi?' fvioi n^fKravrj. Cf. Plin. ix. 46 
1 natant obliqui in caput, quod praedurum est sufflatione viventibus '. 

5 Arist. ap. Athen. vii. p. 326, &c. 

5 Ttt fjiiv fjiaKpoTfpd f<TTiv olov T] revOts, Dittm. 

7 The identity of ifvBos and of rev&r is not clear. I feel certain that 
Aubert is far astray in identifying the latter with Sepioteuthis, a small 
animal of excessive rarity. Leaving out Sepia and Octopus, we have 
two sorts of cuttlefish conspicuous and abundant in the markets of 
the Mediterranean, viz. Loligo vulgaris and its immediate allies, and 
the various species of Ommastrephini ; of these latter, one very com- 
mon species, Todarodes sagittatus (totaro of the Naples fishermen), 
grows to an immense size. I think that Ttvdos was Todarodes and its 
allies, Ttvdis Loligo. In the former the fins are united to form a broad 
arrow-shaped, sometimes almost circular, fin stretching right across 
the body (hence calamaio saetta of the Italians) ; in the latter the fin 
is longer and divided into two lateral halves, not meeting across the 
middle line nor forming one circular fin right across the body : OTTO 

BOOK IV. i 524* 

two ells, and the feelers of the octopus are sometimes 
as long, or even longer. The species teuthus is not 
a numerous one ; the teuthus differs from the teuthis in 
shape ; that is, the sharp extremity of the teuthus is broader 30 
than that of the other, and, further, the encircling fin goes 
all round the trunk, whereas it is in part lacking in the 
teuthis ; both animals are pelagic. 

In all cases the head comes after the feet, in the middle 
of the feet that are called arms or feelers. There is here 524** 
situated 1 a mouth, and two teeth 2 in the mouth ; and 
above these two large eyes, and betwixt the eyes a small 
cartilage enclosing a small brain ; and within the mouth 
it has a minute organ of a fleshy nature, and this it uses 
as a tongue, for no other tongue does it possess. Next 5 
after this, on the outside, is what looks like a sac ; the flesh 
of which it is made is divisible, not in long straight strips, 
but in annular flakes ; and all molluscs have a cuticle 
around this flesh. 3 Next after or at the back of the mouth 
comes a long and narrow oesophagus, and close after that 
a crop or craw, large and spherical, 4 like that of a bird ; to 

t)pyHvov t KOI ov KVK\W 8ia Tram-as (P. A. iv. 9. 685 b 21). It is this broad 
tail-fin that makes the rcvdos to be TrXrirvrtpos TO ov, and that e'XXciTret 
TTJ Tevdidi. Whereas the 5ia navros of the P. A. tallies fairly well with 
this interpretation, the irepl anav TO KVTOS of the H. A. is not so clear ; 
but in the light of the former and better description I do not feel 
bound to say that KVK\O> Trcpt TO KVTOS can only mean a lateral fringe 
such as we have in Sepia. In P. A. iv. 5. 678 b we read that the 
alimentary canal is alike in Sepia and Octopus, but in the revGides the 
two. stomach-cavities resemble one another, and the one is not so like 
to a crop ; this is accurately true of Loligo, whereas the forms which 
I am inclined to identify with reC^or, unfortunately not mentioned in 
this passage, resemble Sepia and Octopus ; cf. Cuvier, Mem. sur les 
Mollusques, Cephalopodes, p. 52 'Celui-ci (le deuxieme estomac) ou 
ce que nous avons appele' aussi le coecum, est ramasse en une double 
et courte spirale dans le calmar sagitte (Todarodes) ; mais dans le 
calmar commun (Loligo), il forme nn long sac a parois minces, qui 
descend jusques dans le fond de 1'abdomen, et ou Ton ne voit de vestige 
de courbure et de sillons transverses que vers son origine. Le gezier 
est, comme dans la seiche, charnu et double d'une veloutee presque 
cornee.' An Aristotelian fragment in Athen. vii. p. 326 gives no 
further help. On a gigantic squid, see Plin. ix. 30 (48). 

1 Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 6;8 b 7, 9. 684 b 10 ; Ar. ap. Athen. vii. p. 323, &c. 

2 For TO p.v A. and W. cj. TO /ueVoi', i.e. l In the middle of the head 
there is a mouth '. 

1 P. A. ii. 8. 654* 13; Plin. xi. 37 (87). 
4 irapfpfpepf) P D a 



then comes the stomach, like the fourth stomach in rumi- 
nants ; * and the shape of it resembles the spiral convolution 
in the trumpet-shell ; 2 from the stomach there goes back 
again, in the direction of the mouth, a thin gut, and the 
gut is thicker 3 than the oesophagus. 

Molluscs have no viscera, but they have what is called 
15 a mytis, 4 and on it a vessel containing a thick black juice ; 5 


Alimentary canal of Todarodes sagittatus (? revdos). 

I. Oesophagus (O-TO/IU^OS). 2. Crop (7rpdAo/3or). 3. Stomach (/coiXi'a). 

4. Caecum (TO ccr^aroj/ (?) rf]s KoiAi'as, o/ioioi/ rfj ev rols Krjpviv eAiKi?)- 

5. Intestine (eWepoi/). 6. Anus (c|o8o$-). 7. Ink-sac (66\os tv 

in the sepia or cuttle-fish this vessel is the largest, and this 
juice is most abundant. All molluscs, when frightened, 

1 Ar. ap. Athen. /. c., cf. H. A. ii. 17. 5o; b 9. 

2 In T. sagittatus, Octopus and others, there is a spiral prolonga- 
tion of the second stomach or caecum ; what is here called the crop is 
nowadays termed the stomach (cf. 524 a 26, footnote). For TO o-x^a we 
should have preferred TO 5' CO-XOTOV. A better description in P. A. iv. 
5. 678 b 25. 

3 ira^vrfpov. Seal, and Pice. CJ. TrXarvrepov. 

4 Phot. fiu[(r]rtf' 6 c^ei avr\ OTT\dyxv<>>v TO. ^117 

ov TOV 06\ov, ov TrXetcrTov Kat p.yiaTOi> T) ar)nia f'x (t ' 
dia fie TJj? fjLVTi&os 6 ffTOfia^os Tfii/et, a)S 'A. eV TO'LS 

6 P. A. iv. 5. 679* i. 

de vno TO 


BOOK IV. i 52 4 b 

discharge such a juice, but the discharge is most copious 
in the cuttle-fish. The mytis, then, is situated under the 
mouth, and the oesophagus runs through it ; and down 
below at the point to which the gut extends 1 is the vesicle 
of the black juice, and the animal has the vesicle and the 
gut enveloped in one and the same membrane, and by 20 
the same orifice discharges both the black juice and the 
residuum. The animals have also certain hair-like or furry 
growths in their bodies. 2 

In the sepia, the teuthis, and the teuthus the hard 
parts are within, towards the back of the body ; those parts 
are called in one the sepium, and in the other the ' sword '. 3 
They differ from one another, for the sepium in the cuttle- 
fish and teuthus is hard and flat, being a substance inter- 25 
mediate between bone and fish-bone, with (in part) a 
crumbling, spongy texture, but in the teuthis the part is 
thin and somewhat gristly. These parts differ from one 
another in shape, as do also the bodies of the animals. 
The octopus has nothing hard of this kind in its interior, 
but it has a gristly substance round the head, which, if the 
animal grows old, becomes hard. 4 30 

The females differ from the males. The males have 
a duct in under the oesophagus, extending from the 
mantle-cavity 5 to the lower portion of the sac, and there 
is an organ to which it attaches, resembling a breast ; in 
the female there are two of these organs, situated higher 525* 
up ; with both sexes there are underneath these organs 
certain red formations. The egg 6 of the octopus is single, 
uneven on its surface, and of large size ; the fluid substance 
within is all uniform in colour, smooth, and in colour white ; 
the size of the egg 6 is so great as to fill a vessel larger than 5 

1 sc. before turning back. 

2 That these are the gills is rendered more than probable by H. A. 
iv. 4. 529* 30, ix. 37. 62o b 17, where the gills of the scallop and the 
crawfish are described under the same name or epithet. 

1 P. A. ii. 8. 654 a 20. 

4 P. A. ii. 8. 654; G.A. iii. 8. 758* 6 ; cf. also Arist. ap. Athen. 
vii. 326. 

5 If the manuscript reading e'yK*$aXou be correct, the statement is 
grievously wrong. Qy. <eXv<ou, or ev 

6 i.e. the egg-mass. 

AR. H.A K 



the creature's head. 1 The sepia has two sacs, and inside 
them a number of eggs, like in appearance to white hail- 
stones. 2 For the disposition of these parts I must refer 
to my anatomical diagrams. 3 

The males of all these animals differ from the females 4 

and the difference between the sexes is most marked in the 

10 sepia ; for the back of the trunk, which is blacker than 

I. Testis 
reservoir (-rropos vno TOV 

Male organs of Sepia officinalis. 
2. Vas deferens. 3 

r\.). 4. Genital aperture. 

the belly, is rougher in the male than in the female, and 
in the male the back is striped, and the rump is more 
sharply pointed. 5 

1 Cf. Plin. ix. 51 (74) 'Polypi hieme coeunt, pariunt vere ova tor- 
tili vibrata pampino tanta fecunditate ut multitudinem ovorum occisi 
non recipiant cavo capitis, quo praegnantes tulere'. 

2 For better accounts of the female organs see G. A. \. 3. 717* 3, 
i. 14. 72o b 21, iii. 8. 758*6. 

3 Cf. H. A. i. 17. 497 a 32 8iaypa<prjs r^s fv rats ni/aro/zcur, vi. II. 566 a 15 
(K TU>V fv Tois dvaropais diaycypapp-cvtov, G. A. ii. 7. 746* 14 K r&v 
TrapaSeryfiarcoi' TO>J/ tv rat? avaTop.ats Ka\ ra>v (V rms iaropiais y*yp (See 
also note on iii. i. 5O9 b 23.) 4 H.A. v. 12. 544 a 6. 

5 The sexes are easily distinguished, but not by superficial differences 
of colour or form. Here one is tempted to suppose that two species 
are being compared, the darker and larger S. officinalis with the 
lighter-coloured S.. orbigniana, the ' seccia culo appuntato ' of the 
Neapolitan fishermen. Cf. Jatta, op, cit. p. 154 'Per distinguere 


There are several species of the octopus. One keeps 
close to the surface, and is the largest of them all, and near 
the shore the size is larger than in deep water ; and there 15 
are others, small, variegated in colour, which are not articles 
of food. There are two others, 1 one called the heledone, 
which differs from its congeners in the length of its legs 
and in having one row of suckers all the rest of the 
molluscs having two, and the other nicknamed variously 
the bolitaina or the ' onion ,' and the ozolis or the ' stinkard *. 2 

Dissection of female Sepia offirinalis (a-r 
i. The mantle (*eXu$os). 2. Gills (TO. Tpi^coS^). 3. Ovary. 4. Ovi- 
duct (5uo KVTTJJ Ka! TroXXa eo'a evavTots). 5- Nidamental glands (5uo . . . 
naoTQ)). 6. Anus (e^oSoy). 7. Genital aperture (>; rbv 
8ta TOU Tropou). 8. Ink-sac (66\oi). 

There are two others found in shells resembling those of 20 
the testaceans. One of them is nicknamed by some persons 

i sessi in questa specie (S. officinalis) sono stati messi in evidenza 
altri caratteri, i quali pero non reggono ad una critica accurata ; mentre 
alcuni sono molto difficili ad apprezzare, altri non sono veri caratteri 
sessuali, ma variazioni della specie '. 

Plin. ix. 30 (48). 

2 It is precisely the common Eledone (purpo muscariello, moscardino, 
poulpe musque), /ZOO-XI'T^S (Psellus), that is characterized by a strong 
musky smell, an allied species, E. Aldrovandi, being odourless but 
nevertheless unpalatable. The text is therefore not clear, and A. and 
W. would like to read aAXo Se TJ xaX. eXedavrj . . . ty /cut KaX. *rX., making 
o^oXtf, &c., synonymous with Eledone. Cf. Suid. AfXefooj/q, 6 /xuXator 
l\6vs (lege ocr/zuXor IxQvs, J. G. S.) ; Hesych. oa/xvi^ai (i.e. ocr/ijjXat), 
/3oX/3iTii/ai ^aXdcro-ioi ; Pollux 2. 76; Athen. vii. 318, viii. 357; Plin. 
ix. 48 ' polyporum generis est ozaena, dicta a gravi capitis \lege caepae] 
odore'. Cf. also /3oXj3i'8ioi> s. /SoX/SiViov, Hipp. 649. 35, 651. 50 : dvcratdrjs 
/3oX/3iYiy, Epich. 33 Ahr. (Athen. viii. 357) ; 6<rp.v\os also in Ael. v. 44, 
Opp. Hal. i. 507, 310. 

K 2 


the nautilus or the pontilus? or by others the ' polypus' 
egg'; 2 and the shell of this creature is something like 
a separate valve of a deep scallop-shell. 3 This polypus 
lives very often near to the shore, and is apt to be thrown 
up high and dry on the beach ; under these circumstances 
it is found with its shell detached, and dies 4 by and by on 
25 dry land. 6 These polypods are small, and are shaped, as 
regards the form of their bodies, like the bolbidia. There is 
another polypus that is placed within a shell like a snail ; 
it never comes out of the shell, but lives inside the shell 
like the snail, and from time to time protrudes its feelers. 6 
So much for molluscs. 

30 With regard to the Malacostraca 7 or crustaceans, one 2 
species is that of the crawfish, and a second, resembling 

1 Cf. Opp. Hal. i. 338-59,; Athen 317; Plir ix. 47. 

2 Reading vn eviwv 6' o>6i> 7ro\vnodos. Several MSS. have VTT* iviav' 
eWi 8* oioi/ TroXtTTouf, which reading Dittm. adopts; cf. Arist. fr. 316, 
ap. Athen. vii. 317^ o vavri\os rroXvnovs ftv OVK. eoriv, (ufaprjs fie Kara 
ras 7r\(KT(ivas. Schneider (vol. iii. p. 88) divined a connexion with 
Callimachus' celebrated Epigram (Athen. vii. 3l8 b ), and I am not at 
all sure that the true reading here may not be o>6v aXxvovos ; cf. Tiimpel, 
' Die Muschel der Aphrodite,' Phtlologus, li. 3, 1892. 

3 Reading with Bekk. cny-ic^r, Dittm. trvfjupvcs ; but, as Schneider 
shows, ov (rvfji<j)vr)s refers to the scallop, and means ' separated from its 
opposite valve'. Cf. 4. 528 a 15 [ot Kreves] r!j p.( v a-v^nf^vKf , rfj dc diaXeXvrot, 
GJOT< crvyK\fLcr6ai KOI dvoiyecrBat. 

4 Omit, with A. and W., dXi'o-Ktrat icai, for which Dittm. reads dXi- 

CTKfTni fj. 

5 Vide infra, ix. 37. 622 a 32 ; Ath. vii. 3i7 b ; Plin. 29 (47) ; Opp. 
Hal. i. 338. 

6 This allusion, nowhere else repeated, has seemed to many com- 
mentators to refer to Nautilus pompilins, L., in spite of the fact that 
Nautilus is not found in the Mediterranean (cf. Fer. et D'Orb. Hist, des 
MollusqueS) p. 58 ; Apostol. and Delage, op. dt. p. 414, &c.). I know 
no other clue, unless one lie in the following reference to Ocythoe 
tuberculata, an Octopod, in Jatta's monograph on the Cephalopods^ 
p. 200. ' II racconto dei pescatori nizzardi e genovesi, che si trova 
anche su la bocca dei nostri marinari, secondo il quale questo Cefalo- 
podo sarebbe fornito di una conchiglia gelatinosa, che lascerebbe 
cadere quando per essere catturato, certamente frutto della fantasia 
sempre viva nella gente di mare.' Though making light of the story, 
Jatta himself figures a male Ocythoe dwelling within the gelatinous 
test of a large Salpa, and reports that other naturalists have witnessed 
the same phenomenon. 

7 Cf. Cavolini, Erzeugung der Fische und Krebse, 1792; Cuvier, 
' Sur les dcrevisses connues aux anciens,' Ann. du Mus. An i. xi. 
pp. 368-84; J. G. Schneider, Mag. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin, I. 
pp. 163-85, 1807 ; John Young, ' Malacostraca of Aristotle,' Ann. Mag. 
N. H., 1865, p. 261. 

BOOK IV. 2 525* 

the first, is that of the lobster ; the lobster differing from 
the crawfish 1 in having claws, and in a few other respects 
as well. Another species is that of the carid, and another 
is that of the crab, and there are many kinds both of 
carid and of crab. 5 2 5 

Of carids there are the so-called cypJiae, or ' hunch-backs '^ 
the crangons, or squillae, and the little kind, or shrimps, 3 
and the little kind do not develop into a larger kind. 

Of the crab, the varieties are indefinite and incalculable. 
The largest of all crabs is one nicknamed Maiaf a second 
variety is the pagurus 5 and the crab of Heracleotis, and 5 
a third variety is the fresh- water crab ; c the other varieties 
are smaller in size and destitute of special designations. In 
the neighbourhood of Phoenice there are found on the 
beach certain crabs that are nicknamed the 'horsemen', 7 
from their running with such speed that it is difficult to 
overtake them ; these crabs, when opened, are usually 
found empty, and this emptiness may be put down to 
insufficiency of nutriment. [There is another variety, small 10 
like the crab, but resembling in shape the lobster.] 8 

All these animals, as has been stated, have their hard and 
shelly part outside, where the skin is in other animals, and 
the fleshy part inside ; and the belly is more or less 
provided with lamellae, or little flaps, and the female here 
deposits her spawn. 

1 I am inclined to read Kapidw tor Kapdftw, and to consider the 
clause as parenthetic or interpolated. The claws of the crawfish are 
described below, and elsewhere. Cf. also P. A. iv. 8. 684* 15 at 5t 
KapLdes . . . 8ia(f'pov<n . . . TCOV Kapaftoeidaiv 8ia TO fj.rj e\(tv x^^s. Dittm. 
reads x//X.a? (/ifydXar). 

8 i.e. the great prawns, Palaemon sp. 

3 e.g. Crangon vulgaris (L.). 

4 i.e. 'grannie '. Plin. ix. (31) 51. Probably Maiasquinado^zibsV. 

5 Probably the common edible crab, C. pagurus, L., mod. Gk. 

6 Thelpkusafluviatilis, Latr. 

7 Cancer cursor, Belon, Obs. de plusieurs singularity trouvtes en 
Grece, 1.553, ii. p. 138 , Ocypoda cursor (L.). Cf. Plin. ix. 51 ; fy>o/juu, 
Ael. vii. 24. The gill-chamber is very large, giving a look of emptiness 
to the whole shell. For i-mre'is Dittm. reads ITTTTOVS, with PD a C a . 

8 This and the preceding sentence are of the nature of footnotes, 
if not actually interpolations. I strongly suspect that Trord/uoi/ should 
follow, if not replace, /ii/cpot/, and that the note is parenthetic to that on 
the fresh-water crab ; cf. A. and W. in loc. 



15 The crawfishes have five feet on either side, including 
the claws at the end ; l and in like manner the crabs have 
ten feet in all, including the claws. Of the carids, the 
hunch-backed, or prawns, have five feet on either side, 
which are sharp-pointed those towards the head; and five 
others on either side in the region of the belly, with their 

20 extremities flat ; they are devoid of flaps on the under side 
such as the crawfish has, but on the back they resemble 
the crawfish. 2 It is very different with the crangon, or 

The Common Prawn, Palaemon serratus (napis f) KV(J)TJ). 

I. Five thoracic legs (ir68fs o|6t? npos T# Kc(pa\fj). 
2. Five abdominal appendages (7r68(s of Kara rrjv yaorepa, ra a*pa 

3. The ' telson ' with the last pair of swimmerets (ovpa KOI rrrcpvyia 


squilla ; 3 it has four front legs 4 on either side, then three thin 
ones close behind on either side, and the rest 5 of the body 
is for the most part devoid of feet. Of all these animals 
25 the feet bend out obliquely, as is the case with insects ; 
and the claws, where claws are found, turn inwards. 6 The 

For f (T^arais I suspect o^io-Taly. 

2 This describes such a species as Palaemon serratus. Penaetis 
caramote would suggest six legs, owing to the larger size of the third 
maxilliped ; also the swimmerets are less leg-like and more flap-like. 
1 Squilla mantis. 

4 Schn. inserts TrXarftr, after Alb. M. 
1 TrAetoy appears doubtful. 
Cf. P. A. iv. 8. 683 b 35 [TO? X'A"*] f>7r ' r " fpi$*P Kap-nrovcri KOI 



crawfish has a tail, and five fins on it ; and the round- 
backed carid has a tail 1 and four fins ; the squilla also has 
fins at the tail on either side. In the case of both the 
hump-backed carid and the squilla the middle part of the 
tail is spinous : only that in the squilla the part is flattened 30 
and in the carid it is sharp-pointed. Of all animals of this 
genus the crab is the only one devoid of a rump; and, 

Squilla mantis 

I. The large claws and three following appendages 

oi rrpcoTot). 

2. The last three thoracic limbs (oXXoi rpetV 
3. The ' telson ' and terminal swimmerets (ovpa *at 

while the body of the carid and the crawfish is elongated, 
that of the crab is rotund. 2 

In the crawfish 3 the male differs from the female : in the 
female the first foot 4 is bifurcate, in the male it is undivided; 526 a 

Dittm. suggests, I think needlessly, 
' P. A. iv. 8. 684* 2 TOIS p.fv yap 8ia TO V(V<TTIKOIS emu xprjoipos rj 
01 pa. 

3 Kapaftof, L. locusta (Plin. ix. 50, c.) ; Genoese alagousta, Fr. 
langouste ; Palinurus vulgaris, Latr. 

4 i.e. reckoning from behind. This sexual difference has been very 
generally overlooked by naturalists, though it is mentioned by Ortmann 
in Bronn's Thierreich (Crustacea, p. 1137); hence commentators, 
ignorant of the actual fact, have sought, and failed to find, the dis- 


the belly-fins in the female are large and overlapping on the 
neck, 1 while in the male they are smaller and do not over- 
lap ; 2 and, further, on the last feet of the male there are 
5 spur-like projections, large and sharp, which projections in 
the female are small and smooth. Both male and female 
have two antennae in front of the eyes, large and rough, 
and other antennae underneath, small and smooth. The 
eyes of all these creatures are hard and beady, 3 and can 

10 move either to the inner or to the outer side. The eyes of 
most crabs have a similar facility of movement, or rather, 
in the crab this facility is developed in a higher degree. 

The lobster 4 is all over grey-coloured, with a mottling of 
black. Its under or hinder feet, up to the big feet or claws, 
are eight in number ; then come the big feet, far larger 5 
and flatter at the tips than the same organs in the craw- 

15 fish; and these big feet or claws are exceptional in their 
structure, for the right claw has the extreme flat surface 
long and thin, while the left claw has the corresponding 
surface thick and round. fi Each of the two claws, divided 
at the end like a pair of jaws, has both below and above a set 
of teeth : only that in the right claw they are all small and 
saw-shaped, while in the left claw those at the apex are 

20 saw-shaped and those within are molar-shaped, these latter 
being, in the under part of the cleft claw, four teeth close 
together, and in the upper part three teeth, not close 
together. Both right and left claws have the upper part 
mobile, and bring it to bear against the lower one, and 

tinction alluded to in the foremost legs or great claws. It is not 
unnatural to reckon the legs in order from behind forwards when the 
animal is viewed from below, that is to say, in the direction in which 
they overlap. 

1 i.e. the narrow part of the abdomen. Fr. { col de I'e'crevisse '. 

2 P. A. iv. 8. 684 a 2O 7rXaKo>Sf'crTf/}rt 5e ra KUTCO at 6r)\(icn TU>V dppevav 
Kapafiw e xovai. Cf G. A. iii. 8. 75 8 a 12 ra ptv ovv Kapa/3a>&?7 ra GrjXca 
jrpbs avra Tioiemu TOV TOKor, StoTTfp pfiovs e^fi ras 7rXa*ca? ra Qf]\fa avrwv 
TI TO. appeva (pvXaKTJs X^P lv T ^ v <U<MI>. Cf. //. A. V. 17. 549 a 22 - 

1 Cf. Plaut. Men. v. 5. 24. 

1 Astacus, Plin. ix. $i,elephantiiSi id. xxxii. 53, Homarus vulgaris, L. 

' Cf. Archestr. ap. Athen. iii. 105 a dcrraKov o>j>ou | TOV TO.S xeipas e^oi/ra 
p.aKpas ... | TOVS de TroSa? p.ixpovs. 

8 Cf. P. A. iv. 8. 684* 32. The ' crushing-claw ' may be right or left, 
indifferently: cf. Herrick, in U.S. Fish. Comm. Rep. 1895; Stahr,/^. 
Zeitschr. xxxii. 1898 ; Przibram, Arch, /". Entwicklungsmech. xix. 1905. 

BOOK IV. 2 526' 

both are curved like bandy-legs, being thereby naturally 
adapted for apprehension and constriction. Above the two 3 5 
large claws come two others, 1 covered with hair, a little 
underneath the mouth ; and underneath these the gill-like 
formations in the region of the mouth, hairy and numerous. 2 
These organs the animal keeps in perpetual motion ; and 
the two hairy feet it bends and draws in 3 towards its mouth. 
The feet near the mouth are furnished also with delicate 
outgrowing appendages. 4 Like the crawfish, the lobster 30 
has two teeth, or mandibles, and above these teeth are its 
antennae, long, but shorter and finer by far than those of 
the crawfish, and then four other antennae 6 similar in 
shape, but shorter and finer than the others. Over these 
antennae come the eyes, small and short, 6 not large like the 
eyes of the crawfish. Over the eyes is a peaky rough 
projection like a forehead, 7 larger than the same part in 
the crawfish ; in fact, the frontal part is more pointed and 
the thorax is much broader in the lobster than in the craw- 5 
fish, and the. body in general is smoother and more full of 
flesh. Of the eight feet, four are bifurcate at the extremi- 
ties, and four are undivided. The region of the so-called 
neck is outwardly divided into five divisions, and sixthly 
comes the flattened portion at the end, and this portion 
has five flaps, or tail-fins ; and the inner or under parts, I Q 
into which the female drops her spawn, 8 are four in number 
and hairy, and on each of the aforesaid parts is a spine 
turned outwards, short and straight. The body in general 
and the region of the thorax in particular are smooth, not 
rough as in the crawfish ; but on the large claws the 
outer portion has larger spines. There is no apparent 15 
difference between the male and female, for they both have 

1 i.e. the third maxillipeds. 

P. A. iv. 8. 684* 1 8 TO. d' (V TOis' V7TTIOIS fJ.l>pin KO.I TTfpl TT)1> 

TO. fjLfV (Is TO de^acrOai TO vda>p Kal a<privai e^oucri 0pay^ofi8ij. 
3 Pice. ins. 8in\i7T(t>v TO Xti^/ Aa, Aid. 
1 i.e. the exopodites. 

6 i.e. the two bifurcate ' antennules'. 

5 /SpnXftr. Gaza tr. crassinsculi, reading Trn^ftV, with PD a . 

7 The 'rostrum'; cf. Ael. i. 30, of the shrimp, emKf 8e 

1 Cf. G.A. iii. 8. 758* 13. 

9 Cf. Opp. Hal. i. 261 K(ipa@os o^vrrayfjs yd' dorciKos. 


one claw, whichever it may be, larger than the other, and 
neither male nor female is ever found with both claws of 
the same size. 1 

- All crustaceans take in water close by the mouth. The 
crab discharges it, closing up, as it does so, a small portion 

20 of the same,* 3 and the crawfish discharges it by way of the 
gills ; and, by the way, the gill-shaped organs in the craw- 
fish are very numerous. 

The following properties are common to all crustaceans : 
they have in all cases two teeth, or mandibles (for the front 
teeth in the crawfish are two in number), and in all cases 
there is in the mouth a small fleshy structure serving for 
a tongue ; 4 and the stomach is close to the mouth, only that 

25 the crawfish has a little oesophagus in front of the stomach, 
and there is a straight gut attached to it. This gut, in the 
crawfish and its congeners, and in the carids, extends in a 
straight line to the tail, and terminates where the animal 
discharges the residuum, and where the female deposits 5 her 
spawn ; in the crab it terminates where the flap is situated, 
and in the centre of the flap. [And, by the way, in all 

30 these animals the spawn is deposited outside.] G Further, 
the female has the place for the spawn running along the 
gut. And, again, all these animals have, more or less, an 
organ termed the ' mytis ', or ' poppy-juice '. 

We must now proceed to review their several differen- 

527* The crawfish then, as has been said, has two teeth, large 
and hollow, in which is contained a juice resembling the 
mytis, and in between the teeth is a fleshy substance, 
shaped like a tongue. After the mouth comes a short 
oesophagus, and then a membranous stomach attached to 

1 P. A. iv. 8. 684* 26 oi p.fv ovv Kapaftot fcnV ot' Kapxivot navres 
dtiav \ovcri \i]^n v A m 'C &) K(lt lo~\ypOTfpav. 

2 Dittm. considers 11. 18-30 doubtfully genuine. 

3 Vide infra $27^ 18. Cf. de Resp. 12. 477 a 3 nnpa TII daa-ta d< 

4 Apparently the ' upper lip '. 

5 An error, exposed by Cavolini (p. 140) ; unless deposition, strictly 
speaking, rather than extrusion be meant. 

6 Omitting ?/. The sentence is doubtless corrupt. A. and W. cj. 

df Km OVTOI ra <ua KTIKTOV(TIV, cf. Dittm. 

BOOK IV. 2 527* 

the oesophagus, and at the orifice of the stomach are three 5 
teeth, two facing one another and a third standing by itself 
underneath. Coming off at a bend from the stomach is 
a gut, simple and of equal thickness throughout the entire 
length of the body until it reaches the anal vent. 

These are all common properties of the crawfish, the 
carid, and the crab ; for the crab, be it remembered, has 10 
two teeth. 1 

Again, the crawfish has a duct attached all the way from 
the chest to the anal vent ; 2 and this duct is connected 
with the ovary in the female, and with the seminal ducts in 
the male. This passage is attached to the concave surface 
of the flesh in such a way that the flesh is in betwixt the 
duct and the gut ; for the gut is related to the convexity 15 
and this duct to the concavity, pretty much as is observed 
in quadrupeds. And the duct is identical in both the sexes; 
that is to say, the duct in both is thin and white, and charged 
with a sallow-coloured moisture, and is attached to the 

[The following are the properties of the egg and of the 
convolutes in the carid.] 3 20 

The male, by the way, differs from the female in regard 
to its flesh, in having in connexion with the chest two 
separate and distinct white substances, resembling in colour 
and conformation the tentacles of the cuttle-fish, and they 
are convoluted like the ' poppy ' or quasi-liver of the 
trumpet- shell. These organs have their starting-point in 
1 cotyledons ' or papillae, which are situated under the 25 
hindmost feet ; and hereabouts the flesh is red and blood- 
coloured, but is slippery to the touch an'd in so far unlike 
flesh. Off from the convolute 4 organ at the chest branches 

1 Dittm. brackets the whole sentence ; cf. P. A. iv. 5. 679* 36. 

2 Probably, as Cavolini suggested, the ventral nerve-cord. If- so, 
to associate this with the reproductive system is an error in marked 
contrast to the accurate account of the latter which immediately 

3 e^ouat . . . eXiKas. A. and W. suspect this clause. The sequel is 
an excellent description of the reproductive organs of the crawfish, 
Kapafios. I am inclined to conjecture C\OV<TI OVTO> TO o)6i> KOI ol Kapn/3ot 

Kal ol afrraKoi. 

4 Read TOV ne\ TO. (TTTdr) KrpvKQ)8ovs Bckk. 


off another coil about as thick as ordinary twine ; and 
underneath there are two granular seminal bodies in juxta- 
30 position with the gut. These are the organs of the male. 
The female has red-coloured eggs, which are adjacent to 
the stomach and to each side of the gut all along to 
the fleshy parts, being enveloped in a thin membrane. 
Such are the parts, internal and external, of the carid. 

Male organs of Crawfish, Palinurus vulgaris (mmucor). 

1. Testes (Suo arm ^advpd, BoptKo). 

2. ' Vas deferens ' (aXXoc cAiy/ioj-, axrirtp bpireoovr) TO rrdxos). 

3. ' DuctUS ejaculatorius ' (8vo \VK arra nad* nurd, Spota TO XP>P- a 
teal rr)v (rvo~Tti(nv rats TTJS arjTTias 7rpof3ocrKio~iv). 

4. Orifice (KOTV\rj8<t)v, fj (<TTIV vrroKaro) TO>V e o-^ara)!/ 7rodS)v). 

527 b l The inner organs of sanguineous animals happen to 3 
have specific designations ; for these animals have in all 
cases the inner viscera, but this is not the case with the 
bloodless animals, 2 but what they have in common with 
red-blooded animals is the stomach, the oesophagus, and 
the gut. 

1 The greater part of this chapter recapitulates the foregoing : 
' itaque suspicor caput hoc totum accessisse ex Epitome Hieroclis aut 
alia,' Serin. 

2 Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 6;8 ft 31. 

BOOK IV. 3 537* 

With regard to the crab, it has already been stated that 5 
it has claws and feet, and their position has been set forth ; 
furthermore, for the most part they have the right claw 
bigger and stronger than the left, It has also been stated 1 
that in general the eyes of the crab look sideways. Further, 
the trunk of the crab's body is single and undivided, includ- 
ing its head 2 and any other part it may possess. Some 10 
crabs have eyes placed sideways on the upper part, 
immediately under the back, and standing a long way 
apart, and some have their eyes in the centre and close 
together, like the crabs of Heracleotis and the so-called 
' grannies V ! The mouth lies underneath the eyes, and 
inside it there are two teeth, as is the case with the 
crawfish, only that in the crab the teeth are not rounded 
but long ; and over the teeth are two lids, 4 and in betwixt 15 
them are structures such as the crawfish has besides its 
teeth. The crab takes in water near by the mouth, using 
the lids as a check to the inflow, 5 and discharges the water 
by two passages above the mouth, closing by means of the 
lids the way by which it entered ; and the two passage-ways 
are just underneath the eyes. When it has taken in water 20 
it closes its mouth by means of both lids, and ejects the 
water in the way above described. 6 Next after the teeth 
comes the oesophagus, very short, so short in fact that the 
stomach seems to come straightway after the mouth. Next 
after the oesophagus comes the stomach, two-horned, to 
the centre of which is attached a simple and delicate gut ; 25 
and the gut terminates outwards, at the 7 operculum, as 
has been previously stated. [The crab has the parts in 

1 H. A. iv. 2. 526* 9. 2 Reading fj T KftfmXjy. 

3 Far apart, for instance, in Grapsus and Thelphusa, near together 
in Calappa. 

The last maxillipeds. 

527 17 r cad a7ra>$<ui> rols eTTiKaXvp.nno'iv. Pice. cj. aTTi]6u)v, i.e. 
straining or filtering. We might also suggest anodev. 

6 It is commonly denied that the crab or any other crustacean takes 
in water either at or near the mouth, the current entering the respira- 
tory chamber at the sides of the carapace but issuing near the mouth 
in the manner described. According to Cavolini the water does enter 
by these anterior apertures, as well as at the sides of the carapace. 
Schn. and Pice, delete the last clause, KOI orav . . . ddXarrav. 

7 Omitting, with Dittm., TO before co>. 


between the lids in the neighbourhood of the teeth similar 
to the same parts in the crawfish.] Inside the trunk is 
a sallow juice and some few little bodies, long and white, 
30 and others spotted red. 1 The male differs from the female 
in size and breadth, and in respect of the ventral flap ; 2 for 
this is larger in the female than in the male, and stands out 
further from the trunk, and is more hairy 3 [as is the case 
also with the female in the crawfish]. 

So much, then, for the organs of the malacostraca or 

With the ostracoderma, or testaceans, 4 such as the land- 4 
528 a snails and the sea-snails, and all the 'oysters' so-called, 
and also with the sea-urchin genus, the fleshy part, in such 
as have flesh, is similarly situated to the fleshy part in the 
crustaceans ; in other words, it is inside the animal, and 
the shell is outside, and there is no hard substance in the 
interior. As compared with one another the testaceans 
5 present many diversities, both in regard to their shells and 
to the flesh within. Some of them have no flesh at all, as 
the sea-urchin ; others have flesh, but it is inside and wholly 
hidden, except the head, as in the land-snails, 5 and the so- 
called cocalia? and, among pelagic animals, in the purple 
10 murex, the ceryx or trumpet-shell, 7 the sea-snail, and the 

1 In contrast to the carefully described dissection of the crawfish, 
this seems to be but a crude statement of what is first seen on removing 
the carapace of a crab, viz. the white ridges of the body-wall, the gills 
lying upon them, and the soft mass of liver, &c., within. 

2 We should prefer TrAurei roC eVticaXv/u/iardf. Cf. eViVruy/ua, 526 b 29 ; 
P. A. iv. 8. 684 a 22. 

3 Cf. infra, v. 7. 54 i h 30. 

* Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 679 b 2, c. For identification of species see in 
particular E. von Martens, ' Die classischen Conchyliennamen/y^r^. 
d. Ver. f. vatcrl. Naturk. in Wiirtemberg, 1860, pp. 175-264; also 
Locard, Hist, des mollusques dans Vantiquite, Lyon, 1884. 

5 Classical references to snails are elaborately discussed by Ferussac, 
Hist. nat. des mollusques terr. et fluvial., ii. p. 97, &c. 

6 Apparently It. quecciolo, and meaning any small periwinkle-like 

7 K?jpv~ is usually interpreted to mean some such conspicuous species 
as Tritonium nodiferum or Ranella gigantea. Its modern derivatives 
are applied to very diverse spiral shells, e.g. caragubl in Venice and 
Trieste to Trochus and Cerithium vulgatum, carucolli in Sicily to 
C. mediterraneum, caracol in Spain to Helix, Trochus, Turbo, &c. ; 
hence also Prov. escaragon, Fr. escargot (v. Martens, I.e. p. 215). Cf. 

BOOK IV. 4 528' 

spiral-shaped 1 testaceansin general. Of the rest, some are 
bivalved and some univalved ; and by ' bivalves ' I mean such 
as are enclosed within two shells, and by ' univalved ' such as 
are enclosed within a single shell, and in these last the 
fleshy part is exposed, as in the case of the limpet. 2 Of the 
bivalves, some can open out, like the scallop and the mussel ; 15 
for all such shells are grown together on one side and are 
separate on the other, so as to open and shut. 3 Other 
bivalves are closed on both sides alike, like the solen 
or razor-fish. 4 Some testaceans there are, that are entirely 
enveloped in shell and expose no portion of their flesh 
outside, as the tethya or ascidians. 20 

Again, in regard to the shells themselves, the testaceans 
present differences when compared with one another. 5 Some 
are smooth-shelled, like the solen, the mussel, and some 
clams, viz. those that are nicknamed ' milk-shells V while 
others are rough-shelled, such as the pool-oyster or edible 
oyster, the pinna, and certain species of cockles, and the 
trumpet-shells; and of these some are ribbed, 8 such as 
the scallop and a certain kind of clam or cockle, and some 25 
are devoid of ribs, as the pinna and another species of 
clam. Testaceans also differ from one another in regard 

also H.A. v. 12. 544 a 15, viii. 13. 599* 12; P. A. iv. 5; Athen. iii. 
pp. 32, 44. 

Cerithium vulgatum is known in the fish-market at Spalato as 
strombolo (Faber). 

2 Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 679 b 23 ra p.fv ovv fjiovodvpa dta TO Trpoffne^vKfvai 
ffa>erni r<a npai-ts fX flv T O corpa/cov, KGU yiverai dXXorpuo (ppdy/iari Tponov 
TLVO. didvpnv, dlov ai KaXovpfvai- Xe7rd8f?. The apparent difficulty of the 
passage (cf. A. and \V.) disappears when we remember that the p.ov6- 
dvpa are not ' the univalves ' in our sense, inasmuch as the arpo/i/SooSq 
are already excluded. 

1 P.A.iv. 7. 683 b 16. 

4 Doubtless the genus still so called, whose bivalved shell is pre- 
vented from opening by adhesion of the mantle-lobes. Cf. also 
vSophron ap. Athen. iii. p. 32, c. The same shell is the Donax of 
Pliny, a name perpetuated in the Adriatic cannella s. cannalichio, 
from canna. 

6 Cf. Plin. 33 (52). 

Using ' clam \ as in America, for various common (edible) bivalves, 
e.g. Mactra, Tapes, My a, c. The ribbed kind is doubtless a cockle, 

1 Very probably a Mactra, e.g. M. lactea, Poli (M. subtruncata, 
Mont.), It. madia Candida. 

8 Elsewhere 'striped': cf. Diph. S. ap. Athen. iii. 90 *ui 01 ptv 
\ruiv trcuX^i'iv] pa/38a>rot fieri *ai ov /uovo^pco/^aTQi : cf. Xenocr. 28. 


to the thickness or thinness of their shell, both as regards 
the shell in its entirety and as regards specific parts of the 
shell, for instance, the lips ; for some have thin-lipped 
shells, like the mussel, and others have thick-lipped shells, 
like the oyster. A property common to the above men- 
tioned, and, in fact, to all testaceans, is the smoothness 

30 of their shells inside. 1 Some also are capable of motion, 
like the scallop, and indeed some aver that scallops can 
actually fly, owing to the circumstance that they often 
jump right out of the apparatus by means of which they 
are caught ; 2 others are incapable of motion and are 
attached fast to some external object, as is the case with 
the pinna. 3 All the spiral-shaped testaceans can move 
528 b and creep, and even the limpet 4 relaxes its hold to go in 
quest of food. In the case of the univalves and the bi- 
valves, the fleshy substance adheres to the shell so tena- 
ciously that it can only be removed by an effort ; in the 
5 case of the stromboids, it is more loosely attached. And 
a peculiarity of all the stromboids is the spiral twist of the 
shell in the part farthest away from the head ; they are 
also furnished from birth with an operculum. And, further, 
all stromboid testaceans have their shells on the right-hand 
side, and move not in the direction of the spire, but the 

10 opposite way. 5 Such are the diversities observed in the 
external parts of these animals. 

The internal structure is almost the same in all these 
creatures, and in the stromboids especially; for it is in size 
that these latter differ from one another, and in accidents 
of the nature of excess or defect. And there is not much 
difference between most of the univalves and bivalves ; 

15 but, while those that open and shut differ from one another 

1 Transferring this clause, which A. and W. delete, from 528** 2, 
according to a suggestion of Dittmeyer's. 

Plin. ix. 33 (52). s Infra, viii. 1.^588^15. 

4 Ael. vi. 55 OVK AJ/ auras arrcxnrdvais T&V ntrpSiv, ovdi d Ad/3otj 
8aKTv\ois TOU Mi'A&)i>of. 

8 The sentence cannot be interpreted, as A. and W. take it, to mean 
a right-handed spiral in our sense. It seems simply to mean that the 
movement must start from the right, and that therefore the shell must 
be assumed to be to the right-hand side since the animal is found to 
move in a direction opposite to the spire. Cf. de Inc. 5. 7o6 a 12, from 
which the passage is perhaps derived (A. and W.). 


but slightly, they differ considerably from such as are 
incapable of motion. And this will be illustrated more 
satisfactorily hereafter. 

The spiral-shaped testaceans are all similarly constructed, 
but differ from one another, as has been said, in the way 
of excess or defect (for the larger species have larger and 
more conspicuous organs, and the smaller have smaller 20 
and less conspicuous), and, furthermore, in relative hardness 
or softness, and in other such accidents or properties. 
All the stromboids, for instance, have the flesh that extrudes 
from the mouth of the shell, hard and stiff; some more, 
and some less. From the middle of this protrudes the 
head and two horns, and these horns are large in the large 
species, but exceedingly minute in the smaller ones. The 25 
head protrudes from them all in the same way ; and, if 
the animal be alarmed, the head draws in again. Some 
of these creatures have a mouth and teeth, 1 as the snail ; 
teeth sharp, and small, and delicate. They have also a pro- 
boscis just like that of the fly ; and the proboscis is tongue- 
shaped. The ceryx and the purple murex have this organ 3 
firm and solid ; and just as 2 the myops, or horse-fly, and 
the oestrus, or gadfly, can pierce the skin of a quadruped, 
so is this proboscis proportionately stronger in these testa- 
ceans ; for they bore right through the shells of other 
shell-fish on which they prey. 3 The stomach follows close 529 
upon the mouth, and, by the way, this organ in the snail 
resembles a bird's crop. 4 Underneath come two white firm 
formations, mastoid or papillary in form ; and similar 
formations are found in the cuttle-fish also, only that they 
are of a firmer consistency in the cuttle-fish. After the 
stomach comes an oesophagus, simple and long, extend- 5 
ing to the poppy or quasi-liver, which is in the innermost 
recess of the shell. All these statements may be verified 
in the case of the purple murex and the ceryx by observa- 

1 Or rather 'jaws'. Not, of course, the microscopic ' teeth' of the 
lingual ribbon : cf. P. A. iv. 5. 679 b 5. 

2 Pice. KadciTrep of fjivamfs KOI ol oiarpoi TO. 8. 

3 P. A. ii. 17. 66i a 21 ; Athen. iii. 89 ; Ael. v. 34 ; Plin. ix. 60. 

4 Cf. H.A. iv. 5. 679 b 9. The description seems to be taken from 
a large snail, e.g. Helix fiomatia. 

AR. H.A. 


tion within the whorl of the shell. What comes next to 
the oesophagus is the gut ; in fact, the gut is continuous 
with the oesophagus, 1 and runs its whole length uncom- 
plicated to the outlet of the residuum. The gut has its 

10 point of origin in the region of the coil of the mecon, or 
so-called ' poppy ', and is wider hereabouts [for, remember, 
the mecon is for the most part a sort of excretion in all 
testaceans] ; it then takes a bend and runs up again 
towards the fleshy part, and terminates by the side of the 
head, where the animal discharges its residuum ; and this 
holds good in the case of all stromboid testaceans, whether 

15 terrestrial or marine. From the stomach there is drawn in 
a parallel direction with the oesophagus, in the larger snails, 
a long white duct 2 enveloped in a membrane, resembling 
in colour the mastoid formations higher up ; and in it are 
nicks or interruptions, as in the egg-mass of the crawfish, 
only, by the way, the duct of which we are treating is white 

20 and the egg-mass of the crawfish is red. This formation 
has no outlet nor duct, but is enveloped in a thin membrane 
with a narrow cavity in its interior. And from the gut 
downward extend black and rough formations, in close 
connexion, something like the formations in the tortoise, 
only not so black. Marine snails, also, have these forma- 
tions, and the white ones, only that the formations are 

*5 smaller in the smaller species. 

The non- spiral univalves and bivalves are in some 
respects similar in construction, and in some respects 
dissimilar, to the spiral testaceans. They all have a head 
and horns, and a mouth, and the organ resembling a 
tongue ; but these organs, in the smaller species, are indis- 
cernible owing to the minuteness of these animals, and 
some are indiscernible even in the larger species when 
dead, or when at rest and motionless. They all have the 

30 mecon, or poppy, but not all in the same place, nor of 
equal size, nor similarly open to observation ; thus, the 
limpets have this organ deep down in the bottom of the 
shell, and the bivalves at the hinge connecting the two 

1 A. and W. and Dittm. bracket this clause. 

2 The ' hermaphrodite duct '. 


BOOK IV. 4 529 

valves. 1 They also have in all cases the hairy growths 
or beards, 2 in a circular form, as in the scallops. And, 
with regard to the so-called ' egg ', 3 in those that have 529** 
it, when they have it, it is situated in one of the semi- 
circles of the periphery, as is the case with the white 
formation in the snail ; for this white formation in the 
snail corresponds to the so-called egg of which we are 
speaking. But all these organs, as has been stated, are 5 
distinctly traceable in the larger species, while in the small 
ones they are in some cases almost, and in others altogether, 
indiscernible. Hence they are most plainly visible in the 
large scallops ; and these are the bivalves that have one 
valve flat-shaped, like the lid of a pot. The outlet of the 
excretion is in all these animals (save for the exception to 
be afterwards related) 4 on one side ; for there is a passage 
whereby the excretion passes out. [And, remember, the 10 
mecon or poppy, as has been stated, is an excretion in all 
these animals an excretion enveloped in a membrane.] 5 
The so-called egg has no outlet in any of these creatures, 
but is merely an excrescence in the fleshy mass ; and it is 
not situated in the same region with the gut, but the ' egg ' 
is situated on the right-hand side, and the gut on the left. 6 
Such are the relations of the anal vent in most of these 
animals ; but in the case of the wild 7 limpet (called by some 15 
the 'sea-ear'), the residuum issues beneath 8 the shell, for 
the shell is perforated to give an outlet. In this particular 
limpet the stomach is seen coming after the mouth, and the 

1 P.A.iv. $. 68o a 21 eVri de rois <rrpo/z/3o>8f(ni' fv rfj \IKT) Toirro, TOIS 
6e povodvpois 'fv TO) irvdp.fvif olov rais XeTracri* rots 1 fie 8i6vpoi$ npos rfj 

2 i.e. the gills. Cf. note on iv. I. $24 b 20. 

3 Apparently the adductor muscle. 

4 For rtXXoiy Dittm. CJ. daXarriois. 

5 Camus brackets ea-rl TTCKTLV tv vpevt, Dittm. the whole sentence. 
1 Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 680* 24 ; G.A. Hi. n. 76? 5. 

7 Commonly attributed to Fissurella graeca, but the epithet is 
unexplained. I suggest that it is corrupt, and conceals a forgotten 
name for the sea-ear, Haliotis TO> fi' appvyv (\frra8t rjv rives KOAUVO-I 
QaXdcro-iov ovs). Cf. Hesych., who, interpreting //. xvi. 747, has ra appvya 
% oorpta fr-a)t>, on which Schneider remarks ' vocabuium appvya in 
Hesychio nemo interpretari adhuc potuit'. 

8 A. and W. needlessly cj. 6V avrov for KOTO* or vn-o/caro) of ihe 

L 2 


egg-shaped formations are discernible. But for the relative 
positions of these parts you are referred to my Treatise on 

20 The so-called ' carcinium or hermit crab is in a way 
intermediate between the crustaceans and the testaceans. 
In its nature it resembles the crawfish kind, and it is born 
simple of itself, 2 but by its habit of introducing .itself into 
a shell and living there it resembles the testaceans, and so 
appears to partake of the characters of both kinds. In 

25 shape, to give a simple illustration, it resembles a spider, 
only that the part below the head and thorax is larger in 
this creature than in the spider. It has two thin red horns, 
and underneath these horns two long eyes, not retreating 
inwards, nor turning sideways like the eyes of the crab, but 
protruding straight out ; and underneath these eyes the 

30 mouth, and round about the mouth several hair-like 
growths^ and next after these two bifurcate legs or claws, 
whereby it draws in objects towards itself, and two other 
legs on either side, and a third 3 small one. All below the 
53O a thorax is soft, and when opened in dissection is found to be 
sallow-coloured within. From the mouth there runs a single 
passage right on to the stomach, but the passage for the 
excretions is not discernible. The legs and the thorax are 
hard, but not so hard as the legs and the thorax of the 
5 crab. It does not adhere to its shell like the purple murex 
and the ceryx, but can easily slip out of it. It is longer 
when found in the shell of the stromboids than when found 
in the shell of the neritae. 

4 And, by the way, the animal found in the shell of the 
neritae is a separate species, like to the other in most 
respects ; but of its bifurcate feet or claws, the right-hand 
one is small and the left-hand one is large, 5 and it pro- 

10 gresses chiefly by the aid of this latter and larger one. 

1 Cf. H.A. v. 15. 548* 14; Kappas, Opp. Hal. i. 320-37; Ael. vii. 
31, q.v. 

i. e. without a hard-shell coating. 
1 rpiTov (Cftyoy), Dittm. 

4 Dittm. stigmatizes the two following paragraphs. 

5 Milne-Edwards divides the hermit-crabs into Pagures dextres 
(e.g. P. bernhardus], sinistres (e. g. P. diogenes), and aequinianes. 

BOOK IV. 4 53Q { 

[In the shells of these animals, 1 and in certain others, 2 
there is found a parasite whose mode of attachment is 
similar. The particular one which we have just described 
is named the cyllarusl\ '' 

The nerites has a smooth large round shell, 4 and resembles 
the ceryx in shape, only the poppy-juice is, in its case, not 
black but red. It clings with great force near the middle. 5 15 
In calm weather, then, they go free afield, but when the 
wind blows the carcinia take shelter against the rocks : 
theneritae themselves cling fast like limpets ; and the same 
is the case with the haemorrhoid 7 or aporrhaid and all 
others of the like kind. And, by the way, they cling to 20 
the rock, when they turn back their operculum, for this 
operculum seems like a lid ; in fact this structure repre- 
sents the one part, in the stromboids, of that which in the 
bivalves is a duplicate shell. 8 The interior of the animal 
is fleshy, and the mouth is inside. And it is the same 
with the haemorrhoid, the purple murex, and all suchlike 25 

Such of the little crabs as have the left foot or claw the 
bigger of the two are found in the neritae, but not in 
the stromboids. [There are some snail-shells which have 
inside them creatures resembling those little crayfish that 
are also found in fresh water. These creatures, however, 
differ in having the part inside the shell soft.] 9 But as 30 

Read Koy^ais TOVT&V. KpoKcus A a , C a ; cf. Hesych. 
napa6a\d<T(noi. The passage is corrupt. 

2 Reading 'iv no-tv with A. and W., and Dittm. ; cV TO??, codd. 

3 "j. I. oTcOAAapor. Camus and Schn. derive from KvXXos ; cf. Hesych. 

4 The description suggests Dolium galea, the ' rotunda in oleario 
usu coclea' of Plin. xxxii. 53; cf. Xenocr. iii. 21. i^/nr/jy is evidently 
generic, including both small and large species. In Ael. xiv. 28, the 
vrjpirai are p.iKpd TO /zey$oy, Ideiv fie wpcuorara, in all probability the 
small species of Trochus, T. fragarioides, &c., now called naridoli 
in the Adriatic. The large, left-handed Pagurus striatus, 6-9 in. 
long, is common in Dolium, but like the other hermits does not restrict 
itself to the shell of any particular mollusc. 

5 ? read /caret TO nfdoi/. 

6 Athen. iii. 86 7rpu(npvs OKWS TIS ^oipaScoi/ dvapirrjs. 

1 The name does not occur elsewhere, and is here variously written. 
It is usually ascribed to Aporrhais pes-pelicani, the mod. Venetian 
name of which, zamarugola, is somewhat similar. 

8 P. A. iv. 5. 679 b 17. 

<J Apparently an interpolation, or repetition. 


to their characters, you are referred to my Treatise on 

1 The urchins are devoid of flesh, and this is a character 5 
peculiar to them ; and while they are in all cases empty 
and devoid of any flesh within, 2 they are in all cases fur- 
nished with the black formations. There are several species 
53 b of the urchin, and one of these is that which is made use of 
for food ; 3 this is the kind in which are found the so-called 
eggs, 4 large and edible, in the larger and smaller specimens 
alike ; for even when as yet very small they are provided 
with them. There are two other species, the spatangtts? 

5 and the so-called bryssus ; G these animals are pelagic and 
scarce. Further, there are the echinometrae^ or ' mother- 
urchins ', the largest in size of all the species. 7 In addition 
to these there is another species, small in size, but furnished 
with large hard spines ; it lives in the sea at a depth of 
several fathoms ; 8 and is used by some people as a specific 

10 for cases of strangury. 9 In the neighbourhood of Torone Io 
there are sea-urchins of a white colour, shells, spines, eggs 
and all, and that are longer than the ordinary sea-urchin. 
The spine in this species is not large nor strong, but rather 
limp; and the black formations in connexion with the mouth 
are more than usually numerous, and communicate with 

1 5 the external duct, but not with one another; in point of 

1 Cf. throughout, P. A. iv. 10; Plin. 31 (51). 

2 [dXX' iSiov . . . ov&fpiav], Dittm. 

8 Several species are used as food. The smaller include Sphaere- 
chinus granularis and Strongylocentrotus lividus, both very common, 
and known to the Adriatic fishermen as rizzo di mar, from the rice- 
like appearance of the eggs. According to Ed. Forbes (European 
Seas, p. 151) in Sicily the large Echinus esculentus is called the ' King 
of Urchins ', and the still ' larger E. melo is popularly considered to be 
its mother', i.e. f'xifd/^rpa. 

4 A. will not admit that these are true ova, inasmuch as he denies 
the existence of ova in testaceans in general ; cf. P. A. iv. 5. 68o a 25 ; 
Antig. 137. 

5 . Athen. iii. 91 ; Hesych. (nrardyyaC ol /ueydXoi e^. 01 QaXdcrvioi. 
1 Hesych. fipvTros, <"/u/3pun-ot. 

7 Plin. ix. 31 (51) * echinometrae . . . quorum longissimae spinae, 
calyces minimi ' : appaiently confusing with the next species ; cf. note 3 . 

8 Cidaris hystrix. A. and W. cj. yivtrai 6' tv e&Kovra f) ir\tio<ji.v 
opyvmtr. Cf. G.A. v. 3. 783* 22. Pice, reads KCITI'I for eV. 

9 G.A. v. 3. 783* 20. 

10 Cape Drepano, to the west of Athos. The sea-urchin referred to 
M is evidently one of the ' irregular' urchins, or spatangoids. 

BOOK IV. 5 530 b 

fact, the animal is in a manner divided up by them. The 
edible urchin moves with greatest freedom and most often ; 
and this is indicated by the fact that these urchins have 
always something or other 1 on their spines. 

All urchins are supplied with eggs, but in some of the 
species the eggs are exceedingly small and unfit for food. 
Singularly enough, the urchin has what we may call its head 
and its mouth down below, and a place for the issue of the :o 
residuum up above ; [and this same property is common to 
all stromboids and to limpets]. 2 For the food on which 
the creature lives lies down below ; consequently the mouth 
has a position well adapted for getting at the food, and the 
excretion is above, near to the back of the shell. The 
urchin has, also, five hollow teeth inside, and in the middle 
of these teeth a fleshy substance serving the office of a 25 
tongue. Next to this comes the oesophagus, and then the 
stomach, divided into five parts, and filled with excretion, 3 
all the five parts uniting at the anal vent, where the shell 
is perforated for an outlet. Underneath the stomach, in 
another membrane, are the so-called eggs, identical in 
number in all cases, and that number is always an odd to 
number, to wit five. Up above, the black formations 4 are 
attached to the starting-point of the teeth, and they are 
bitter to the taste, and unfit for food A similar or at least 
an analogous formation is found in many animals ; as, for 
instance, in the tortoise, the toad, the frog, the stromboids, 
and, generally, in the molluscs ; but the formation varies 531* 
here and there in colour, and in all cases is altogether uneat- 
able, or more or less unpalatable. In reality the mouth- 
apparatus 5 of the urchin is continuous from one end to the 

1 With some doubt I have followed A. and W. in reading (ort) <m 
TI, on the ground of apparent parallelism with P. A. iv. 5. 68i a 8 ; cf. 
Gaza, 'cuius rei argumentum quod semper aliquid algae suis spinis 
implexum gerant.' On the other hand, Plin. ix. 51 reads: 'ingredi 
est his in orbem volvi ; itaque detritis saepe aculeis inveniuntur.' 
This suggests to me that some such word as rpvxovaiv underlies TI 

2 [ ], A. and W., Dittm. 

3 Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 68o a 8. A. seems to have taken the general body- 
cavity, with its fluid-contents, for the stomach. 

4 In this case the ' black formation ' can only be the gut. 

5 aro'/ia, A. and W., Dittm. So the Medicean ; all other MSS. and 


other, but to outward appearance it is not so, but looks like 
5 a horn lantern l with the panes of horn left out. The urchin 
uses its spines as feet ; for it rests its weight on these, and 
then moving shifts from place to place. 

The so-called tethyum orascidian 2 has of all these animals 
the most remarkable characteristics. 3 It is the only mollusc 
that has its entire body concealed within its shell, 4 and the 6 

10 shell is a substance intermediate between hide and shell, so 
that it cuts like a piece of hard leather It is attached to 
rocks by its shell, and is provided with two passages placed 
at a distance from one another, very minute and hard to 
see, whereby it admits and discharges the sea-water ; for it 

15 has no visible excretion [whereas of shell fish in general 
some resemble the urchin in this matter of excretion, and 
others are provided with the so-called mecon, or poppy- 
juice]. 5 If the animal be opened, it is found to have, in 
the first place, a tendinous membrane running round inside 
the shell-like substance, 6 and within this membrane is the 
flesh-like substance of the ascidian, not resembling that in 
other molluscs ; but this flesh, to which I now allude, is the 
same in all ascidia. And this substance is attached in two 

20 places to the membrane and the skin, obliquely ; and at the 
point of attachment the space is narrowed- from side to 
side, where the fleshy substance stretches towards the pas- 
sages that lead outwards through the shell ; and here it 
discharges and admits food and liquid matter, just as it 
would if one of the passages were a mouth and the other an 

edd. have TO cra>/ia ; it cannot be doubted that the allusion is to the 
whole oral mechanism now known as ' Aristotle's lantern ', elaborately 
described by Cuvier, Lemons d^anat. comp., 1805, iii. pp. 329-35. 

1 The ' lantern ' with which the comparison is made is a lantern set 
on a lamp-post, and therefore having its lower end pointed and not 
flattened ; the ' lantern ' of the sea-urchin is uncommonly like that on 
the poop of a galleon in old Dutch sea-pieces. 

2 It. tetinotti. The ascidian, by the way, like the sea-urchin, is 
a common article of food in the Mediterranean : cf. //. xvi. 74 ; Athen. 
iii. 85, 92. As remedies, Xenocr. 29; Plin. xxxii. 30, 31, 39. 

3 P. A. iv. 5. 68o a 4. 4 Vide supra, iv. 4. 528* 19. 
> [ ] A. and W. 

6 Perhaps we should read o-apKvfas. So the Aldine ; elsewhere 

BOOK IV. 6 53i a 

anal vent ; and one of the passages is somewhat wider than 
the other one. Inside it has a pair of cavities, one on either 25 
side, a small partition separating them ; and one of these 
two cavities contains the liquid. 1 The creature has no 
other organ whether motor or sensory, nor, as was said 
in the case of the others, is it furnished with any organ 
connected with excretion, as other shell-fish are. The 
colour of the ascidian is in some cases sallow, and in other r 
cases red. 2 

There is, furthermore, the genus of the sea-nettles, 3 pecu- 
liar in its way. The sea-nettle, or sea-anemone, clings to 
rocks like certain of the testaceans, but at times relaxes 
its hold. It has no shell, but its entire body is fleshy. It 53i b 
is sensitive to touch, 4 and, if you put your hand to it, it will 
seize and cling to it, as the cuttle-fish would do with its 
feelers, and in such a way as to make the flesh of your hand 
swell up. 5 Its mouth is in the centre of its body, and it 
lives adhering to the rock as an oyster to its shell. If any 5 
little fish 6 come up against it it clings to it ; in fact, just as 
I described it above as doing to your hand, so it does to 
anything edible that comes in its way ; and it feeds upon 
sea-urchins and scallops. Another species of the sea-nettle 
roams freely abroad. 7 The sea-nettle appears to be devoid 
altogether of excretion, 8 and in this respect it resembles a 
plant. Of sea-nettles there are two species, the lesser and 10 
more edible, 9 and the large hard ones, such as are found in 

1 Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 68i a 28. The two orifices are the mouth and the 
atrial aperture ; the two cavities, the pharynx or branchial sac, and 
the atrium or cloacal chamber. 

2 The red is doubtless Cynthia papitiosa, which is bright scarlet ; 
the sallow includes Phallusia mammillata and other large and 
common Ascidians, 

3 Cf. Plin. ix. 45 (68) ; H.A. v. 16. 548** 23. 

4 Cf. P. A. iv.-5. 68i b 4. On the text see Dittmeyer. 

6 Plin. ix. 45 (68) 'vis pruritu mordax' ; cf. also Diph. ap. Athen. 
iii. 90. 

6 Cf. H.A. viii. 2. 590* 28. On the text cf. Dittm. 

7 Cf. H. A. i. i-487 b 12 : but possibly the sea-nettle here referred to is 
a jelly-fish, or medusa ; cf. H.A. v. 15. Cf. Cuv. in he. Plin. ' Urtica 
marina errans, medusa, L. ; urtica fixa, actinia, L.' 

8 Cf. H.A. viii. 2. 590 a 29 ; P. A. iv. 5. 68i a 8. 

u Various anemones are eaten, fried, in the Mediterranean, e.g. 
Actinia viridis, Fr. ortic de nier. 


the neighbourhood of Chalcis. In winter time l their flesh 
is firm, and accordingly they are sought after as articles of 
food, but in summer weather they are worthless, 2 for they 
*5 become thin and watery, and if you catch at them they 
break at once into bits, and cannot be taken off the rocks 
entire ; and being oppressed by the heat they tend to slip 
back into the crevices of the rocks. 3 

So much for the external and the internal organs of 
molluscs, crustaceans, and testaceans. 

20 We now proceed to treat of insects in like manner. This 7 
genus comprises many species, and, though several kinds 
are clearly related to one another, these are not classified 
under one common designation, as in the case of the bee, 
the drone, the wasp, and all such insects, and again as in the 
case of those that have their wings in a sheath or shard, 

35 like the cockchafer, the carabus or stag-beetle, the cantharis 
or blister-beetle, 4 and the like. 

Insects have three parts common to them all ; the head, 
the trunk containing the stomach, and a third part in betwixt 
these two, corresponding to what in other creatures embraces 
chest and back. In the majority of insects this intermediate 
part is single ; but in the long and multipedal insects it has 
practically the same number of segments as of nicks. 

30 All insects when cut in two continue to live, excepting 
such as are naturally cold by nature, or such as from their 
minute size chill rapidly ; though, by the way, wasps not- 
withstanding their small size continue living after severance. 
In conjunction with the middle portion either the head or 
532 a the stomach can live, but the head cannot live by itself. 
Insects that are long in shape and many-footed can live for 
a long while after being cut in twain, and the severed por- 
tions can move in either direction, backwards or forwards ; 
thus, the hinder portion, if cut off, can crawl either in the 

1 Ael. vii. 35. 

2 ?die. (TroXXai) aTToXXt'ircu, Pice. 

3 Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 68o a 29. 

4 Cantharis vesicatoria, L. 

BOOK IV. 7 532 

direction of the section or in the direction of the tail, as is 
observed in the scolopendra. 1 

All insects have eyes, but no other organ of sense discern- 5 
ible, except that some insects have a kind of a tongue 2 
corresponding to a similar organ common to all testaceans ; 
and by this organ such insects taste and imbibe 3 their food. 
In some insects this organ is soft ; in other insects it is firm ; 
as it is, by the way, in the purple-fish, among testaceans. 4 
In the horsefly and the gadfly this organ is hard, and 10 
indeed it is hard in most insects. In point of fact, such 
insects as have no sting in the rear use this organ as a 
weapon, 5 (and, by the way, such insects as are provided 
with this organ are unprovided with teeth, with the excep- 
tion of a few insects) ; the fly by a touch can draw 
blood with this organ, and the gnat can prick or sting 
with it. 

Certain insects are furnished with prickers or stings. 
Some insects have the sting inside, as the bee and the 15 
wasp, 6 others outside, as the scorpion ; and, by the way, 
this is the only insect furnished with a long tail. 7 And, 
further, the scorpion is furnished with claws, as is also the 
creature resembling a scorpion 8 found within the pages of 

In addition to their other organs, flying insects are 
furnished with wings. Some insects are dipterous or 20 
double-winged, as the fly; others are tetrapterous or 
furnished with four wings, as the bee ; and, by the way, 
no insect with only two wings has a sting in the rear. 9 
Again, some winged insects have a sheath or shard for 
their wings, as the cockchafer ; whereas in others the wings 

1 afj.(j)LKapf]5 <TKo\6ir(v8pa, Nic. Ther. 8l2; ubi Schol. \l/ 

ov yap (crnv (diKf<pa\os) } dXX' OK 'Ap. (prjcriv, ds roi/Tricro) TroXXaxis 1 eprrci, 
xat napex^t doav TOV 8iK<f)aXos flvat. Cf. de Inc. 7. 77 a 3 1 - Hesych. 
has dp-fpidfafpdyavov' faov TI TroXvrrovv, (TKoXoTTfvdpa KnX., where we should 
perhaps read d/u<p</ce$aXoj/. 

2 Cf. P. A. u. 17. 66i a 15, iv. 5. 678* 13. 
5 fig avrcJ, Pice., A. and W., D : ittm. 

4 A. and W. bracket this sentence. 

5 For fx l fKaaTov Dittm. cj. VTrdp^fi ctcaora), S. inr. 6v0r)KTOi>. 

6 P.A.iv. 6. 683 a 8. 

7 (j.<iKp6KpKov, Pice., A. and W. : paKpoKevTpov, Bekk. 

8 ChtXfer cancroides. 9 P.A. iv. 6. 683" 13. 


are unsheathed, as in the bee. But in the case of all alike, 
25 flight is in no way modified by tail-steerage, and the wing 
is devoid of quill-structure or division of any kind. 1 

Again, some insects have antennae in front of their eyes, 
as the butterfly and the horned-beetle. Such of them as 
have the power of jumping have the hinder legs the longer ; 
and these long hind-legs whereby they jump 2 bend back- 
wards like the hind-legs of quadrupeds. All insects have 
30 the belly different from the back ; as, in fact, is the case 
with all animals. The flesh of an insect's body is neither 
shell-like nor is it like the internal substance of shell- 
covered animals, nor is it like flesh 3 in the ordinary sense 
of the term ; but it is a something intermediate in 
quality. 4 Wherefore they have nor spine, nor bone, nor 
53 ab sepia-bone, nor enveloping shell ; but their body by its 
hardness is its own protection and requires no extraneous 
support. However, insects have a skin ; but the skin is 
exceedingly thin. These and such-like are the external 
organs of insects. 

5 Internally, next after the mouth, comes a gut, in the 
majority of cases straight and simple down to the outlet of 
the residuum : but in a few cases the gut is coiled. 5 No 
insect is provided with any viscera, or is supplied with fat ; 
and these statements apply to all animals devoid of blood. 
Some have a stomach also, 6 and attached to this the rest 
of the gut, either simple or convoluted as in the case of 
10 the Qcris or grasshopper. 7 

The tettix or cicada, 8 alone 01 such creatures (and, in 
fact, alone of all creatures), is unprovided with a mouth, 9 
but it is provided with the tongue-like formation found in 

1 H. A. iii. 12. 519* 28. 

2 TnjSdXia, lit. the long steering-oars of a galley. 

3 Read ovrf o-apKa^f Aa, Ca., ouro> <r. A. and W, 
1 P. A. ii. 8. 654*26. 

6 Plin. xi. 3 (4) ' nihil intus nisi admodum paucis intestinum impli- 
catum '. 6 P. A. iv. 5. 682 a 15. 

7 A. and W. point out that the gut is simple in the locusts, but much 
coiled in the cicadas. They therefore suggest f) airXovv &<rirp at 
a/cptSe?, T) tlXtyfjLfvov Sxrnfp 6 re'rn. 

1 Cf. H.A. v. 30 ; Plin. xi. 26 (32) ; Aek i. 20. 

J P. A. iv. 5 682* 19 TO yap avro p6ptov e^et ard/ua KOI -yXwrrav 

BOOK IV. 7 532 b 

insects furnished with frontward stings ; l and this forma- 
tion in the cicada is long, continuous, and devoid of any split ; 
and by the aid of this the creature feeds on dew, and on 
dew only, and in its stomach no excretion is ever found. 
Of the cicada there are several kinds, 2 and they differ from 
one another in relative magnitude, and in this respect that 15 
the achetes 3 or chirper is provided with a cleft or aperture 
under the hypozoma 4 and has in it a membrane quite 
discernible, 5 whilst the membrane is indiscernible in the 

Furthermore, there are some strange creatures to be found 
in the sea, which from their rarity we are unable to classify. 
Experienced G fishermen affirm, some that they have at 20 
times seen in the sea animals like sticks, black, rounded, 
and of the same thickness throughout ; others that they 
have seen creatures resembling shields, red in colour, and 
furnished with fins packed close together ; and others that 
they have seen creatures resembling the male organ in 
shape and size, with a pair of fins in the place of the 25 
testicles, and they aver that on one occasion a creature of 
this description was brought up on the end of a night- 
line. 7 

So much then for the parts, external and internal, excep- 
tional and common, of all animals. 

g We now proceed to treat of the senses ; for there are 
diversities in animals with regard to the senses, seeing that 3 

1 MSS. have (pTrpoa-dfv Kevrpois or oTrta-doKevrpois. Schn. and Bekk. 
adopt the latter; Pice., A. and W., and Dittm. cp.rrpoo-doKevTpcit. Cf. 
Plin. xi. 32. 

2 Ael. x. 44. 

1 f*X^ rr l^' "PP 7 ?*' reTTt i o XnXi'orarof, Hesych. 

4 s. BidfafjLd, cf. de Resp. 9. 475* 2, 8, 20 ; H. A. v. 21. 553* 28. Cf. 
also H.A. iv. 9. 535 b 8, v. 30. 556* 18. 

5 This organ is peculiar to the male cicada ; cf. Carus, Analekfen, 
1828, p. 146 ; Landois, Tonapparate der Insekten, 1867, p. 48. A pair 
of little drums on the first abdominal segment are set in vibration by 
muscles within ; the abdomen filled with air acts as a resonator. 

G ({jLTropiKuv, A. and W., after P D a . 

7 These animals cannot be identified, but I believe the last to be, in 
all probability, Gastropteron meckelii. The second suggests Penna- 
tu!a, though the comparison with a shield is obscure ; Pro f . Gruhe 
refers it to Idalia laciniosa, or some similar sea- slug. 


some animals have the use of all the senses, and others 
the use of a limited number of them. The total number 
of the senses (for we have no experience of any special 
sense not here included), is five: sight, hearing, smell, 
taste, and touch. 

Man, then, and all vivipara that have feet, and, further, 

533 a all red-blooded ovipara, 1 appear to have the use of all the 

five senses, except where some isolated species has been 

subjected to mutilation, as in the case of the mole. 2 For 

this animal is deprived of sight ; it has no eyes visible, but 

5 if the skin a thick one, by the way be stripped off the 

head, about the place in the exterior where eyes usually 

are, the eyes are found inside in a stunted condition, 

furnished with all the parts found in ordinary eyes ; that 

is to say, we find there the black rim, and the fatty part 

surrounding it ; 3 but all these parts are smaller than the 

1 same parts in ordinary visible eyes. There is no external 

sign of the existence of these organs in the mole, owing to 

the thickness of the skin drawn over them, so that it would 

seem that the natural course of development were congeni- 

tally arrested ; [for extending from the brain 4 at its junction 

with the marrow are two strong sinewy ducts running past 

the sockets of the eyes, and terminating at the upper eye- 

15 teeth]. All the other animals of the kinds above mentioned 

have a perception of colour 5 and of .sound, and the senses 

of smell and taste ; the fifth sense, that, namely, of touch, 

is common to all animals whatsoever. 

In some animals the organs of sense are plainly dis- 

1 woTOKcr, A. and W., Pice., Dittm. &>oro'Ko, MSS., Bekk. 

2 H.A. i. 9. 49 1 b 28. Perhaps Spalax typhlus, a blind, mole-like 
rodent, abundant in the Cyclades, where, according to Erhard, the 
mole is not found. We have no information as to the distribution of 
the two in Greece. 

3 KVK\O> TTIOI>, A. and W., Dittm. KVK\<t)7rtov, MSS., Bekk. Guil. 'et 
quod in circuitu pingue'. Cf. H.A. iii. 18. 52O b 2; de Sensu, 2. 438* 
2O TO \fvKoif TOII tv rotf (\ovcrn> ai/nn TT^LOV *cat Ai/rnpoV. 

4 de Sensu, 2. 438 b 27 ; P. A. ii. 10. 6s6 b 17. The clause bracketed 
(by A. and W.) apparently does not refer to the mole (which has no 
conspicuous eye-teeth, while Spalax has none at all), but is an inter- 
polation of general import. 

5 Colour is held to be that which we actually see : cf. de Sensu, 3. 
439 a 30 5 de Anim. ii. 7. 4i8 a 29 TO yap uparov eWi 


BOOK IV. 8 533 

cernible ; and this is especially the case with the eyes. 1 
For animals have a special locality for the eyes, and also 20 
a special locality for hearing : that is to say, some animals 
have ears, while others have the passage for sound dis- 
cernible. 2 It is the same with the sense of smell ; that is 
to say, some animals have nostrils, and others have only the 
passages for smell, such as birds. It is the same also with 
the organ of taste, the tongue. Of aquatic red-blooded 25 
animals, 3 fishes possess the organ of taste, namely the 
tongue, but it is in an imperfect and amorphous form, 4 in 
other words it is osseous and undetached. In some fish the 
palate 5 is fleshy, as in the fresh-water carp, so that by an 
inattentive observer it might be mistaken for a tongue. 6 30 

There is no doubt but that fishes have the sense of taste, 
for a great number of them delight in special flavours ; and 
fishes freely take the hook if it be baited with a piece v of 
flesh from a tunny or from any fat fish, obviously enjoying 
the taste and the eating of food of this kind. Fishes have 
no visible organs for hearing or for smell ; 7 for what might 533 b 
appear to indicate an organ for smell in the region of the 
nostril has no communication with the brain. These indica- 
tions, in fact, in some cases lead nowhere, like blind alleys, 
and in other cases lead only to the gills ; but for all this 
fishes undoubtedly hear and smell. For they are observed 5 
to run away from any loud noise, such as would be made 
by the rowing of a galley, so as to become easy of capture 
in their holes ; for, by the way, though a sound be very 
slight in the open air, it has a loud and alarming resonance 
to creatures that hear under water. 8 And this is shown in 
the capture of the dolphin ; for when the hunters have ro 
enclosed a shoal of these fishes with a ring of their canoes, 
they set up from inside the canoes a loud splashing in the 

1 Cf. G. A. ii. 6. 744 a 565' o(pd. 0-co^a povov iSioi/e^ei ro)V ata-dr)TtjpLO)v. 

2 H.A.'i. ii. 492 a 23 ; P. A. ii. 16. 659 b 2. Read KOI rbv rijs a 
Dittm. CJ. fj.a\\ov diapHTfJifvov . . . 6(p6a\p.cii)V fj ra TTJS 

3 For Ka\ovfj.evois 8e t^Ovcri A. and W. cj. KOI evaipots of l 

4 P. A. ii. 17. 66o b 13. 6 66o b 34, 66i a I. 

6 Still known as * carps' tongues ', and esteemed as a delicacy. 
(' Vim augendae Veneris habet,' Aldrovandi.) 

7 P.A.u. 16. 659 b 13. 

8 A. and W. bracket KU\ . , . 


water, and by so doing induce the creatures to run in a 
shoal high and dry up on the beach, and so capture them 
while stupefied with the noise. 1 And yet, for all this, the 
dolphin has no organ of hearing discernible. 2 Furthermore, 

'5 when engaged in their craft, fishermen are particularly 
careful to make no noise with oar or net ; and after they 
have spied a shoal, they let down their -nets at a spot so far 
off that they count upon no noise being likely to reach the 
shoal, occasioned either by oar or by the surging of their 

20 boats through the water ; and the crews are strictly enjoined 
to preserve silence until the shoal has been surrounded. 
And, at times, when they want the fish to crowd together, 
they adopt the stratagem of the dolphin-hunter ; in other 
words they clatter stones together, that the fish may, in 
their fright, gather close into one spot, and so they envelop 

2 5 them within their nets. [Before surrounding them, then, they 
preserve silence, as was said ; but, after hemming the shoal 
in, they call on every man to shout out aloud and make 
any kind of noise ; for on hearing the noise and hubbub the 
fish are sure to tumble into the nets from sheer fright.] 3 
Further, when fishermen see a shoal of fish feeding at a 

30 distance, disporting themselves in calm bright weather on 
the surface of the water, if they are anxious to descry the 
size of the fish and to learn what kind of a fish it is, they 
may succeed in coming upon the shoal whilst yet basking 
at the surface if they sail up without the slightest noise, 
but if any man make a noise previously, the shoal will be 
seen to scurry away in alarm. Again, there is a small 
534 a river-fish called the cottus 4 or bull-head ; this creature 
burrows under a rock, and fishers catch it by clattering 
stones against the rock, and the fish, bewildered at the 
noise, darts out of its hiding-place. From these facts it is 
5 quite obvious that fishes can hear ; and indeed some people, 

1 A similar procedure is described by Apostolides (op. cit. p. 33) in 
the capture of <rwaypi8(s, Dentex vulgaris. A hollow cone on a long 
handle is used for striking the water by Adriatic fishermen, and is 
known *s piston, stumigio, &c. (Faber, Fish, of Adriatic, p. 133). 

2 H.A. i. ii. 492 a 29. 3 [ ] A. and W. 

4 MSS. have 3oiYo? and Koirof. Sylburg restored xdrror, from Gaza. 
The traditional identification with Cottus gobio, L., has little value. 

BOOK IV. 8 534' 

from Jiving near the sea and frequently witnessing such 
phenomena, affirm that of all living creatures the fish is the 
quickest of hearing. And, by the way, of all fishes the 
quickest of hearing are the cestreus or mullet, the chrempsf 
the labrax or basse, 2 the salpe or saupe, 3 the chromis or 
sciaena, 4 and such like. 5 Other fishes are less quick of 10 
hearing, and, as might be expected, are more apt to be 
found living at the bottom of the sea. 

The case is similar in regard to the sense of smell. 
Thus, as a rule, fishes will not touch a bait that is not fresh, 
neither are they all caught by one and the same bait, but 
they are severally caught by baits suited to their several 
likings, and these baits they distinguish by their sense of 
smell ; 7 and, by the way, some fishes are attracted by 15 
malodorous baits, as the saupe, for instance, is attracted 
by excrement. Again, a number of fishes live in caves ; 
and accordingly fishermen, when they want to entice them 
out, smear the mouth of a cave 8 with strong-smelling pickles, 
and the fish are soon attracted to the smell. And the eel ao 
is caught in a similar way ; for the fisherman lays down an 
earthen pot that has held pickles, after inserting a ' weel ' 
in the neck thereof. As a general rule, fishes are especially 
attracted by savoury smells. For this reason, fishermen 
roast the fleshy parts of the cuttle-fish and use it as bait 
on account of its smell, for fish are peculiarly attracted by 
it ; they also bake the octopus and bait their fish-baskets ^5 
or weels with it, entirely, as they say, on account of its 
smell. Furthermore, gregarious fishes, 9 if fish-washings or 
bilge-water be thrown overboard, are observed to scud off 

s - XP'f" f > """"f ^ f y-> absent in several MSS. ; probably 
corrupt, and perhaps equivalent to XP ^ 5 ) both being from xpfpa, to 
neigh ; cf. infra. 

2 Labrax lupus ; cf. Ar. ap. Athen. vii. 3io b . 

3 Box salpa ; cf. Athen. vii. 32i e . Mod. Gk. truX, It. salpa, 
saoupi, &c. 

4 xPt^ s - Sciaena aquila (or some closely allied fish) : said to be 
still called chro in Genoa and Marseilles, Cuvier, Ann, Inst. Archtol., 
1842, p. 73. See notes v. 10. 543 b 2, viii. 12. 6oi b 30. 

5 Ael. ix. 7 ; Plin. x. 89. 6 de Sensu, 5. 444^ 8. 

7 Cheese, for instance, is much used by Greek fishermen ; similarly 
rogue or cod-roe by French sardine-fishers. 

8 Plin. xi. 2 (3) : Opp. Hal. iv. 647. 9 Ael. ix. 46. 

AR. H.A M 


to a distance, from apparent dislike of the smell. And it is 
asserted that they can at once detect by smell the presence 
534 b of their own blood ; and this faculty is manifested by their 
hurrying off to a great distance whenever fish-blood is spilt 
in the sea. And, as a general rule, if you bait your weel 
with a stinking bait, the fish refuse to enter the weel or 
even to draw near ; but if you bait the weel with a fresh 

5 and savoury bait, they come at once from long distances 
and swim into it. [And all this is particularly manifest in 
the dolphin ; for, as was stated, it has no visible organ of 
hearing, and yet it is captured when stupefied with noise ; 
and so, while it has no visible organ for smell, it has the 

10 sense of smell remarkably keen.] l It is manifest, then, 
that the animals above mentioned are in possession of all 
the five senses. 

All other animals may, with very few exceptions, be 
comprehended within four genera : to wit, molluscs, crusta- 

15 ceans, testaceans, and insects. Of these four genera, the 
mollusc, 2 the crustacean, and the insect have all the senses : 
at all events, they have sight, 3 smell, and taste. As for 
insects, both winged nnd wingless, they can detect the 
presence of scented objects afar off, as for instance bees 
and cnipes 4 detect the presence of honey at a distance ; 

ao and they do so recognizing it by smell. Many insects are 
killed by the smell of brimstone ; 6 ants, if the apertures to 
their dwellings be smeared with powdered G origanum and 
brimstone, quit their nests ; and most insects may be 
banished with burnt hart's horn, or better still by the 

25 burning of the gum styrax. The cuttle-fish, the octopus, 
and the crawfish may be caught by bait. 7 The octopus, 
in fact, clings so tightly to the rocks that it cannot be 

1 [ ] A. and W. 

2 Cf. de Sensu, 5. 444?* 12. 

3 A. and W. omit otytv, holding that it and aKofjv are unmentioned 
as being obvious. Dittm. adds (OKO^ *m). Pice, suggests oftai/ for 

* Plin. xi. 19, xxx. 53 ; cf. Theoph. de PL iv. 17 ; de Scnsu, L c. 

' SC. KCLlOfJifVOV. 


XeiW. Rejected as meaningless by A. and W. Dittm. quotes 
Seal., ' AeiW, frequens dictio Dioscoridi et Galeno subigere aliqito 
liquors' ; and continues, * adde \aouv, i.e. in pulverem conterere.' 
7 Plin. x. 90. 


BOOK IV. 8 534 

pulled off, but remains attached even when the knife is 
employed to sever it ; and yet, if you apply fleabane to the 
creature, it drops off at the very smell of it. 1 The facts are 
similar in regard to taste. For the food that insects go in 535* 
quest of is of diverse kinds, and they do not all delight in 
the same flavours : for instance, the bee 2 never settles on 
a withered or wilted flower, but on fresh and sweet ones ; 
and the conops or gnat 3 settles only on acrid substances 
and not on sweet. The sense of touch, by the way, as has 
been remarked, is common to all animals. Testaceans 5 
have the senses of smell and taste. With regard to their 
possession of the sense of smell, that is proved by the use 
of baits, e.g. in the case of the purple-fish ; for this creature 
is enticed by baits of rancid meat, which it perceives and is 
attracted to from a great distance. The proof that it 
possesses a sense of taste hangs by the proof of its sense of 10 
smell ; for whenever an animal is attracted to a thing by 
perceiving its smell, it is sure to like the taste of it. Further, 
all animals furnished with a mouth derive pleasure or pain 
from the touch of sapid juices. 

With regard to sight and hearing, we cannot make state- 
ments with thorough confidence or on irrefutable evidence. 
However, the solen or razor-fish, if you make- a noise, 
appears to burrow in the sand, and to hide himself deeper 15 
when he hears the approach of the iron rod 4 (for the 
animal, be it observed, juts a little out of its hole, while the 
greater part of the body remains within), and scallops, if 
you present your finger near their open valves, close them 
tight 6 again as though they could see what you were doing. 
Furthermore, when fishermen are laying bait for neritae, 20 

1 This procedure is still common in Greece, either fleabane (Inula 
coryzd) or tobacco being used ; see Apostolides, La Peche en Grece, 
1907, p. 50. Cf. An/i. zool. exp. et gen., 1881, p. 412. 

2 Cf. viii. ii. 596 b 15 ; cf. also ix. 40. 625* 20. See also Plin. xi. 8; 
Varro, /?. R. iii. 16. 6. 

3 A. and W. suggest here the vinegar-fly, Mosillus (Oinopota) 

* lit. * iron ' ; probably an iron rod with a conical knob at the end, 
still used in the Adriatic for the capture of the cape lunghe or razor- 
fish ; it is let down into the creature's burrow, between its valves 
which close upon it, and it is thus drawn up (Faber, Adriatic, p. 89). 

6 So Pice., A. and W., and Dittm. : MSS. \da-Kova-i KOI trvppvownv. 

M 2 


they always get to leeward of them, and never speak 
a word while so engaged, under the firm impression that 
the animal can smell and hear ; and they assure us that, if 
any one speaks aloud, the creature makes efforts to escape. 
With regard to testaceans, of the walking or creeping 
species the urchin appears to have the least developed 
sense of smell ; and, of the stationary species, the ascidian 
25 and the barnacle. 

So much for the organs of sense in the general run of 
animals. We now proceed to treat of voice. 

Voice and sound are different from one another ; and 9 
language differs from voice and sound. The fact is that 
no animal can give utterance to voice except by the action 
of the pharynx, 1 and consequently such animals as 
are devoid of lung have no voice ; and language is the 
30 articulation of vocal sounds by the instrumentality of the 
tongue. Thus, the voice and larynx can emit vocal or 
vowel sounds ; non-vocal or consonantal sounds are made 
535 b by the tongue and the lips ; and out of these vocal and 
non-vocal sounds language is composed. Consequently, 
animals that have no tongue at all or that have a tongue 
not freely detached, have neither voice 2 nor language; 
although, by the way, they may be enabled to make noises 
or sounds by other organs than the tongue. 

Insects, for instance, have no voice and no language, but 
they can emit sound by internal air or wind, though not by 
5 the emission of air or wind ; for no insects are capable of 
respiration. 3 But some of them make a humming noise, 
like the bee and the other winged insects ; and others are 
said to sing, as the cicada. 4 And all these latter insects 
make their special noises by means of the membrane that 
is underneath the ' hypozoma ' those insects, that is to 
say, whose body is thus divided ; 5 as for instance, one 

1 P. A. iii. 3. 664* 36. 

2 Read ovre $a>vd ovn SiaXeyerat. s Cf. Plin. xi. 2 (3). 

4 </<? Resp. 9. 475* 6 ; de Somn. et Vig: 2. 456* 10, 20; H.A. v. 30. 
556 a 20. 

' Cf. de Resp. 8. 474^ 3^ /(ra &* /iaKpo/3ia)repa TMV eWd^KOv, TOVTOIS vno 
TO 6iua>/ia $i(cr \UTTai, OTTO>S 8ia \enroT(pov ovros roO vpfvos \l/v\r)Tni. Cf. 
9. 475 a '9- 

BOOK IV. 9 535 

species of cicada, which makes the sound by means of the 
friction of the air. 1 Flies and bees, and the like, produce 10 
their special noise by opening and shutting their wings in 
the act of flying ; for the noise made is by the friction of 
air between the wings when in motion. The noise made 
by grasshoppers is produced by rubbing or reverberating 
with their long hind-legs. 2 

No mollusc or crustacean can produce any natural voice 
or sound. Fishes can produce no voice, for they have no 
lungs, nor windpipe and pharynx ; but they emit certain inar- 15 
ticulate sounds and squeaks, which is what is called their 
* voice ', 3 as the fyra 4 or gurnard, and the sciaena 5 (for these 
fishes make a grunting kind of noise) and the caprns or 
boar-fish in the river Achelous, 6 and the chalets 1 and the 
cuckoo-fish ; 4 for the chalcis makes a sort of piping sound, 
and the cuckoo-fish makes a sound greatly like the cry of 20 
the cuckoo, and is nicknamed from the circumstance. The 
apparent voice in all these fishes is a sound caused in some 
cases by a rubbing motion of their gills, 8 which by the way 


1 de Re$p. 9- 475 a *6 ofoi/ fita TO>J> KaXa/UDV TU>V r^rpvirr^vdiv ra 

cTriOaxriv v/ieVn \fmov. 

2 The sound is produced by a toothed bar rubbing against a ridged 
surface. Sometimes the hind-leg rubs against the elytron or fore- 
\\'\ng(Acridiidae), sometimes one elytron against the other (Gryllidae, 
Locust i dae). Cf. (int. al.) Latreille, Mem. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. viii. 
1822; Regen, Arb. zooL Inst. Univ. Wien, xiv (1903), pp. 359-422. 

3 Ael. x. ii. Cf. Joh. Miiller, ' Ueber die Fische welche Tone von 
sich geben,' Arch. f. Ana/., 1857, p. 249 ; also Sorensen, Om Lyd or- 
gan er hos Fiske, Copenhagen, 1884. 

4 Cf. Athen. vii. 324 b ; Ael. x. n, 12. \vpt] and KOKKU are both 
gurnards. 7\ lyra, L., the ' piper ' of English fishermen, and 7\ pint, 
Bloch (both called T. cuculus by Linnaeus), seem to be the ' cuckoo- 
fish ', and are still so called in various Mediterranean dialects ; the 
common gurnard, T. gurnardus, is a ' grunter ', Fr. grondin, gro- 
gnant, Germ. Knurrhahn,-St.c. 

5 Cf. Cuv. et Valenciennes, iv. p. 41 ; Day, British Fishes, i. p. 151. 
de An. ii. 8. 42O b 12; Ael. x. 11 ; Plin. xi. 112. This cannot be 

our boar-fish (Capros after], which is marine. It is not impossible 
that it is another name for the yXdvis or Silurus (see notes on vi. 13. 
568 U 23, viii. 20. 6o2 b 22), which belongs to a family remarkable for 
vocal powers. 

7 Identified by many with the John Dory, Zeus faber. ]. Miiller 
would read here x <l ^ K( ^ (cf. Opp. Hal. i. 133), which Athen. (328) 
distinguishes from ^oX/ciV. ^apa/a'da in Mod. Gk. is Sargus vulgaris. 

8 Or rather gill-covers ; stridulation often occurs also at the base 
of the fin-spines. 


are prickly, 1 or in other cases by internal parts about their 
bellies ; for they all have air or wind inside them, 2 by 
rubbing and moving which they produce the sounds. 3 

2 5 Some cartilaginous fish seem to squeak. 

But in these cases the term ' voice ' is inappropriate ; the 
more correct expression would be ' sound '. For the scallop, 
when it goes along supporting itself on the water, which is 
technically called ' flying ', makes a whizzing sound ; and 
so does the sea-swallow or flying-fish : 4 for this fish flies in 
the air, clean out of the water, being furnished with fins 

30 broad and long. Just then as in the flight of birds the 
sound made by their wings is obviously not voice, so is it 
in the case of all these other creatures. 

The dolphin, when taken out of the water, gives a squeak 
536* and moans in the air, but these noises do not resemble 
those above mentioned. For this creature has a voice (and 
can therefore utter vocal or vowel sounds), for it is fur- 
nished with a lung and a windpipe ; but its tongue is not 
loose, nor has it lips, so as to give utterance to an articulate 
sound (or a sound of vowel and consonant in combination). 
Of animals which are furnished with tongue and lung, 5 
5 the oviparous quadrupeds produce a voice, but a feeble 
one ; in some cases, a shrill piping sound, like the serpent ; 
in others, a thin faint cry ; B in others, a low hiss, like the 
tortoise. The formation of the tongue in the frog is ex- 
ceptional. The front part of the tongue, which in other 
animals is detached, is tightly fixed in the frog as it is in 

10 all fishes ; but the part towards the pharynx is freely 
detached, and may, so to speak, be spat outwards, 7 and it 

1 P. A. ii. 17. 66o b 25. 2 Cf. Miiller, /. c., p. 267. 

3 Moreau describes, in Trigla and Zeus, an annular diaphragm 
stretching across the cavity of the air-bladder and set in rapid vibra- 
tion ; C. R. Paris, lix. p. 436, 1864 ; Ann. Sc. Nat. (6) iv. 1876, p. 65. 

4 The flying gurnard, Dactylopterus volitans, mod. Gk. ^X/fioi/d- 
\J/<ipoi> ; cf. Opp. Hal. i. 430. Joh. Miiller (op. cit., pp. 253, 273) describes 
the grunting sound made by this fish. 

5 Seal. ins. KCU 7re</, A. and W. ?} nTro&i. 

6 A. and W. consider this a gloss on avpiynov. For aafarrj, Pice. 


7 Read fKnrvfTm with A. and W. ireTrrvKmt, most MSS. and edd. ; 

, Aid., Camus, Dittm. 

BOOK IV. 9 536 a 

is with this that it makes its peculiar croak. The croaking 
that goes on in the marsh is the call of the males to the 
females at rutting time ; ] and, by the way, all animals have 
a special cry for the like end at the like season, as is 
observed in the case of goats, swine, and sheep. [The i; 
bull-frog makes its croaking noise by putting its under jaw 
on a level with the surface of the water and extending its 
upper jaw to its utmost capacity. The tension is so great 
that the upper jaw becomes transparent, and the animal's 
eyes shine through the jaw like lamps ; 2 for, by the way, 
the commerce of the sexes takes place usually in the night 

Birds can utter vocal sounds ; and such ..of them can 20 
articulate best as have the tongue moderately flat, and also 
such as have thin delicate 3 tongues. In some cases, the 
male and the female utter the same note ; in other cases, 
different notes. The smaller birds are more vocal and 
given to chirping than the larger ones ; but in the pairing 
season every species of bird becomes particularly vocal. 25 
Some of them call when fighting, as the quail, others cry 
or crow when challenging to combat, as the partridge, 4 or 
when victorious, as the barn-door cock. In some cases 
cock-birds and hens sing alike, as is observed in the night- 
ingale, only that the hen stops singing when brooding or 30 
rearing her young ; 5 in other birds, the cocks sing more G 
than the hens ; in fact, with barn-door fowls and quails, the 
cock sings and the Hen does not. 

viviparous quadrupeds utter vocal sounds of different 
kinds, bul they have no power of converse. In fact, this 536 b 

1 A el. ix. 13. 

2 A. and W. bracket Trout fie ... IVKT&P (which, however, Plin. xi. 
65 follows) as unintelligible. I suspect the passage is entirely corrupt, 
and may have stood somewhat as follows : fio/covcrt fit *al 8ia TO p.(pv<Tav 

ru>v (riayovuv fK'TTjS (niTi>crf(i)S amrep \i\avoi <a)i/ftrr#ai ot ($dyyo, i.e. 
f resound like a stretched string.' We should have expected here 
some reference to the vocal sacs, as in Ov. Met. vi. 377 'inflataque 
colla tumescunt ' ; cf. Alb. M. xxvi. p. 253 ' ideo vesicas duas inflatas 
facit a latere oris, et cum vocat inferius labrum in aquae tenet super- 
ficie, et superius super aquam'. 

For O.VTCC.V ^ rrjv A. and W. cj. arroXeXi^ieVf?!', or /laXa/cayr/par. 

4 Schn., Pice., and A. and W. insert olov rre'pfiiKf?, following Gaza 
and Plin. xi. 51. 

5 Cf. H. A. iv. 49 B. 632 h 21. c Read ra npp(va 


power, or language, is peculiar to man. For while the 
capability of talking implies the capability of uttering vocal 
sounds, the converse does not hold good. Men that are 
born deaf are in all cases also dumb : that is, they can 
5 make vocal sounds, but they cannot speak. Children, just 
as they have no control over other parts, so have no con- 
trol, at first, over the tongue ; but it is so far imperfect, 1 
and only frees and detaches itself by degrees, so that in 
the interval children for the most part lisp and stutter. 2 

Vocal sounds and modes of language differ according to 
locality. Vocal sounds are characterized chiefly by their 

10 pitch, whether high or low, and the kinds of sound capable 
of being produced are identical within the limits of one 
and the same species ; but articulate sound, that one might 
reasonably designate ' language ', differs both in various 
animals, and also in the same species according to diversity 
of locality ; as for instance, some partridges cackle, and 
some make a shrill twittering noise. 3 Of little birds, some 

15 sing a different note from the parent birds, if they have 
been removed from the nest and have heard other birds 
singing ; and a mother-nightingale has been observed to 
give lessons in singing to a young bird, 4 from which spec- 
tacle we might obviously infer that the song of the bird 
was not equally congenital 5 with mere voice, but was 
something capable of modification and of improvement. 6 
Men have the same voice or vocal sounds, but they differ 

20 from one another in speech or language. 

The elephant makes a vocal sound of a wind-like sort by 
the mouth alone, unaided by the trunk, just like the sound 
of a man panting or sighing ; 7 but, if it employ the trunk 

^y, Pice., A. and W. arcX^, MSS. and edd. 

2 Cf. P. A. ii. 17. 66o a 26 (cf. Aristoph. Nudes, 862, 1381). 

3 Theoph. p. 181 Teubner (ap. Athen. ix. 390); Ael. iii. 35 ; Antig. de 
Mirab. vi. The difference is specific, between P.graeca and P. cinerea. 

4 Plut. Sol. An. 973 A ; Ael. iii. 40 ; Dion, de Arib. i. 20. 
Reading o/xoiW tfruaci. 

c Mr. Warde Fowler (Summer Studies] arguing, from the case of the 
cuckoo, against the theory that birds acquire their song under their 
parents' tutelage, seems to neglect the distinction here drawn by 
Aristotle. The innate and instinctive <J>U>VT) of the cuckoo is a different 
thing from the modulated and skilled SiaXeKtos of the singing-bird. 

7 G. A. v. 7 ; Plin. xi. qi. 

BOOK IV. 9 536 b 

as well, the sound produced is like that of a hoarse 

IO With regard to the sleeping and waking of animals, all 
creatures that are red-blooded and provided with legs give 25 
sensible proof that they go to sleep and that they waken 
up from sleep ; l for, as a matter of fact, all animals that are 
furnished with eyelids shut them up when they go to 
sleep. Furthermore, it would appear that not only do 
men dream, but horses also, and dogs, and oxen ; aye, and 
sheep, and goats, and all viviparous quadrupeds ; and dogs 3 
show their dreaming by barking in their sleep. With 
regard to oviparous animals we cannot be sure that they 
dream, but most undoubtedly they sleep. And the same 
may be said of water animals, such as fishes, molluscs, 
crustaceans, to wit crawfish and the like. These animals 537 a 
sleep without doubt, although their sleep is of very short 
duration. The proof of their sleeping cannot be got from 
the condition of their eyes for none of these creatures are 
furnished with eyelids but can be obtained only from 
their motionless repose. 

2 Apart from the irritation caused by lice and what are 5 
nicknamed fleas, 3 fish are met with in a state so motionless 
that one might easily catch them by hand ; and, as a 
matter of fact, these little creatures, if the fish remain long 
in one position, 4 will attack them in myriads and devour 
them. For these parasites are found in the depths of the 
sea, and are so numerous that they devour any bait made 
of fish's flesh if it be left long on the ground at the bottom ; 10 

1 de Somno et Vig. i. 454 b 15 ; Plin. x. 75. 

2 A. and W. reject the next two sentences. For aXi'o-Koi/rm, I am 
inclined to conjecture dXi'fovrm, i.e. 'gather together', and to omit 
wore rfi x f *P* ^"fji^dvfiv pqditas (cf. infra, 537 a 14, 31); for textual 
variants cf. Dittm. The cognate passage in Plin. ix. 71 simply tells 
us that lice exist in the sea, and are supposed to disturb the fishes' 
slumbers : ' nihil non gignitur in inari ; ut cauponarum (conopeorum, 
Scalig.} etiam aestiva animalia pernici molesta saltu, et quae capillus 
maxime celat, exsistant, et circumglobata escae saepe extrahantur : 
quae causa somnum piscium in mari noctibus infestare existimatur.' 

3 The 'fleas' are probably small Amphipods (Scotice 'sandy 
loupers ') ; the Arabs call shrimps barghut-el-bahr, i.e. sea-fleas. 

4 Schn. and Pice, add eV roij 


and fishermen often draw up a cluster of them, all clinging 
on to the bait 1 

But it is from the following facts that we may more 
reasonably infer that fishes sleep. Very often it is possible 
to take a fish off its guard so far as to catch hold of it or 

15 to give it a blow unawares ; and all the while that you are 
preparing to catch or strike it, the fish is quite still but for 
a slight motion of the tail. And it is quite obvious that 
the animal is sleeping, from its movements if any disturbance 
be made during its repose ; for it moves just as you would 
expect in a creature suddenly awakened. Further, owing 
to their being asleep, fish may be captured by torchlight. - 
The watchmen in the tunny-fishery 3 often take advantage 
of the fish being asleep to envelop them in a circle of nets ; 

20 and it is quite obvious that they were thus sleeping by 
their lying still and allowing the glistening under-parts of 
their bodies to become visible, while the capture is taking 
place. They sleep in the night-time more than during the 
day ; and so soundly at night that you may cast the net 
without making them stir. 4 Fish, as a general rule, sleep 
close to the ground, or to the sand or to a stone at the 
bottom, or after concealing themselves under a rock or the 

25 ground. Flat fish go to sleep in the sand ; and they can 
be distinguished by the outlines of their shapes in the sand, 
and are caught in this position by being speared with 
pronged instruments. The basse, the chrysophrys or gilt- 
head, the mullet, and fish of the like sort are often caught 
in the daytime by the prong 5 owing to their having been 

1 Plin. ix. 47. 

2 Scotice, ' burning the waiter.' Cf. Plat. Soph. v. ; Ael. xi. 43 ; 
Pollux, vii. 138, x. 133. See also Apostolides, p. 40, for an account of 
the practice in Greece at the present day, and abet (Fisheries of the 
Adriatic, pp. 100, 114, 137) for its use in the sardine-fisheries of the 

3 The 6wvovKQ-noi are the watchmen, who from elevated posts signal 
the movements of the shoals ; they are the ' hooers' of the Cornish 
pilchard fishery ; cf. Theocr. iii. 26 ; Opp. Hal. iv. 637. The present 
account seems to refer to the smaller fishery with the seine or circle- 
net, the tratta or palandaro di ton of the Adriatic : cf. Plin. x. 75, 
and see Apostolides, La Peche en Grece, p. 32. On the great tunny- 
fishery by means of the madrague or poste di ton see Ael. xiii. 16, 
xv. 5, 6 ; Strabo, v. 2. 6, 8, vii. 6. 2, xvii. 3. 16. See also P. Rhode, 
Thynnorum captura, etc., Leipzig, 1890, p. 46. 

4 Cf. Orac. ap. Hdt. i. 62. 

5 Lat./fttt*>?a, li.fiocina, by which the same fishes are still captured. 

BOOK IV. 10 537 


surprised when sleeping ; for it is scarcely probable that 
such fish could be pronged while awake. Cartilaginous 30 
fish sleep at times so soundly that they may be caught by 
hand. The dolphin and the whale, and all such as are 
furnished with a blow-hole, sleep with the blow-hole over 537 b 
the surface of the water, and breathe through the blow- 
hole while they keep up a quiet flapping of their fins ; 
indeed, some mariners assure us that they have actually 
heard the dolphin snoring. 1 

Molluscs sleep like fishes, and crustaceans also. It is 5 
plain also that insects sleep ; for there can be no mistaking 
their condition of motionless repose. In the bee 2 the fact 
of its being asleep is very obvious ; for at night-time bees 
are at rest and cease to hum. But the fact that insects 
sleep may be very well seen in the case of common every- 
day creatures; for not only do they rest at night-time 'o 
from dimness of vision (and, by the way, all hard -eyed 
creatures see but indistinctly), 3 but even if a lighted candle 
be presented they continue sleeping quite as soundly. 4 

Of all animals man is most given to dreaming. Children 
and infants do not dream,"' but in most cases dreaming 15 
comes on at the age of four or five years. Instances have 
been known of full-grown men and women that have never 
dreamed at all ; 6 in exceptional cases of this kind, it has 
been observed that when a dream occurs in advanced life 
it prognosticates either actual dissolution or a general 
break-up of the system. 20 

So much then for sensation and for the phenomena of 
sleeping and of awakening. 

II With regard to sex,- some animals are divided into male 
and female, but others are not so divided, but can only be 
said in a comparative way to bring forth young and to be 

1 H.A. vi. 12. 566 b 15; Pint. Sol. An. p. 979; Plin. x. 75; 
Ael. xi. 22. 

2 Y. A. ix. 40. 627 a 27. 3 P. A. iv. 6. 683* 27. 
4 But cf. de Somno et Vig. I. 45 4 b 20. 

6 Cf. de Somniis, 3. 461* 13, 462** 5; the contrary, H.A. vii. 10. 

10 ; cf. G. A. v. i. 779* 12. 
fi de Somniis, 3. 462 a 31 ; Plin. x. 98. 


pregnant. 1 In animals that live confined to one spot there 

25 is no duality of sex ; nor is there such, in fact, in any 

testaceans. 2 In molluscs and in crustaceans we find male 

and female : and, indeed, in all animals furnished with feet, 3 

biped or quadruped ; in short, in all such as by copulation 

engender either live young or egg or grub. In the several 

genera, with .however certain exceptions, there either 

absolutely is or absolutely is not a duality of sex. Thus, 

30 in quadrupeds the duality is universal, while the absence of 

such duality is universal in testaceans, and of these creatures, 

as with plants, some individuals are fruitful and some 

538* are not. 4 

But among insects and fishes, some cases are found 5 
wholly devoid of this duality of sex. For instance, the eel 
is neither male nor female, and can engender nothing. In 
fact, those who assert that eels are at times found with 
5 hair-like or worm-like progeny attached, 7 make only 
random assertions from not having carefully noticed the 
locality of such attachments. For no eel nor animal of 
this kind is ever viviparous unless previously oviparous ; and 
no eel was ever yet seen with an egg. And animals that 
are viviparous have their young in the womb and closely 
attached, and not in the belly ; for, if the embryo were kept 
10 in the belly, it would be subjected to the process of digestion 
like ordinary food. When people rest duality of sex in the 
eel on the assertion that the head of the male is bigger 
and longer, and the head of the female smaller and more 
snubbed, they are taking diversity of species for diversity 
of sex. 8 

1 G. A. i. i. 715* 20. 2 G. A. i. 14. 720* 7, 23. 731* 24. 

3 Dittm. inserts KI eW/ioiy : cf. 10. 536'' 25, n. 538* 23; G. A. i. i. 

4 G. A. i. i. 7i5 b 22. 

' A. and W. cj. ra e\ovra TCI &' oAo>? ov\ txovra* 

G Cf. H. A. v. 1 6. 570* 3, &c. It is a recent discovery that eels 

spawn in the depths of the ocean, from which they never afterwards 


Read Trpoa-rrf^vKor'. 
8 Cf. H. A. viii. 30. 608* 5. Yarrell, Giinther, and others, like A., 

have held the difference to be specific. We now know that the eels 

with large, broad, 'frog-mouthed ' heads are females (C. J. G. Petersen, 

Fiskeri-Beretninger, v. 1896, Copenhagen). 

BOOK IV. ii 53 8 a 

There are certain fish that are nicknamed the cpitragiae^ 
or capon-fish, and, by the way, fish of this description are 
found in fresh water, as the carp and the balagrus? This 15 
sort of fish never has either roe or milt ; but they are 
hard and fat all over, and are furnished with a small gut ; 
and these fish are regarded as of super-excellent quality. 

Again, just as in testaceans and in plants there is what 
bears and engenders, but not what impregnates, so is it, 
among fishes, with the psctta, the erythrinus, and the 20 
channe ; 3 for these fish are in all cases found furnished 
with eggs. 4 

As a general rule, in red-blooded animals furnished with 
feet and not oviparous, the male is larger and longer-lived 
than the female (except with the mule, where the female is 
longer-lived and bigger than the male) ; whereas in ovi- 25 
parous and vermiparous creatures, as in fishes and in 
insects, 5 the female is larger than the male ; as, for instance, 
with the serpent, the phalangium or venom-spider, the 
gecko, and the frog. The same difference in size of the 
sexes is found in fishes, as, for instance, in the smaller 
cartilaginous fishes, in the greater part of the gregarious 
species, and in all that live in and about rocks. The fact 30 
that the female is longer-lived than the male is inferred 
from the fact that female fishes are caught older than males. 538 b 
Furthermore, in all animals the upper and front parts are 

1 Plut. Thes. 1 8. 

2 The friXaypof is unidentified, but the word may be akin to bulbero, 
a name for the Carp in the Adriatic. It may be, as Rondelet takes it, 
the Crucian or Prussian carp, Carassius vulgaris. 

3 That the genus Serranus is hermaphrodite was rediscovered by 
Cavolini. According to -Erhard ^'. cabrilla is now known as xdwos, 
S. scriba as irtpica ; but both species, according to Faber, are called 
perga or pirca in the Adriatic, and a description of \avvr\ in Athen. 
vii. 327 b agrees with 6". scriba. (On channa cf. Ovid, Hal. 108 ; Plin. ix. 
77, xxxii. 34.) tpvOplvos suggests the scarlet colour of .V. anthias. 
V^ira is apparently a flatfish (Ael. xiv. 3 ; Athen. 330**), and has no 
known relation to the context. If we dared substitute trepKa for it, we 
should have here together the three species of the hermaphrodite sea- 
perch. For a detailed list of hermaphrodite fishes cf. Max Weber, 
Tijdsch. d. Ned. Dierk. Ver. (2) i. p. 128, 1885-87. 

* H. A. vi. 13. 567* 27 ; G. A. i. 5, ii. 5, &c. 
6 G. A. i. 16. 721* 18. 


better, stronger, and more thoroughly equipped l in the 
male than in the female, whereas in the female those parts 
are the better that may be termed hinder-parts or under- 
5 parts. 2 And this statement is applicable to man and to 
all vivipara that have feet. Again, the female is less 
muscular and less compactly jointed, 3 and more thin and 
delicate in the hair that is, where hair is found ; and, where 
there is no hair, less strongly furnished in some analogous 
substance. And the female is more flaccid in texture 

10 of flesh, and more knock-kneed, and the shin-bones are 
thinner ; and the feet are more arched and hollow in such 
animals as are furnished with feet. And with regard to 
voice, the female in all animals that are vocal has a thinner 
and sharper voice than the male ; 4 except, by the way, 
with kine, for the lowing and bellowing of the cow has 

15 a deeper note than that of the bull. 5 With regard to 
organs of defence and offence, such as teeth, tusks, horns, 
spurs, and the like, these in some species the male possesses 
and the female does not ; as, for instance, the hind has no 
horns, and where the cock-bird has a spur the hen is 

ao entirely destitute of the organ ; G and in like manner the 
sow is devoid of tusks. In other species such organs are 
found in both sexes, but are more perfectly developed in 
the male ; as, for instance, the horn of the bull is more 
powerful than the horn of the cow. 7 

1 vorr\6rfpa' e/KTrXevporepa, P., Aid.; et/TrXeuporf/ja, A. and W. , who 
quote Physiogn.t). 8<D9 b 5 dr/Xvappevos . . . aTrXtvporfpa . . . appfvts (UTrXfvpui. 

' Read TO. 8" a>s av . . . KOTO) Xe^&'vra. 

! Ci. Schn. iv. p. 385. The whole passage looks like an extract 
from a work on Physiognomy; cf. Ar. Physiogn. 6. 8io a . 

4 Probl. xi. 62. 906* 3. 

5 G.A. v. 7. ;86 b 23, ;8; b 9. 
; Cf.H.A. ix. 49. 631 b 12. 

7 Cf. Probl. x. 57. 897 b 27 ; Plin. xi. 37 (45) ; Ael. xii. 19. 


I As to the parts internal and external that all animals are 538** 
furnished withal, and further as to the senses, to voice, and 
sleep, and the duality of sex, all these topics have now been 3 
touched upon. It now remains for us to discuss, duly and 539 a 
in order, their several modes of propagation. 

These modes are many and diverse, and in some 
respects are like, and in other respects are unlike to one 
another. As we carried on our previous discussion genus 
by genus, so we must attempt to follow the same 5 
divisions in our present argument ; only that whereas 
in the former case we started with a consideration 
of the parts of man, in the present case it behoves us to 
treat of man last of all because he involves most discussion. 1 
We shall commence, then, with testaceans, and then proceed 10 
to crustaceans, and then to the other genera in due order ; 
and these other genera are, severally, molluscs, and insects, 
then fishes viviparous and fishes oviparous, and next birds ; 
and afterwards we shall treat of animals provided with feet, 
both such as are oviparous and such as are viviparous ; and 
we may observe that some - quadrupeds are viviparous, but 
that the only viviparous biped is man. 15 

3 Now there is one property that animals are found to 
have in common with plants. 4 For some plants are 
generated from the seed of plants, whilst other plants 
are self-generated through the formation of some elemental 
principle similar to a seed ; and of these latter plants some 
derive their nutriment from the ground, whilst others grow 
inside other plants, as is mentioned, by the way, in my 20 
treatise on Botany. 5 So with animals, some spring from 

1 H. A. i. 6. 491* 19. 2 Dittm. would read rroXXd. 

3 We here enter on a long parenthesis, including much that is 
probably late and spurious, returning to the main question and to the 
promised order of treatment in c. 15. 

4 G. A. i. i. yi5 b i8. 

5 Cf. Wimmer, Fragmenta, p. 46 et seq. But eV rols fyvrjis ov 

TO OfjXv TOV appevos, G. A. ii. 4 74 1 a 3, &c. 


r parent animals according to their kind, whilst others grow 
spontaneously and not from kindred stock ; and of these 
instances of spontaneous generation some come from putre- 
fying earth or vegetable matter, 1 as is the case with a 
number of insects, while others are spontaneously generated 

L25 in the inside of animals out of the secretions of their 
several organs. 
In animals where generation goes by heredity, wherever 
there is duality of sex generation is due to copulation. In 
the group of fishes, however, there are some that are neither 
male nor female, and these, while they are identical generi- 
cally with other fish, differ from them specifically ; - but 
there are others that stand altogether isolated and apart by 
themselves. Other fishes there are that are always female 
30 and never male, :! and from them are conceived 4 what cor- 
respond to the wind-eggs in birds. Such eggs, by the 
way, in birds are all unfruitful ; but it is their nature 
to be independently capable of generation up to the 
539 b e gg' sta g e J unless indeed there be some other mode than 
the one familiar to us of intercourse with the male ; but 
concerning these topics we shall treat more precisely 
later on. (l In the case of certain fishes, however, after they 
have spontaneously generated eggs, these eggs develop 
into living animals ; only that in certain of these cases 
development is spontaneous, and in others is not inde- 
5 pendent of the male ; and the method of proceeding in 
regard to these matters will be set forth by and by, for the 
method is somewhat like to the method followed in the 
case of birds. 7 But whensoever creatures are spontaneously 
generated, either in other animals, in the soil, or on plants, or 
in the parts of these, and when such are generated male 
and female, then from the copulation of such spontaneously 

1 //. A. v. 19. 55i a i ; G. A. i. 2. 7i5 b 27. 

1 e.g. Kfar^fvs. Cf. infra, v. n. 543 b 17, vi. 15. 569*. 

3 Cf. f'putfpti/or, x<* vl>r l (^ TTa )) 'v. H. 53& a 20; G.A. iii. I. 75o b 28, 

5. 756*15, &c. 

1 A. and W. supply o>a. 

5 Reading, with PD a , dXXa n*xP l T v <pov ytwrja-iv. Cf. G. A.\\. 5. 
74I a 1 8 Svi/arat ptxpi yf rivot TO 6ri\v ytvvav. TI 5' (\ei Ka\roiiTo arropiav, 

TTtoS Ttf aVTtoV TO. (fO. <f>T)(Ttl r)V. 

6 v. 5. 54i a 26,'vi. 2. 559 b 2o; G. A.u\.6, &c. 7 //. A. vi. 3, &c. 

BOOK V. I 539 b 

generated males and females there is generated a something 10 
a something never identical in shape with the parents, but 
a something imperfect. 1 For instance, the issue of copula- 
tion in lice is nits ; in flies, grubs ; in fleas, 2 grubs egg-like 
in shape ; and from these issues the parent-species is never 
reproduced, nor is any animal produced at all, but the like 
nondescripts only. 3 

First, then, we must proceed to treat of ' covering ' in 
regard to such animals as cover and are covered ; and then 
after this to treat in due order of other matters, both the 15 
exceptional and those of general occurrence. 

2 Those animals, then, cover and are covered in which 
there is a duality of sex, and the modes of covering in such 
animals are not in all cases similar nor analogous. 4 For 
the red-blooded animals that are viviparous and furnished 
with feet 5 have in all cases organs adapted for procreation, 20 
but the sexes do not in all cases come together in like 
manner. Thus, opisthuretic animals copulate with a rear- 
ward presentment, as is the case with the lion, the hare, 
and the lynx; 6 though, by the way, in the case of the hare, 
the female is often observed to cover the male. 

The case is similar in most other such animals ; that is to 2 5 
say, the majority of quadrupeds copulate as best they can, the 
male mounting the female ; and this is the only method of co- 
pulating adopted by birds, though there are certain diversities 
of method observed even in birds. 7 For in some cases the 
female squats on the ground and the male mounts on top 3 
of her, as is the case with the cock and hen bustard, 8 and 
the barn-door cock and hen ; in other cases, the male 
mounts without the female squatting, as with the male and 

1 G. A. i. 16. 72i a , i. 18. 723 b 5, &c. 

2 Schn., Guil., Bekk. ^v X S>v. Cf. G.A. i. 18. 721* 8, 723" 5. But 
butterflies are not among the things ' spontaneously generated '. Cf. 
also in/ra, c. 19. 551* 24, 31. 556 b 24 ; Athen. vii. 352. 

3 H.A. v. 31. 556 b , Athen. vii. 352. 

4 Plin. x. 83. 

6 So A. and W. ; Bekk. (following Aa Ca), TTUVTO TO tippera npbs 

rjv yevvt]TiK)v. 

6 H.A. ii. i. 5ob b 15, vi. 31. 579- 31 ; P. A. iv. 10. 689* 31. Cf. 
Ael. xiii. 12. 

7 Piin. x. 73. 8 brigs' vecrn'Sff, Du. 

AR. H.A. N 


female crane ; 1 for, with these birds, the male mounts on to 
the back of the female and covers her, and like the cock- 
sparrow consumes but very little time in the operation. Of 
quadrupeds, bears perform the operation lying prone on 
54O a one another,- in the same way as other quadrupeds do 
while standing up ; that is to say, with the belly of the 
male pressed to the back of the female. Hedgehogs 
copulate erect, belly to belly. 3 

With regard to large-sized vivipara, the hind only very 
rarely sustains the mounting of the stag to the full conclu- 
5 sion of the operation, and the same is the case with the cow 
as regards the bull, 4 owing to the rigidity of the penis of 
the bull. In point of fact, the females of these animals 
elicit the sperm of the male in the act of withdrawing from 
underneath him ; and, by the way, this phenomenon has 
been observed in the case of the stag and hind, domes- 
ticated, of course. Covering with the wolf is the same as 

10 with the dog. Cats do not copulate with a rearward pre- 
sentment on the part of the female, but the male stands 
erect and the female puts herself underneath him ; 5 and, 
by the way, the female cat is peculiarly lecherous, and 
wheedles the male on to sexual commerce, and caterwauls 
during the operation. 6 Camels copulate with the female 
in a sitting posture, and the male straddles over and covers 
her, not with the hinder presentment on the female's part 

15 but like the other quadrupeds mentioned above, and they 
pass the whole day long in the operation ; when thus 
engaged they retire to lonely spots, 7 and none but their 
keeper dare approach them. And, be it observed, the 
penis of the camel is so sinewy that bow-strings are 

20 manufactured out of it. Elephants, also, copulate in lonely 
places, 8 and especially by river-sides in their usual haunts ; 
the female squats down, and straddles with her legs, and 
the male mounts and covers her. The seal covers like all 

1 Plin. x. 73 ' stante, ut in gruibus '. 

' H. A. vi. 30. 579 a 19 KaraKK\ifUvat frrl TTJS yrjs. 

3 H. A. vi. 2. 54o a 3; G.A. i. 5. 7i7 b 3O. 

H. A. vi. 29. 578 b 7 ; Plin. x. 83. 5 Plin. I.e. 

6 ' Amat miserrime,' Linnaeus, in Syst. Nat. 
1 Cf. Ael. vi. 60. 8 Cf. Ael. viii. 17 ; Plin. viii. 5 ; //. A. ii. i. 500'' 7. 


BOOK V. 2 54Q a 

opisthuretic animals, and in this species the copulation 
extends over a lengthened time, as is the case with the 
dog and bitch ; and the penis in the male seal is excep- 25 
tionally large. 

3 Oviparous quadrupeds cover one another in the same 
way. That is to say, in some cases the male mounts the 
female precisely as in the viviparous animals, 1 as is observed 
in both the land and the sea tortoise. . . . And these 
creatures have an organ in which the ducts converge, and 30 
with which they perform the act of copulation, as is also 
observed in the toad, 2 the frog, and all other animals of 
the same group. 

4 Long animals devoid of feet, like serpents and muraenae, 
intertwine in coition, belly to belly." And, in fact, serpents 540 
coil round one another so tightly as to present the 
appearance of a single serpent with a pair of heads. The 
same mode is followed by the saurians ; that is to say, 
they coil round one another in the act of coition. 5 

5 All fishes, with the exception of the flat selachians, lie 
down side by side, and copulate belly to belly. Fishes, 4 
however, that are flat and furnished with tails as the ray, 
the trygon, 5 and the like copulate not only in this way, 
but also, where the tail from its thinness 6 is no impediment, 
by mounting of the male upon the female, belly to back. i 
But the rhina or angel-fish, 7 and other like fishes where the 
tail is large, copulate only by rubbing against one another 
sideways, belly to belly. Some men assure us that they 
have seen some of the selachia copulating hindways, like 
dog and bitch. In all the cartilaginous species the female 15 
is larger than the male ; and the same is the case with other 

1 Cf. Ael. xv. 19. 

2 For rpvyovfs Gesner suggests <ppvvoi ; cf. Plin, ix. 74. 

1 G.A. i. 7. 718* 17 ; Plin. x. 82. 4 Plin. ix. 74. 

5 Guil. has rana et turtur, i. e. j3arpn^oy KOI rpvywv. 

6 Schn. conj. rpa^u ; cf. Plin. ix. 74 * Plani piscium quibus cauda 
non obest aculeique ... in coitu superveniunt '. Dittm. cj. TO ovpalov 
fj.fl(ov (\ov Traces, i. e. ' from its thickness '. 

7 The identification is traditional but uncertain : pivr] is probably 
either Rhina squatina or the allied Rhinobatus column ae \ cf. vi. II. 
566 a 27. 

N 2 


fishes for the most part. 1 And among cartilaginous fishes 
are included, besides those already named, the bos, 2 the 
lamia, 3 the aetos, 4 the narce or torpedo, the fishing-frog, 
and all the galeodes or sharks and dogfish. 6 Cartilaginous 
fishes, then, of all kinds, have in many instances been 

20 observed copulating in the way above mentioned ; for, by 
the way, in viviparous animals the process of copulation is 
of longer duration than in the ovipara. 

It is the same with the dolphin and with all cetaceans ; G 
that is to say, they come side by side, male and female, and 
copulate, and the act extends over a time which is neither 
short nor very long. 

Again, in cartilaginous fishes the male, in some species, 

25 differs from the female in the fact that he is furnished with 
two appendages hanging down^ from about the exit of the 
residuum, and that the female is not so furnished ; and this 
distinction between the sexes is observed in all the species 
of the sharks and dog-fish. 

7 Now neither fishes nor any animals devoid of feet are 

3 furnished with testicles, 8 but male serpents and male fishes 
have a pair of ducts which fill with milt or sperm at the 
rutting season, and discharge, in all cases, a milk-like juice. 
These ducts unite, as in birds ; for birds, by the way, have 
54i a their testicles in their interior, and so have all ovipara 
that are furnished with feet. And this union of the ducts 
is so far continued and of such extension as to enter the 
receptive organ in the female. 

1 H.A.iv. ii. 538*27. 

2 Probably Notidanus griseus (cf. fr. 293, 1529* 17), It. pesce mango 
or ' ox-fish ', from its great eye. 

3 One of the greater sharks, e. g. Carcharias glaucus, or Carcharodon 
Rondeletii\ Mod. Gk. Aa/ut'a, Kap\apias. 

4 In all probability Myliobatis aquila or bovinci. Mod. Gk. aero'?, 
It. aquila^ aquilone. The characteristic feature of this fish is the great 
stinging spine at the base of the tail. I have little doubt that the 
original name, still preserved in Sicily, was pisci acula> or aKv\(r}s ; 
then by corruption in old seafaring polyglot, aquila and aleros. 

5 The yaXeeofiq, or yaXcol, are the sharks and dog-fishes (Squatinf) 
as opposed to the skates and rays; cf. H. A. i. 5. 489** 6, vi. 10. 
565* 14, &c. 

1 G. A. iii. 5. 76s b I ; Plin. ix. 74. 

7 A. and W. regard the next two paragraphs as an interpolation : 
cf. iii. i. 509 b 3, ii. 16. 5o6 b 24. 

8 H.A. ii. 17. 5oS a l2, iii. i. 509*' 15 ; G.A. i. 3. 7i6 b 15. 

BOOK V. 5 541 

In viviparous animals furnished with feet there is out- 
wardly one and the same duct for the sperm and the liquid 
residuum ; l but there are separate ducts internally, as has 5 
been observed in the differentiation of the organs. And 
with such animals as are not viviparous 2 the same passage 
serves for the discharge also of the solid residuum ; although, 
internally, there are two passages, 3 separate but near to 
one another. And these remarks apply to both male and 
female ; for these animals are unprovided with a bladder 
except in the case of the tortoise; and the she-tortoise, 4 10 
though furnished with a bladder, has only one passage ; 
and tortoises, by the way, belong to the ovipara. 

In the case of oviparous fishes the process of coition is 
less open to observation. In point of fact, some are led by 
the want of actual observation to surmise that the female 
becomes impregnated by swallowing the seminal fluid of 
the male. And there can be no doubt that this proceeding 
on the part of the female is often witnessed ; for at the rutting 
season the females follow the males and perform this opera- 15 
tion, and strike the males with their mouths under the 
belly, and the males are thereby induced to part with 
the sperm sooner and more plentifully. And, further, at the 
spawning season the males go in pursuit of the females, 
and, as the female spawns, the males swallow the eggs; 6 
and the species is continued in existence by the spawn that 
survives this process. On the coast of Phoenicia they take 
advantage of these instinctive propensities of the two sexes 
to catch both one and the other : that is to say, by using 
the male of the grey mullet as a decoy they collect and net 2 o 
the female, and by using the female, the male. 6 

1 H. A. i. 17. 497* 25 ; P. A. iv. 13. 697** 1 1 ; G. A. \. 13. 7i9 b 2 9 
18. 726 a 16. 

2 We read, with Dittm., (voroKouaiv for fif) e^oucri K.VVTI.V. 
8 Schn., Pice., and Dittm. insert (fluo). 

4 Schn. and Pice. cj. BaXarria for tf^Aeia : cf. H. A. iii. 15. 5i9 b 15, 
ii. 1 6. 5o6 b 27 ; P. A. iii. 8. 67 i a 15. 

5 H.A. vi. 13. 567* 32 ; G. A. iii. 5. 756** 5 ; Plin. ix. 74 ; Ael. ix. 63. 

6 Cf. Opp. Hal. iv. 120-45. This process is still in use, especially in 
Elis (Apostolides, op. tit. p. 45). One fisher holds a female grey mullet 
with rod and line fastened to its operculum, while another casts a 
light net (Tre&fioXov) about the males which gather round. The scarus 
is caught in the same way, as also in Oppian's time (Hal. iv. 40-110). 



The repeated observation of this phenomenon has led to 
the notion that the process was equivalent to coition, but 
the fact is that a similar phenomenon is observable in 
quadrupeds. For at the rutting seasons both the males 
25 and the females take to running at their genitals, and the 
two sexes take to smelling each other at those parts. 1 

[With partridges, 2 by the way, if the female gets to 
leeward of the male, she becomes thereby impregnated. 
And often when they happen to be in heat she is affected 
in this wise by the voice of the male, or by his breathing 
down on her as he flies overhead ; 3 and, by the way, both 
the male and the female partridge keep the mouth wide 
30 open and protrude the tongue in the process of coition.] 4 

The actual process of copulation on the part of oviparous 
fishes is seldom accurately observed, owing to the fact that 
they very soon fall aside and slip asunder. But, for all 
that, the process has been observed to take place in the 
manner above described. 

54i b Molluscs, such as the octopus, the sepia, and the 6 
calamary, have sexual intercourse all in the same way ; 5 
that is to say, they unite at the mouth, by an interlacing of 
their tentacles. When, then, the octopus rests its so-called 
5 head G against the ground and spreads abroad its tentacles, 
the other sex fits into the outspreading of these tentacles, 
and the two sexes then bring their suckers into mutual 

Some assert that the male has a kind of penis in one of 

his tentacles, 7 the one in which are the [two] 8 largest 

10 suckers; and they further assert that the organ is ten- 

1 G.A. ii. 8. 748 b 26. 

2 H.A.\\. 2. 56o lj 13 ; G.A. iii. 15. 75 i a 13 ; Plin. x. 51 ; Athen. ix. 
389; Ael. xvii. 15 ; Antig. Ixxxvii. 

1 Schneider emends as follows : al 8e TrtdtKfs ac Kara avfov O-TGHTIV at 

TU>V ppva>v, (ynvoi yvovrai, tav opycocrat TIT^COCTI, KCI tTr<p7r(Top.(v(i>v 
tie TOV Karanvet>crac rov appeva' 7roXXds de KOI rrjs dxavrjs unvov anovovcrni. 
Cf. Plin. I.e. 

Probably an interpolation here (B. St. Hilaire, Dittm.). 
6 G. A. i. 14. 72o b 9, &c. 

1 i.e. its body or mantle-sac; cf. iv. i. 523 b 24. 
r H. A. iv. i. 524 a 5 ; Athen. vii. 317. 
duo is unintelligible, and doubtless corrupt. 

BOOK V. 6 54i b 

dinous l in character, growing attached right up to the 10 
middle of the tentacle, and that the latter enables it to 
enter the nostril or funnel 2 of the female. 

Now cuttle-fish and calamaries swim about closely inter- 
twined, with mouths and tentacles facing one another and 
fitting closely together, and swim thus in opposite direc- 
tions ; 3 and they fit their so-called nostrils into one 
another, and the one sex swims backwards and the other 
frontwards during the operation. And the female lays its 
spawn by the so-called 'blow-hole'; 4 and, by the way, 15 
some declare that it is at this organ that the coition really 
takes place. 

7 Crustaceans copulate, 5 as the crawfish, the lobster, the 
carid and the like, just like the opisthuretic quadrupeds, ao 
when the one animal turns up its tail and the other puts 
his tail on the other's tail. Copulation takes place in the 
early spring, near to the shore ; and, in fact, the process 
has often been observed in the case of all these animals. 6 
Sometimes it takes place about the time when the figs 
begin to ripen. Lobsters and carids copulate in like 25 

Crabs copulate 7 at the front parts of one another, belly 
to belly, throwing their overlapping 8 opercula to meet one 
another : first the smaller crab mounts the larger at the 
rear ; after he has mounted, the larger one turns on one 
side. Now, the female differs 9 in no respect from the 30 
male except in the circumstance that its operculum is 
larger, more elevated, and more hairy, and into this oper- 
culum it spawns its eggs and in the same neighbourhood is 
the outlet of the residuum. In the copulative process of 

1 yeupooSfy, perhaps identical with mfioia>8ff : cf. ixi/pw (L. nervus, 

2 G.A. i. 15. 72o a 28. 3 Plin. ix. 37, 74; Athen. vii. 323. 

4 $V(rr)TT]p, fjLVKrrjp, and ai/Ao? (H.A. iv. I. 524; G.A. \. 14. 72O b 32) 

are all alike used of the ' funnel '. 

5 Cf. G.A. i. 14. 72o b 9. See also Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., il 
pp. 279-82 ; Coste, Compt. rend. xlvi. pp. 432, 433, 1858. 

6 Athen. iii. 105. 7 G.A. i. 14. 72O b 9 ; Plin. ix. 74. 
8 Or ' in folds or layers '. 

<J H.A. iv. 3. 


these animals there is no protrusion of a member from one 
animal into the other. 

Insects J copulate at the hinder end, 2 and the smaller 8 
542 a individuals mount the larger ; and the smaller individual is 
the male. The female pushes from underneath her sexual 
organ into the body of the male above, this being the 
reverse of the operation observed in other creatures ; 3 and 
this organ in the case of some insects appears to be dispro- 
portionately large when compared to the size of the body, 
5 and that too in very minute creatures ; in some insects the 
disproportion is not so striking. This phenomenon may be 
witnessed if any one will pull asunder flies that are copulat- 
ing ; and, by the way, these creatures are, under the circum- 
stances, averse to separation ; for the intercourse of the 
sexes in their case is of long duration, as may be observed 

10 with common everyday insects, such as the fly and the can- 
tharis. They all copulate in the manner above described, 
the fly, the cantharis, the sphondyle, 4 [the phalangium 
spider] 5 and any others of the kind that copulate at all. 
The phalangia that is to say, such of the species as spin 
webs perform the operation in the following way: the 
female takes hold of the suspended web at the middle and 
gives a pull, and the male gives a counter pull ; this opera- 

1 5 tion they repeat until they are drawn in together and 
interlaced at the hinder ends ; for, by the way, this mode 
of copulation suits them in consequence of the rotundity of 
their stomachs. 7 

So much for the modes of sexual intercourse in all 
animals ; but, with regard to the same phenomenon, there 
are definite laws followed as regards the season of the year 
and the age of the animal. 

20 Animals in general seem naturally disposed to this inter- 

G. A. i. 16. 72i a . 

2 Dittm. suggests OVK oirurdev, d\X\ 
8 G.A. i. 21. 729 b 22. 

4 For reff. cf. Schneider, vol. iii. p. 275 ; Sundevall, Thierarten des 
Ar. p. 237. The animal is unidentified. 

6 [ ] Dittm. G Cf. ix. 39. 622 b 27, &c. 

7 Plin. xi. 29. 

BOOK V. 8 54 a 

course at about the same period of the year, and that is 
when winter is changing into summer. And this is the 
season of spring, in which almost all things that fly or walk 
or swim take to pairing. Some animals pair and breed 
in autumn also and in winter, as is the case with cer- 25 
tain aquatic animals and certain birds. Man pairs and 
breeds at all seasons, as is the case also with domesticated 
animals, owing to the shelter and good feeding they enjoy : 
that is to say, with those whose period of gestation is also 
comparatively brief, as the sow and the bitch, and with those 
birds that breed frequently. Many animals time the season 30 
of intercourse with a view to the right nurture subsequently 
of their young. In the human species, the male is more under 
sexual excitement in winter, and the female in summer. 54 a 

With birds the far greater part, as has been said, pair 
and breed during the spring and early summer, with the 
exception of the halcyon. 

The halcyon 1 breeds at the season of the winter solstice. 
Accordingly, when this season is marked with calm 5 
weather, 2 the name of ' halcyon days ' is given to the seven 
days preceding, and to as many following, the solstice ; as 
Simonides the poet says : 

God lulls for fourteen days the winds to sleep 

In winter ; and this temperate interlude 

Men call the Holy Season., when the deep 

Cradles the mother Halcyon and her brood. 10 

And these days are calm, when southerly winds prevail at 
the solstice, northerly ones having been the accompaniment 
of the Pleiads. The halcyon is said to take seven days for 
building her nest, and the other seven for laying and 
hatching her eggs. 3 In our country there are not always 
halcyon days about the time of the winter solstice, but in 15 
the Sicilian .seas this season of calm is almost periodical. 
The bird lays about five eggs. 

1 Cf. ix. 14, 

8 Theocr. vii. 57 ; Plin. x. 47, &c. For reff. see Gl. of Gk. Birds, 
p. 30. 

The number of the halcyon days varies according to different 
authorities ; cf. Suid. s. it. aXwovidtf y 


[The aithyia, or diver, and the larus, or gull, lay their 9 
eggs on rocks l bordering on the sea, two or three at a time ; 
but the gull lays in the summer, and the diver at the 
beginning of spring, just after the winter solstice, and it 

20 broods 2 over its eggs as birds do in general. And neither 
of these birds resorts to a hiding-place.] 3 

The halcyon is the most rarely seen of all birds. It is 
seen only about the time of the setting of the Pleiads and 
the winter solstice. When ships are lying at anchor in 
the roads, it will hover about a vessel and then disappear 

25 in a moment, and Stesichorus in one of his poems alludes 
to this peculiarity. 4 The nightingale also breeds at the 
beginning of summer, and lays five or six eggs ; from 
autumn until spring it retires to a hiding-place. 

Insects copulate and breed in winter also, that is when 
the weather is fine and south winds prevail ; such, I mean, 

30 as do not hibernate, as the fly and the ant, The greater 
part of wild animals bring forth once and once only iii 
the year, except in the case of animals like the hare, 
where the female can become superfoetally impregnated. 

5 In like manner the great majority of fishes breed only 
543 a once a year, 6 like the shoal-fishes (or, in other words, such 
as are caught in nets), the tunny, the pelamys, the grey 
mullet, the chalcis, the mackerel, 7 the sciaena, the psetta 8 
and the like, with the exception of the labrax or basse ; 
for this fish (alone amongst those mentioned) breeds twice 9 
a year, and the second brood is the weaker of the two. 

1 Plin. x. 48 ' Gaviae in petris nidificant '. Schn. quotes from Cetti 
(ii. p. 301) that sea-gulls are still called gai'iae in Sardinia, and 
Xdpai = y\dpoi in Mod. Gk. 

2 cWcidrpvu. A. and\V. : cf. 33. 558 a 19, ix. 32. 619* 14 : eViiea&udct, 
MSS. and edd. 

8 This sentence is either spurious or out of place. 

4 Cf. Pindar, fr. in Schol. Apoll. Rh. i. 1084. Schn. conjectures 
a reference to an Argonautic legend. 

5 The succeeding statements concerning fishes are confused, and 
often at variance with those in H. A. vi. 17. 

6 Athen. vii. 329 ; Ael. x. 2. 

7 KoXt'as, Opp. Hal. i. 184 o-KoXias, described by Arist. aft. Athen. vii. 
32l a as ya>Toypa7rror, <TKO\i6ypanros I cf. also H. A. viii. 13. 5O,8 a 24, b 27, 
ix. 2. 6io b 7. If <TKofji(3pos be the common mackerel, this is probably 
Sc. colitis ) L. 

8 V/j?Tra. A flat-fish : cf. Ael. xiv. 3 ; Athen. vii. 330. 

9 Once : in winter, v. n. 543'' n ; in summer, vi. 17. 57o b 20. 

BOOK V. 9 543 J 

The trichias l and the rock-fishes breed twice a year ; the 
red mullet breeds thrice a year, 2 and is exceptional in this 5 
respect. This conclusion in regard to the red mullet is 
inferred from the spawn ; for the spawn of the fish may 
be seen in certain places at three different times of the 
year. 3 The scorpaena breeds twice a year. 4 The sargue 
breeds twice, in the spring and in the autumn. 3 The saupe 
breeds once a year only, in the autumn. 6 The female tunny 
breeds only once a year, but owing to the fact that the 
fish in some cases spawn early and in others late, it looks 
as, though the fish bred twice over. 7 The first spawning 10 
takes place in December before the solstice, and the latter 
spawning in the spring. The male tunny differs from the 
female in being unprovided with the fin beneath the belly 
which is called aphareus* 

IO Of cartilaginous fishes, the rhina or angel-fish is the only 
one that breeds twice; 9 for it breeds at the beginning of 
autumn, and at the setting of the Pleiads : and, of the 15 
two seasons, it is in better condition in the autumn. It 
engenders at a birth seven or eight young. Certain of the 

1 rpixias : supposed by Cuvier to be the sardine. 

2 In autumn only, vi. 17. 57o b 22. 

3 Athen. vii. 324 : Opp. HaL i. 590 rpc'yAai fie rpiyovoia-iv fira>wm>i 
dat ynvfitri. 

4 The identity of o-Kopnis and o-Kopnins is discussed by Athen. vii. 
320 b . The latter is red, f'pvQpos, ibid. 282*', nvppos, 32o d , the former 
dark, p.( Aafi'o>i', 320''. a-KopTrios is probably Scorpaena scrofa, aKopnis the 
smaller and darker 6V. porcus. The modern names o-Kopn-^a, aKopmos, 
o-KoprriSi, scorfana^ scorpano, &c., apply more or less to both species. 

5 Sargus Rondeletii, Mod. Gk. o-apyor, Med. sargue, sargo^ sarague, 
&c. Cf. Athen. vii.32i b ; Plin. ix. 74. Cf. H. A. v. II. 543 b 15, vi. 17. 
570* 32. 

Cf. ii. 543 b 8, vi. 17. 57o b i8. 7 Cf. 11. 543 b n, vi. 17. 57i a 13. 

g There is no such fin in the tunny, nor any other mark of sexual 
difference. The passage is doubtless corrupt, though Pliny (ix. 18), 
Athenaeus (vii. 3O3 d ), and Hesychius read it as we do, save that the 
MSS. of Athenaeus have adepa for d^mpea. I suggest rapist " f r 
nrepvyioi', and suppose that some preparation of the roe is referred to. 
Cf. Athen. iii. 120, 121 on the various sorts of rapi^oi or rapi^m 
prepared from the tunny. Note that the fj.e\dvdpvs is prepared from 
the largest tunnies, which, according (e. g.) to Archestratus, ap. 
Athen. vii. 3O3 d , are the females. The vrroyda-rpia of this fish are 
especially recommended by many writers, vide Athen. vii. 302. With 
dcfrapfvs we may perhaps compare the allusion to /ufra rr/s dcp 
S. e'^aipeVecor, Athen. ix. 381. 

<J Cf. II. 543 b 9, vi. ii. 566 :l 18. 


dog-fishes, for example the spotted dog, seem to breed 
twice a month, and this results from the circumstance that 
the eggs do not all reach maturity at the same time. 

Some fishes breed at all seasons, as the muraena. This 

20 animal lays a great number of eggs at a time ; and the 
young when hatched are very small but grow with great 
rapidity, like the young of the hippurus, for these fishes 
from being diminutive at the outset grow with exceptional 
rapidity to an exceptional size. 1 [Be it observed that the 
muraena breeds at all seasons, but the hippurus only in 
the spring. The smyrus differs from the smyraena ; for , 

25 the muraena is mottled and weakly, whereas the smyrus is 
strong and of one uniform colour, and the colour resembles 
that of the pine-tree, 2 and the animal has teeth inside and 
out. 3 They say that in this case, as in other similar ones, 
the one is the male, and the other the female, of a single 
species. They come out on to the land, 4 and are frequently 
caught.] 5 

30 Fishes, then, as a general rule, attain their full growth 
with great rapidity/but this is especially the case, among 
small fishes, with the coracine or crow-fish: c it spawns, by 
543 b the way, near the shore, in weedy and tangled spots. The 
orphus also, or sea-perch, is small at first, and rapidly 
attains a great size. 7 The pelamys and the tunny breed 

1 Commonly identified with Coryphaena hippurus the ' dolphin ' : 
cf. Rondelet, de Pise. p. 256 'Cum enim Hispani piscatores parvos 
hippuros ceperint, nassis includunt, illicque crescere sinunt brevi 
tempore, utpote quorum incrementum indies conspiciatur '. According 
to Athen. vii. 304 "nrnovpos = Kopv<f>niva, which fish in Mod. Gk. is 
called Kvvrjpos s, Xn/uTroC-ya. In Mod. Gk. r^irovpa (? Ijnrovpos) is a 
name for Chrysopkrys. On "nnrovpos cf. Arist. ap. Athen. vii. 312 ; 
Plin. ix. 16; Ovid. Hal. 96 ' celeres hippuros'. 

2 TnYw, qy. ' pitch ' ? Athen. vii. 3i2 b has iwyyi. 

! Ael. ix. 40 f'xovai avTwv fiioTot^iW. Muraena (Gynmothorax) unicolor 
is uniformly dark in colour and has a double row of teeth in front. 
A specimen was shown to Hoffmann in the market at Athens as the 
male of the common Muraena (H. and Jordan, p. 248). 

\ P. A : iv. 13. 696* 20. 5 [ ] A. and W. 

J TroXXa yap KOI TOVTUV (i.e. Kopa*aVa>i/) yeVi;, Athen. viii. 312. Accord- 
ing to Cuvier and J. Miiller, Chromis castanea (It. coracino, corbo, &c.), 
the allied fish from the Nile (Athen. /. c.} being C. niloticus. Umbrina 
cirrhosa and Corvina nigra are known as corvi, and are said to spawn 
in brackish water, but these we identify with <mWa or x/jopir. 

7 Athen. vi. 315. Epinephelus gigas^ the 'Merou', according to 
Apostulides ; or else the closely allied Polyprion cernium. 

BOOK V TO 543 b 

in the Euxine, and nowhere else. The cestreus or mullet, 1 
the chrysophrys or gilt-head, and the labrax or basse, breed 
best where rivers run into the sea. The orcys 2 or large- 5 
sized tunny, the scorpis, 3 and many other species spawn in 
the open sea. 

Fish for the most part breed some timepr other during the 
three months between the middle of March and the middle 
of June. 4 Some few breed in autumn : as, for instance, the 
saupe and the sargus, and such others of this sort as breed 
shortly before the autumn equinox ; likewise the electric 
ray and the angel-fish. Other fishes breed both in winter 10 
and in summer, as was previously observed : as, for instance, 
in winter-time the basse, the grey mullet, and the belone or 
pipe-fish ; and in summer-time, from the middle of June to 
the middle of July, the female tunny, about the time of the 
summer solstice ; fl and the tunny lays a sac-like enclosure in 
which are contained a number of small eggs. 6 The ryades 
or shoal-fishes breed in summer. 

Of the grey mullets, 7 the chelon 8 begins to be in roe 
between the middle of November and the middle of 15 
December ; as also the sargue, and the smyxon or myxon, 
and the cephalus ; and their period of gestation is thirty 
days. And, by the way, some of the grey mullet species are 

1 Cf. Erhard, Fauna d. Cydaden, p. 8 (cit. A. and W.). Very 
abundant in the lagoons at Missolonghi (Apostolides). 

2 Cf. the opKvvot of Dorio ap. Athen. vii. 3i5 b , which come in from 
the Atlantic. 

3 I suspect that o-Kop-fipides (Aa Ca), mackerel, is the correct reading. 
On o-Kofmis see above, 9. 543* 7. 

4 Cf. H. A. vi. 17. 57o;.Plin. ix. 74. 

k Dittm. cj. xfifjiwi'os p.v \djBpa, Kcorpcur, /SfXo'v/j Se depovs irepl TOV 
'EKaro/^/Saicova, 6vvv\s -rrtpl rponas depivds. 

6 Cf. H. A. vi. 17. 571* 14. Athen. vii. 303. In Auxis vulgaris, 
an allied species, Cuvier and Val. (viii. p. 144) state that the eggs are 
envefappes d'nn glutcti roussdtre. 

7 The grey mullets are very often referred to by A., and are of 
great importance in the Mediterranean. Ed. Forbes speaks of them 
as the commonest fish in the Constantinople market. The Kf<f>a\os is 
also a kind of grey mullet ; the name remains in Greek, and in the 
It. cievolo, cefalo. p.vw is probably another species, which Cuvier 
refers, though with little certainty, to M. auratus. 

8 Probably Mitgil Chelo, the thick-lipped grey mullet ; in Sicily 
chalone. //. A. vi. 17. 57o b 2 ; Athen. vii. 306. 


not produced from copulation, but grow spontaneously from 
mud and sand. 1 

As a general rule, then, fishes arc in roe in the spring- 

20 time ; while some, as has been said, are so in summer, in 
autumn, or in winter. But whereas the impregnation in 
the spring-time follows a general law, impregnation in 
the other seasons does not follow the same rule either 
throughout or within the limits of one genus ; and, further, 
conception in these variant seasons is not so prolific. And, 
indeed, we must bear this in mind, that just as with plants 

25 and quadrupeds diversity of locality has much to do not 
only with general physical health but also with the com- 
parative frequency of sexual intercourse and generation, so 
also with regard to fishes locality of itself has much to do 
not only in regard to the size and vigour of the creature, 
but also in regard to its parturition and its copulations, 

30 causing the same species to breed oftener in one place and 
seldomer in another. 

544 a The molluscs also breed in spring. Of the marine mol- 12 
luscs one of the first to breed is the sepia. It spawns at all 
times of the day 2 and its period of gestation is fifteen 
days. 3 After the female has laid her eggs, the male comes 
and discharges the milt 4 over the eggs, and the eggs there- 
upon harden. And the two sexes of this animal go about 
5 in pairs, side by side ; and the male is more mottled and 
more black on the back than the female. 5 

The octopus pairs in winter and breeds in spring, lying 
hidden for about two months. Its spawn is shaped 
like a vine-tendril, 6 and resembles the fruit of the white 
poplar ; the creature is extraordinarily prolific, for the 
10 number of individuals that come from the spawn is some- 
thing incalculable. The male differs from the female in the 
fact that its head is longer, and that the organ called by 

1 Athen. vii. 306. 

2 For iracrav u>pav A. and \V. conjecture n\rj0os o>a>v, cf. infra 1 8. 
57o a i ; Athen. vii. 323. But cf. 14. 546* 21. 

3 Cf. Athen. vii. 323; Plin. ix. 74. 

4 Reading 6op6i>. Most MSS. have 6o\6v, Gaza, atramentun^ For 
Km yiWrcu <m$pd, Coraes cj. f) yiverai or(pi(f)a, cf. Plin. alias sterilescimt. 

5 Cf. H. A. iv. i. 525* 9. G Cf. 19. 55i b 10. 

BOOK V. 12 544 a 

the fishermen its penis, in the tentacle, is white. 1 The 
female, after laying her eggs, broods over them, and in 
consequence gets out of condition, by reason of not going 
in quest of food during the hatching period. 

The purple murex breeds about spring-time, and the 15 
ceryx at the close of the winter. And, as a general rule, 
the testaceans are found to be furnished with their so-called 
eggs 2 in springtime and in autumn, with the exception of 
the edible urchin ; for this animal has the so-called eggs 
in most abundance in these seasons, but at no season is 
unfurnished with them ; and it is furnished with them in 
especial abundance in warm weather or when a full moon is 20 
in the sky. 3 Only, by the way, these remarks do not apply 
to the sea-urchin found in the Pyrrhaean Straits, 4 for this 
urchin is at its best for table purposes in the winter ; r> and 
these urchins are small but full of eggs. 

Snails are found by observations to become in all cases 
impregnated about the same season. 6 

13 7 [Of birds the wild species, as has been stated, as a general 25 
rule pair and breed only once a year. The swallow, how- 
ever, and the blackbird breed twice. With regard to the 
blackbird, however, its first brood is killed by inclemency 
of weather (for it is the earliest of all birds to breed), but 
the second brood it usually succeeds in rearing. 

Birds that are domesticated or that are capable of 
domestication breed frequently, just as the common pigeon 30 
breeds all through the summer, and as is seen in the barn- 
door hen ; for the barn-door cock and hen have intercourse, 
and the hen breeds, at all seasons alike : excepting, by the 
way, during the days about the winter solstice. 8 

1 \CVKOV is dubious, for the fact is not authenticated ; qy. Aetoi/ ? 

2 Cf. H.A. iv. 4. 529 b ; Athen. iii. 88. 

8 Edward Forbes says that the sea-urchin is in season in Sicily 
about the full moon of March. It is still a common belief in the Medi- 
terranean that sea-urchins should be fished at the full of the moon. 

4 Guil. quae in nigro Ponto, i. e. Negroponte. 

5 Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 68o b I aiTtov 8e TO v6p.r)s fvirope'tv Tore paXXov, 
arroXeiTTon-cui/ rS)v l\6va>v TOVS TOTTOVS Kara ravryv rfjv &pav. 

6 Plin. ix. 74. 

7 This chapter, and especially that portion relating to the pigeon, is 
doubtfully authentic. 8 H. A. vi. I. 5$8 b 14. 


Of the pigeon family there are many diversities j 1 for the 
peristera or common pigeon is not identical with the peleias 
or rock-pigeon. In other words, the rock-pigeon is smaller 
than the common pigeon, and is less easily domesticated ; 
it is also black, and small, red-footed and rough-footed ; 
and in consequence of these peculiarities it is neglected by 
$ the pigeon-fancier. The largest of all the pigeon species 
is the phatta or ring-dove ; -and the next in size is the 
oenas or stock-dove ; 2 and the stock-dove is a little larger 
than the common pigeon. The smallest of all the species 
is the turtle-dove. Pigeons breed and hatch at all seasons, 
if they are furnished with a sunny place and all requisites; 
unless they are so furnished, they breed only in the summer. 
10 The spring brood is the best, or the autumn brood. At all 
events, without doubt, the produce of the hot season, the 
summer brood, is the poorest of the three.] 

Further, animals differ from one another in regard to the 14 
time of life that is best adapted for sexual intercourse. 

To begin with, in most animals the secretion of the 
seminal fluid and its generative capacity are not phenomena 
simultaneously manifested, but manifested successively. 
J 5 Thus, in all animals, the earliest secretion of sperm is 
unfruitful, 3 or if it be fruitful the issue is comparatively 
poor and small. And this phenomenon is especially 
observable in man, in viviparous quadrupeds, and in birds; 
for in the case of man and the quadruped the offspring is 
smaller, and in the case of the bird, the egg. 

For animals that copulate, of one and the same species, 
20 the age for maturity is in most species 4 tolerably uniform, 
unless it occurs prematurely by reason of abnormality, or 
is postponed by physical injury. 

In man, then, maturity is indicated by a change of the 

1 Cf. H. A. viii. 3. 593% 12. 597 b ; Athen. iii. 393 b ; Ael. V. H. I. 
15, c. 

2 Identification with the stock-dove is doubtful, and olvus has 
probably no connexion with ou-os : cf. Gl. ofGk. Birds, p. 120. 

G. A. ii. 4. 739 a 10. 
4 Dittmeyer's bracketing of ptv and insertion of eV seem unnecessary. 


BOOK V. 14 544 

tone of voice, 1 by an increase in size and an alteration in 
appearance of the sexual organs, as also in an increase of 
size and alteration in appearance of the breasts ; and above 
all, in the hair-growth at the pubes. Man begins to possess 25 
seminal fluid about the age of fourteen, and becomes 
generatively capable at about the age of twenty-one years. 

In other animals there is no hair-growth at the pubes 
(for some animals have no hair at all, and others have none 
on the belly, or less on the belly than on the back), but 
still, in some animals the change of voice is quite obvious ;. 3 o 
and in some animals other organs give indication of the 
commencing secretion of the sperm and the onset of 
generative capacity. As a general rule the female is 
sharper-toned in voice than the male, and the young 
animal than the elder ; 2 for, by the way, the stag has 545** 
a much deeper- toned bay than the hind. Moreover, the 
male cries chiefly at rutting time, and the female under 
terror and alarm ; and the cry of the female is short, and 
that of the male prolonged. With dogs also, as they grow 5 
old, the tone of the bark gets deeper. 

There is a difference observable also ih the neighings of 
horses. That is to say, the female foal has a thin small 
neigh, and the male foal a small neigh, yet bigger and 
deeper-toned than that of the female, and a louder one as 
time goes on. And when the young male and female are 
two years old and take to breeding, the neighing of the 10 
stallion becomes loud and deep, and that of the mare louder 
and shriller than heretofore ; and this change goes on until 
they reach the age of about twenty years ; and after this 
time the neighing in both sexes becomes weaker and 

As a rule, then, as was stated, the voice of the male 
differs from the voice of the female, in animals where the 15 
voice admits of a continuous and prolonged sound, in the 
fact that the note in the male voice is more deep and bass ; 
not, however, in all animals, for the contrary holds good in 

1 H. 4. vii. i. 581* 17, &c. 

2 G. A. v. 7. 786 b 14; Prcbl. xi. 14. 9oo a 32, 24. 9oi b 24. 

AR. H.A, O 


the case of some, as for instance in kine : for here the cow 
has a deeper note than the bull, and the calves a deeper 
note than the cattle. 1 And we can thus understand the 

20 change of voice in animals that undergo gelding ; 2 for male 
animals that undergo this process assume the characters of 
the female. 

The following are the ages at which various animals 
become capacitated for sexual commerce. The ewe and 
the she-goat are sexually mature when one year old, and 
this statement is made more confidently in respect to the 

25 she-goat than to the ewe ; the ram and the he-goat are 
sexually mature at the same age. The progeny of very 
young individuals among these animals differs from that of 
other males : for the males improve in the course of the 
second year, when they become fully mature. 3 The boar 
and the sow are capable of intercourse when eight months 
old, and the female brings forth when one year old, the 
difference corresponding to her period of gestation. The 

30 boar is capable of generation when eight months old, but, 
with a sire under a year in age, the litter is apt to be a poor 
one. The ages, however, are not invariable ; now and then 
545 b the boar and the sow are capable of intercourse when four 
months old, and are capable of producing a litter which can 
be reared when six months old ; but at times the boar 
begins to be capable of intercourse when ten months. He 
continues sexually mature until he is three years old. The 
dog and the bitch are, as a rule, sexually capable and 
sexually receptive when a year old, and sometimes when 
5 eight months old ; 4 but the priority in date is more 
common with the dog than with the bitch. The period of 

1 G.A.v. 7. 787*31. 

2 H. A. ix. 50. 632 a 5 ; G. A. v. 7. 787 b 19; Probl. xi. 34. 
902* 27. 

8 A corrupt passage. Gaza tr. ' mares quoque in iis ipsis generibus 
eodem illo tempore ineunt : sed proles differ!, quatenus praestantio'r 
ea est quam senescentes mares et feminae procrearint '. A. and W. 
suggest ra fi' tKyova TCOV dieruv . . . yivovrai rco vorepov eret, orav Kepas 
e'^oxri. Dittm. CJ. rooi> aynv vftov for T&V appfwv (TWV SuVcoz/, A. and W.), 
and fjftaaKuxnv for -yr/paoxoxrty (Kepas e^coo-iv, A. and W.) : we translate 
accordingly. TJ orav yrjpiio-Kvo-iv seems to be alternatively probable. 

4 H, A. vi. 20. 574 a 16. 

BOOK V. 14 545 

gestation with the bitch is sixty days, or sixty-one, or sixty- 
two, or sixty-three at the utmost ; the period is never under 
sixty days, or, if it is, the litter comes to no good. The 
bitch, after delivering a litter, submits to the male in six 
months, but not before. The horse and the mare are, at 10 
the earliest, sexually capable and sexually mature when 
two l years old ; the issue, however, of parents of this age 
is small and poor. As a general rule these animals are 
sexually capable when three years old, and they grow better 
for breeding purposes until they reach twenty years. The 15 
stallion is sexually capable up to the age of thirty-three 
years, and the mare up to forty, 2 so that, in point of fact, 
the animals are sexually capable all their lives long ; for 
the stallion, as a rule, lives for about thirty-five years, 
and the mare for a little over forty ; 3 although, by the way, 
a horse has been known to live to the age of seventy-five. 20 
The ass and the she-ass are sexually capable when thirty 
months old ; but, as a rule, they are not generatively 
mature until they are three years old, or three years and 
a half. An instance has been known of a she-ass bearing 
and bringing forth a foal when only a year old. A cow has 
been known to calve when only a year old, and the calf 
grew as big as might be expected, but no more. So much 35 
for the dates in time at which these animals attain to 
generative capacity. 

In the human species, the male is generative, at the 
longest, up to seventy years, and the female up to fifty ; 
but such extended periods are rare. As a rule, the male is 
generative up to the age of sixty-five, and to the age of 30 
forty-five the female is capable of conception. 

The ewe bears up to eight years, and, if she be carefully 
tended, up to eleven years ; in fact, the ram and the ewe 
are sexually capable pretty well all their lives long. He- 
goats, if they be fat, are more or less unserviceable for 
breeding ; 4 and this, by the way, is the reason why country 
folk say of a vine when it stops bearing that it is ( running 

1 H. A. vi. 22. 575 b 22 ; Ael. xv. 25. 

2 Ael. xv. 25 ; Colum. R. R. vi. 37. 9. 3 Cf. vi. 22. 576* 26. 
4 G. A. i. 1 8. 725 b 34 ; Theoph. C. P. i. 5. 5 ; H. P. iv. 14. 6. 

O 2 



the goat V However, if an over-fat he-goat be thinned 
down, he becomes sexually capable and generative. 

Rams single out the oldest ewes for copulation, and 
5 show no regard for the young ones. And, as has been 
stated, the issue of the younger ewes is poorer than that of 
the older ones. 

The boar is good for breeding purposes until he is three 
years of age ; 2 but after that age his issue deteriorates, 
for after that age his vigour is on the decline. The boar 
is most capable after a good feed, and with the first sow it 

10 mounts ; if poorly fed or put to many females, the copula- 
tion is abbreviated, 3 and the litter is comparatively poor. 
The first litter of the sow is the fewest in number ; at the 
second litter she is at her prime. The animal, as it grows 
old, continues to breed, but the sexual desire abates. When 
they reach fifteen years, they become unproductive, and are 

15 getting old. 4 If a sow be highly fed, it is all the more 
eager for sexual commerce, whether old or young; but, if 
it be over-fattened in pregnancy, it gives the less milk after 
parturition. With regard to the age of the parents, the 
litter is the best when they are in their prime ; but with 
regard to the seasons of the year, the litter is the best that 
comes at the beginning of winter ; and the summer litter 
the poorest, consisting as it usually does of animals small 

20 and thin and flaccid. 5 The boar, if it be well fed, is 
sexually capable at all hours, night and day ; but otherwise 
is peculiarly salacious early in the morning. As it grows 
old the sexual passion dies away, as we have already 
remarked. Very often a boar, when more or less impotent 
from age or debility, finding itself unable to accomplish the 
sexual commerce with due speed, and growing fatigued 

25 with the standing posture, will roll the sow over on the 
ground, and the pair will conclude the operation side by 

1 i.e. running riot in over-luxuriance. 

2 Plin. viii. 51 ; Varro, R.R. ii. 4. 8 ; Columella, vii. 9. 

3 Reading oKiyoxpoviwrtpa. But in view of 11. 24, 25 there is much 
to be said for Dittmeyer's 6Xrya> xpowwre'pa. 

4 ypalm, Bekk., A. and W. ; ayptatvorrtu, MSS. ; Dittm. cj. 

But cf. Varro, R.R. ii. 4. 13. 

BOOK V. 14 546 a 

side of one another. The sow is sure of conception if it 
drops its lugs in rutting time ; 1 if the ears do not thus 
drop, it may have to rut a second time before impregnation 
takes place. 

Bitches do not submit to the male throughout their 
lives, 2 but only until they reach a certain > maturity of 
years. As a general rule, they are sexually receptive and 
conceptive until they are twelve years old ; although, by 
the way, cases have been known where dogs and bitches 30 
have been respectively procreative and conceptive to the 
ages of eighteen and even of twenty years. But,, as 
a rule, age diminishes the capability of generation and of 
conception with these animals as with all others. 

The female of the camel is opisthuretic, and submits to 546 b 
the male in the way above described ; 3 and the season for 
copulation in Arabia is about the month of October. Its 
period of gestation is twelve months ; 4 and it is never 
delivered of more than one foal at a time. The female 
becomes sexually receptive and the male sexually capable 5 
at the age of three years. After parturition, an interval of 
a year elapses before the female is again receptive to the 

The female 5 elephant becomes sexually receptive when 
ten years old at the youngest, and when fifteen at the 
oldest ; 6 and the male is sexually capable when five years 
old, or six. The season for intercourse is spring. The 
male allows an interval of three years to elapse after com- 10 
merce with a female : and, after it has once impregnated 
a female, it has no intercourse with her again. 7 The period 
of gestation with the female is two years ; and only one 
young animal is produced at a time, in other words it is 
uniparous. And the embryo is the size of a calf two or 
three months old. 8 

1 H.A. vi. 18. 573 b 8 ; Plin. viii. 77. 

2 Plin. x. 83 ; contra, H.A. vi. 20. 574 b 27. 

3 H. A. v. 2. 5io a 8; cf. vi. 18. 57i b 24, ix. 47. 63O b 3i. 

4 Plin. x. 83; contra, H.A. vi. 26. 578* 10; Suid. s.v. cr/cv^ai/. 

5 f] QrjXfia, interp. A. and W. 

6 Plin. viii. 5 ; cf. H.A. vi. 27. 578*. 7 Ael. viii. 17. 
8 G. A. iv. 5. 773 b 6; Plin. viii. 10, x. 83 ; Ael iv. 31, viii. 27. 


So much for the copulations of such animals as copulate. 15 

15 We now proceed to treat of generation both with respect 
to copulating and non-copulating animals, and we shall 
commence with discussing the subject of generation in the 
case of the testaceans. 

The testacean l is almost the only genus that throughout 
all its species is non-copulative. 

The porphyrae, or purple murices, gather together to 
some one place in the spring-time, and deposit the so-called 
' honey-comb '. 2 This substance resembles the comb, only 

20 that it is not so neat and delicate ; and looks as though 
a number of husks of white chick-peas were all stuck 
together. But none of these structures has any open 
passage, and the porphyra does not grow out of them, but 
these and all other testaceans grow out of mud and 
decaying matter. The substance, is, in fact, an excretion 

2 5 of the porphyra and the ceryx ; for it is deposited by the 
ceryx as well. Such, then, of the testaceans as deposit the 
honeycomb are generated spontaneously like all other 
testaceans, but they certainly come in greater abundance 
in places where their congeners have been living previously. 3 
At the commencement of the process of depositing the 
honeycomb, they throw off a slippery mucus, and of this 

30 the husklike formations are composed. These formations, 
then, all melt and deposit their contents 4 on the ground, 
and at this spot there are found on the ground a number 
of minute porphyrae, and porphyrae are caught at times 
with these animalculae upon them, some of which are too 
547 3 small to be differentiated in form. If the porphyrae are 
caught before producing this honey-comb, they sometimes 
go through the process in fishing-creels, not here and there 
in the baskets, but gathering to some one spot all together, 
just as they do in the sea ; and owing to the narrowness of 
their new quarters they cluster together like a bunch of 

1 Cf. G.A. \ii. 2. 76 1 a . 

1 G. A. iii. 2. 76 i b 32 ; Athen. iii. 88 ; Plut. Sol. An. 980. 
1 But cf. G.A. iii. II. 762* 8 oo-a de p.f)re TrapaftXaorditet fifjTf 
uratv Se iravratv TJ ycverfts avToparos fern. 
4 6 flxfv, MSS. : t^ipa, Schn. ex Athen. iii. 88 e . 

BOOK V. 15 547 

There are many species of the purple murex ; l and some 
are large, as those found off Sigeum and Lectum ; others 5 
are small, as those found in the Euripus, and on the coast 
of Caria. And those that are found in bays are large and 
rough ; in most of them the peculiar bloom from which 
their name is derived is dark to blackness, in others it is 
reddish and small in size ; some of the large ones weigh 
upwards of a mina apiece. But the specimens that are 
found along the coast and on the rocks are small-sized, and 10 
the bloom in their case is of a reddish hue. Further, as 
a general rule, in northern waters the bloom is blackish, 
and in southern waters of a reddish hue. The murex is 
caught in the spring-time when engaged in the construction 
of the honeycomb ; but it is not caught at any time about 
the rising of the dog-star, 2 for at that period it does not feed, 
but conceals itself and burrows. The bloom of the animal 15 
is situated between the mecon (or quasi-liver) and the neck, 
and the co-attachment of these is an intimate one. In 
colour it looks like a white membrane, and this is what 
people extract ; and if it be removed and squeezed it stains 
your hand with the colour of the bloom. There is a kind 
of vein that runs through it, and this quasi-vein would 
appear to be in itself the bloom. And the qualities, by the 
way, of this organ are astringent. 3 It is after the murex 20 
has constructed the honey-comb that the bloom is at its 
worst. Small specimens they break in pieces, shells and 
all, for it is no easy matter to extract the organ ; but in 
dealing with the larger ones they first strip off the shell 
and then abstract the bloom. For this purpose the neck 
and mecon are separated, for the bloom lies in between 
them, above the so-called stomach ; hence the necessity of 25 

1 e. g. M. brandaris, M. trunculns^ Pur pur a haemastoma, &c. 
The first is still called at Tarento quecciolo a far la porpora (Costa). 
The great refuse-heaps of shells at Tarento consist of M. brandaris, 
at Tyre of M. trunculus. On the species of 7r6p<f>vpa cf. Plin. ix. 6 1, 
Athen.iii.88; also Fabius Columna, *&? />r/#nz, 1674; J.G.Schneider 
in Ulloa's Nachrichten von America, 1781, vol. ii. p. 377 ; Heusinger, 
de Purp. antiquorum, Wurzburg, 1826; Martens, op. cit. p. 205; 
Lacaze Duthiers, ' Nat. Hist, of the Purple of the Ancients,' Pr. Roy. 
Soc. x. pp. 579-84, 1860; also Mem. sur le pourpre, Lille, 1859, 
28 pp., Arch. zool. exp. et gtn., 1897, &c. 

2 Plin. ix. 38. 3 Dittm. would reject. 



separating them in abstracting the bloom. Fishermen are 

anxious always to break the animal in pieces while it is 

yet alive, 1 for, if it die before the process is completed, 

it vomits out the bloom ; and for this reason the fishermen 

keep the animals in creels, until they have collected a 

sufficient number and can attend to them at their leisure. 

Fishermen in past times used not to lower creels or attach 

30 them to the bait, so that very often the animal got dropped 

off in the pulling up ; at present, however, they always 

attach a basket, 2 so that if the animal fall off it is not lost. 

The animal is more inclined to slip off the bait if it be full 

inside; if it be empty it is difficult to shake it off. Such 

547 b are the phenomena connected with the porphyra or murex. 

The same phenomena are manifested by the ceryx or 

trumpet-shell ; and the seasons are the same in which the 

phenomena are observable. 3 Both animals, also, the murex 

and the ceryx, have their opercula similarly situated 4 and, 

in fact, all the stromboids, and this is congenital with them 

5 all ; and they feed by protruding the so-called tongue 

underneath the operculum. The tongue of the murex is 

bigger than one's finger, and by means of it, it feeds, and 

perforates conchylia and the shells of its own kind. 5 Both 

the murex and the ceryx are long-lived. The murex lives 

10 for about six years ; and the yearly increase is indicated 

by a distinct interval in the spiral convolution of the shell. 6 

The mussel also constructs a honey-comb. 7 

With regard to the limnostreae, or lagoon oysters, 8 

wherever you have slimy mud there you are sure to find 

them beginning to grow. 9 Cockles and clams and razor- 

1 Cf. Ael. xvi. i. 

2 Plin. ix. 37. 

3 A. and W. stigmatize Z^ouo-i , . . oarpa<coj/, 11. 3-8. 
1 Read ra eTri/caXu/i/iara Kara raura. 

> P. A. ii. 17. 66 1 a 21 ; Plin. ix. 60. 

6 Plin. ix. 61 ; cf. G. A. iii. 2. 763* 20; Athen. /. c. 

7 G. A. iii. 2. 76i b 30 ; Plin. xxxii. 32. Here the reference is doubtless 
to the crowded ' spat ', for the mussel does not construct egg-capsules. 
A. and W. delete the passage. 

8 Probably Ostrea cochlear> Poli ; ostrica difango of the Neapolitans 

' G.A. iii. 2. 763*31 (Kft\r)QfVT<i)V Kcpapiav (is rrjv ddXaTrav, ^pdi/ou 
yfvop.fvov Kdl /3op/3opoi/ nfp\ avra crvmXur&Vror, oorpea fvplanovro fv 

BOOK V. 15 547 b 

fishes and scallops grow spontaneously in sandy places. 
The pinna grows straight up from its tuft of anchoring 15 
fibres l in sandy and slimy places ; 2 these creatures have 
inside them a parasite nicknamed the pinna-guard, 3 in some 
cases a small carid 4 and in other cases a little crab ; 5 if 
the pinna be deprived of this pinna-guard it soon dies. 

As a general rule, then, all testaceans grow by spon- 
taneous generation in mud, differing from one another 
according to the differences of the material ; oysters 
growing in slime, and cockles and the other testaceans 20 
above mentioned on sandy bottoms ; and in the hollows 
of the rocks the ascidian and the barnacle, and common 
sorts, 6 such as the limpet and the nerites. All these 
animals grow with great rapidity, especially the murex and 
the scallop ; for the murex and the scallop attain their 
full growth in a year. In some of the testaceans white 25 
crabs are found, very diminutive in size ; they are most 
numerous in the trough-shaped 7 mussel. In the pinna 
also is found the so-called pinna-guard. They are found 
also in the scallop and in the oyster ; these parasites never 
appear to grow in size. Fishermen declare that the para- 30 
site is congenital with the larger animal. [Scallops burrow 
for a time in the sand, like the murex.] 8 

[Shell-fish, then, grow in the way above mentioned ; and 

On the cultivation of oysters cf. Plin. ix. 51, Xenocr. de 
Aq. 26. 

1 It is a moot point whether to read CK TOV /Sucro-oO, 'out of deep 
water', or <'* TIJS /Suo-o-ou, 'from its byssus, or tuft of anchoring fibres.' 
The latter is the characteristic feature of the Pinna, and it accords 
with Gaza's translation, ' pinnae erectae ex bysso, id est villo sive lana 
ilia pinnali ' : the former with Athenaeus iii. 89 CK TOV fivtiov. On the 
ground that the word (Huo-vos is not used in ancient Greek, Sylburg, 
Camus, A. and W., and Dittm. accept eVc TOV fivo~o-ov ; I prefer the 
other alternative, chiefly on the ground that the pinna does grow 
4 straight up out of its byssus ', but, though it lives in deep water, can- 
not be said to 'grow up out of it'. Cf. Bochart, Hieroz. ii. c. 45 ; 
A. Muller, in Wiegmann's Archiv, 1837, i. p. 2, &c. 

2 Plin. ix. 42. 

J Aristoph. Vesp. 1510; Athen. iii. 89; Plin. ix. 42; Ael. iii. 29. 
1 Pontonia tyrrhena, Latr. 

6 Pinnotheres veterum, Bosc. 

' Cf. 01 7n7ro\doi>Tfs fjivfs, H. A. vi. 37. 58o b 14 ; more commonly 
translated ' creatures that keep on the surface '. 

7 Schn. 7TTj\<t)8f(jti>. The crab is Pinnotheres pisum* Fabr. 

8 [ ] A. and W. 


some of them grow in shallow water, 1 some on the sea- 
shore, some in rocky places, 2 some on hard and stony 
ground, and some in sandy places.] 3 Some shift about 
from place to place, others remain permanent on one spot. 
Of those that keep to one spot the pinnae are rooted to 
5 the ground ; the razor-fish and the clam keep to the same 
locality, but are not so rooted ; but still, if forcibly removed 
they die. 4 

[The star-fish is naturally so warm that whatever it lays 
hold of is found, when suddenly taken away from the 
animal, to have undergone a process like boiling. 5 Fisher- 
men say that the star-fish is a great pest in the Strait of 

10 Pyrrha. In shape it resembles a star as seen in an ordinary 
drawing. The so-called 'lungs' are generated spontaneously. 
The shells that painters use are a good deal thicker, and 
the bloom is outside the shell on the surface. These 
creatures are mostly found on the coast of Caria.] 6 

15 The hermit-crab 7 grows spontaneously out of soil and 
slime, and finds its way into untenanted shells. As it 
grows it shifts to a larger shell, as for instance into the 
shell of the nerites, or of the strombus or the like, and very 
often into the shell of the small ceryx. After entering a new 

20 shell, it carries it about, and begins again to feed, and, by 
and by, as it grows, it shifts again into another larger one. 

Moreover, the animals that are unfurnished with shells 16 
grow spontaneously, like the testaceans, as, for instance, the 
sea-nettles and the sponges in rocky caves. 

Of the sea-nettle, 8 or sea-anemone, there are two species ; 

25 and of these one species lives in hollows and never loosens 

its hold upon the rocks, and the other lives on smooth flat 

reefs, free and detached, and shifts its position from time to 

For Tcvdyfai, Aa and Ca have oreyai/eo-t : Dittm. cj. 
0-7riXa>eo-i, Bekk. : TrqXcoSeo-i, Dittm. 
3 [ ] A. and W. * H. A. ix i. 588* 15. 

Plin. ix. 86 ; Antig. de Mirab. 88 ; cf. P. A. iv. 4. 68i b 9. 

6 [ ] A. and W. All this chapter, from 547 b 32 to the end, is of 
doubtful authenticity, and contains several unusual words : ' 
$i((j)dos, fMTfifrduvetv, TrXara/icbfi^f, crivos, (rvprrepitpfpciv (Dittm.). 

7 Cf. H. A. iv. 4. 529 b 20. 

8 Cf. H. A. iv. 6. 531* 31, viii. 2. 59o a .27. 


BOOK V. 16 548 

time. [Limpets also detach themselves, and shift from 
place to place.] l 

In the chambered cavities of sponges pinna-guards or 
parasites are found. 2 And over the chambers there is 
a kind of spider's web, by the opening and closing of which 
they catch minute fishes ; that is to say, they open the 30 
web to let the fish get in, and close it again to entrap 
them. 3 

Of sponges there are three species ; 4 the first is of loose 
porous texture, the second is close-textured, the third, 
which is nicknamed ' the sponge of Achilles ', is exception- 548 b 
ally fine and close-textured and strong. This sponge is 
used as a lining to helmets and greaves, for the purpose of 
deadening the sound of the blow ; and this is a very scarce 
species. Of the close-textured sponges such as are par- 
ticularly hard and rough are nicknamed * goats '. 5 

Sponges grow spontaneously either attached to a rock 
or on sea-beaches, and they get their nutriment in slime : 
a proof of this statement is the fact that when they are 
first secured they are found to be full of slime. This is 
characteristic of all living creatures that get their nutriment 
by close local attachment. And, by the way, the close- 
textured sponges are weaker than the more openly porous 
ones because their attachment extends over a smaller 

It is said that the sponge is sensitive ; and as a proof of 
this statement they say that if the sponge is made aware of 
an attempt being made to pluck it from its place of attach- 
ment it draws itself together, and it becomes a difficult task 
to detach it. It makes a similar contractile movement in 
windy and boisterous weather, obviously with the object of 
tightening its hold. Some persons express doubts as to 

1 [ ] Schn., Pice., A. and W., Dittm. Cf. viii, 2. 590* 32. 

2 Plut, Soil. Anim. 980 ; Ael. viii. 16. The crab is Typton 
spongicola, Costa. 

8 Cf. Aristoph. H.A. Epit. i. 45. 

4 Though the species of sponges are very numerous, zoologists refer 
all the commercial varieties to a single one. Three qualities are 
recognized in the Adriatic, spugne da bagno o levantino, da cavallo 
od eqitino, and zimocca. 


the truth of this assertion ; as, for instance, the people of 

15 Torone. 

The sponge breeds parasites, worms, and other creatures, 
on which, if they be detached, the rock-fishes prey, as they 
prey also on the remaining stumps of the sponge ; l but, if 
the sponge be broken off, it grows again from the remaining 
stump and the place is soon as well covered as before. 

The largest of all sponges are the loose-textured ones, 
and these are peculiarly abundant on the coast of Lycia. 

20 The softest are the close-textured sponges ; for, by the way, 
the so-called sponges of Achilles are harder than these, 
As a general rule, sponges that are found in deep calm 
waters are the softest ; for usually windy and stormy 
weather has a tendency to harden them (as it has to 
harden all similar growing things), and to arrest their 
growth. And this accounts for the fact that the sponges 
found in the Hellespont are rough and close-textured ; 

25 and, as a general rule, sponges found beyond or inside 
Cape Malea are, respectively, comparatively soft or com- 
paratively hard. But, by the way, the habitat of the 
sponge should not be too sheltered and warm, for it has 
a tendency to decay, like all similar vegetable-like growths. 
And this accounts for the fact that the sponge is at its best 
when found in deep water close to shore ; for owing to the 
depth of the water they enjoy shelter alike from stormy 
winds and from excessive heat. 

Whilst they are still alive and before they are washed 

30 and cleaned, they are blackish in colour. Their attachment 
is not made at one particular spot, nor is it made all over 
their bodies ; for vacant pore-spaces intervene. There is 
a kind of membrane stretched over the under parts ; and in 
the under parts the points of attachment are the more 
549 a numerous. On the top most of the pores are closed, but 
four or five are open and visible ; and we are told by some 
that it is through these pores that the animal takes its 

1 The passage is confused. Pice, rewrites it : <pao-l yap 
(aurai fivai a (ptpet) fv tavrut <ua, f\fjuv6ds Tf KOI trep' arra. orav 
a7ro(nra<r0I], TO. l)(6vdia ra ntrpala KarfaOiftv ras pias ras vnoXoiirovs' 
8c dnoppayfj, (pvcffdat Trd\iv (K TOV xaTaXoiVov <a\ dvanXrjpovo'uai. 

BOOK V 16 549' 

There is a particular species 1 that is named the'aplysia' 2 
or the ' unwashable ', from the circumstance that it cannot 
be cleaned. This species has the large open and visible 5 
pores, but all the rest of the body is close-textured ; and, if 
it be dissected, it is found to be closer and more glutinous 
than the ordinary sponge, and, in a word, something lung- 
like in consistency. And, on all hands, it is allowed that 
this species is sensitive and long-lived. They are distin- 
guished in the sea from ordinary sponges from the circum- TO 
stance that the ordinary sponges are white while the slime 
is in them, 3 but that thebe sponges are under any circum- 
stances black. 

And so much with regard to sponges and to generation 
in the testaceans. 

17 Of crustaceans, the female crawfish after copulation con- 
ceives and retains its eggs for about three months, from 15 
about the middle of May to about the middle of August ; 
they then lay the eggs into the folds underneath the belly, 
and their eggs grow like grubs. This same phenomenon 
is observable in molluscs also, and in such fishes as are 
oviparous ; for in all these cases the egg continues to grow. 20 

The spawn of the crawfish 4 is of a loose or granular 
consistency, and is divided into eight parts ; for corre- 
sponding to each of the flaps on the side there is a gristly 
formation 5 to which the spawn is attached, and the entire 
structure resembles a cluster of grapes ; for each gristly 
formation is split into several parts. This is obvious enough 
if you draw the parts asunder; but at first sight the whole 25 
appears to be one and indivisible. And the largest are not 
those nearest to the outlet but those in the middle, and the 
farthest off are the smallest. The size of the small eggs is 
that of a small seed in a fig ; and they are not quite close 
to the outlet, but placed middleways ; for at both ends, 
tailwards and trunkwards, there are two intervals devoid of 3 

1 On the species of sponges see also Plin. ix. 69, xxxi. 47. 

2 Theoph. H. PL iv. 6. 10; Plin. I.e. 

3 Dittm. cj. </i>7) 0tfovcr^ff t^ tAiW: cf. 48 b 7, 30. 

4 Cf. H. A. iv. 2. 525. * i.e. the 'swimmerets'. 


eggs ; for it is thus that the flaps also grow. The side 
flaps, then, cannot close, but by placing the end flap on 
them the animal can close up all, and this end-flap serves 
549 b them for a lid. And in the act of laying its eggs it seems 
to bring them towards the gristly formations l by curving 
the flap of its tail, and then, squeezing the eggs towards the 
said gristly formations 2 and maintaining a bent posture, it 
performs the act of laying. The gristly formations at these 
seasons increase in size and become receptive of the eggs ; 

5 for the animal lays its eggs into these formations, just as 
the sepia lays its eggs among twigs and driftwood. 

It lays its eggs, then, in this manner, and after hatching 
them for about twenty days it rids itself of them all in one 
solid lump, as is quite plain from outside. And out of 
these eggs crawfish form in about fifteen days, and these 

10 crawfish are caught at times less then a finger's breadth, 
or seven-tenths of an inch, in length. The animal, then, 
lays its eggs before the middle of September, and after the 
middle of that month throws off its eggs in a lump. With 
the humped carids or prawns the time for gestation is four 
months or thereabouts. 

Crawfish are found in rough and rocky places, lobsters 
in smooth places, and neither crawfish nor lobsters are 

15 found in muddy ones ; and this accounts for the fact that 
lobsters are found in the Hellespont and on the coast of 
Thasos, and crawfish in the neighbourhood of Sigeum and 
Mount Athos. Fishermen, accordingly, when they want to 
catch these various creatures out at sea, take bearings on 
the beach and elsewhere that tell them where the ground 
at the bottom is stony and where soft with slime. In 

20 winter and spring these animals keep in near to land, in 
summer they keep in deep water ; thus at various times 
seeking respectively for warmth or coolness. 

The so-called arctus or bear-crab lays its eggs at about 
the same time as the crawfish ; and consequently in winter 
and in the spring-time, before laying their eggs, they are at 

25 their best, and after laying at their worst. 

1 i.e. the abdominal appendages, or swimmerets, = nrvxat, 549* 17 . 

2 Reading, with A. and W., CKCIVOIS for tvOvs Km. 

BOOK V. 17 549 

They cast their shell in the spring-time (just as serpents 
shed their so-called ' old-age ' or slough), both directly after 
birth and in later life ; this is true both of crabs and craw- 
fish. And, by the way, all crawfish are longlived. 

18 Molluscs, after pairing and copulation, lay a white spawn; 30 
and this spawn, as in the case of the testacean, gets granular 
in time. The octopus discharges into its hole, 1 or into a 
potsherd or into any similar cavity, a structure resembling 
the tendrils of a young vine or the fruit of the white poplar, 
as has been previously observed. 2 The eggs, when the 
female has laid them, are clustered round the sides of the 
hole. They are so numerous that, if they be removed, 550* 
they suffice to fill a vessel much larger than the 
animal's body 3 in which they were contained. Some 
fifty days later, the eggs burst and the little polypuses 
creep out, like little spiders, in great numbers ; the charac- 5 
teristic form of their limbs is not yet to be discerned in 
detail, but their general outline is clear enough. And, by 
the way, they are so small and helpless that the greater 
number perish ; it is a fact that they have been seen so 
extremely minute as to be absolutely without organization, 
but nevertheless when touched they moved. The eggs of 
the sepia 4 look like big black myrtle-berries, and they are ro 
linked all together like a bunch of grapes, 5 clustered round 
a centre, and are not easily sundered from one another : 
for the male exudes over them some moist glairy stuff, 
which constitutes the sticky gum. 6 These eggs increase in 
size ; and they are white at the outset, but black and larger 15 
after the sprinkling of the male seminal fluid. 

When it has come into being the young sepia is first 
distinctly formed inside out of the white substance, and 
when the egg bursts 7 it comes out. The inner part is 
formed as soon as 8 the female lays the egg, something like 

1 Athen. vii. 317. 2 12. 544 a ;, 

5 T/JS /ce<pa\77ff. Cf. H. A. iv. I. $23 b 24, and note : also 525* 5. 
\ Reading, with Pice, and Dittm., a S' at o-qmat aTroTiKTovaiv. ' 
5 It. uva di mare. 

Reading, with edd. and codd., 6 TTJV -yXto-^por^ra irapcx*i : Pice. 
reads odev 


7 Reading, as Dittm. cj., roO <ao{) for TOVTOV. 
s For orav Pice, reads 6 "iv. 



a hail-stone ; l and out of this substance the young sepia 
grows by a head-attachment, just as young birds grow by 
20 a belly-attachment. What is the exact nature of the 
navel-attachment has not yet been observed, except that as 
the young sepia grows the white substance grows less and 
less in size, and at length, as happens with the yolk in the 
case of birds, the white substance in the case of the young 
sepia disappears. In the case of the young sepia, as in the 



i. Younger, and 2, older, stages in the development of Sepia. A. 
' Ovum,' or remains of the yolk-sac. B, C. Eyes. D. TO <rr]7ridiov, or 
body of the little Sepia. 

case of the young of most animals, the eyes at first seem 
25 very large. To illustrate this by way of a figure, let A 
represent the ovum, B and C the eyes, and D the sepidium, 
or body of the little sepia. 

The female sepia goes pregnant in the spring-time, and 
lays its eggs after fifteen days of gestation ; after the eggs 
are laid there comes in another fifteen days something like 
a bunch of grapes, and at the bursting of these the young 
sepiae issue forth. But if, when the young ones are fully 
30 formed, you sever the outer covering a moment too soon, 

1 On the vaXafm in a bird's egg cf. vi. 2. 56o a 28. 

BOOK V. 18 550 a 

the young creatures eject excrement, and their colour 30 
changes from white to red in their alarm. 1 

Crustaceans, then, hatch their eggs by brooding over 
them as they carry them about beneath their bodies ; but 55 b 
the octopus, the sepia, and the like hatch their eggs without 
stirring from the spot where they may have laid them, and 
this statement is particularly applicable to the sepia ; in 
fact, the nest 2 of the female sepia is often seen exposed to 
view close in to shore. The female octopus at times sits 
brooding over her eggs, and at other times squats in front 5 
of her hole, stretching out her tentacles on guard. 3 

The sepia lays her spawn near to land in the neighbour- 
hood of sea-weed or reeds or any off-sweepings such as 
brushwood, twigs, or stones ; and fishermen place heaps of 
faggots here and there on purpose, and on to such heaps 
the female deposits a long continuous roe in shape like a 10 
vine tendril. 4 It lays or spirts out the spawn with an 
effort, as though there were difficulty in the process. The 
female calamary spawns at sea ; and it emits the spawn, as 
does the sepia, in the mass. 

The calamary and the cuttle-fish are short-lived, as, with 
few exceptions, they never see the year out; 5 and the 5 
same statement is applicable to the octopus. 

From one single egg comes one single sepia ; and this is 
likewise true of the young calamary. 

The male calamary differs from the female ; for if its 
gill-region 6 be dilated and examined there are found two 

1 Cf. Theoph. fr. 173, 188 (Wimmer). 

2 I take TO KVTOS to mean 6 Kvrrapos, the hive or nest. Cf. the 
double meaning of alveits, 3 Athen. vii. 317*". 

4 Reading, with A. and W., and Dittm., <rvve\is f<rbs o>6f, olov 

fBoO-TpV%lOV. PiCC. <TVVt.\lS K TtoV (UOJJ/, (HOV TO <f)VT(t)V jSoOTp^lOV. MSS., 

Bekk., &c., olov TO T>V /3oarpi>xa>i>. We should prefer a word more 
closely connected with 3orpuy, one, that is to say, meaning a bunch of 
grapes rather than a tendril. Cf. Arist. fr. 315 TIKTCI de 6 noXimovs 
am poTpvSov. The passage is perhaps corrupt, for it is the spawn of the 
octopus that is tendril-like, as well described in 12. 544*9, 18. 549** 33, 
while that of the sepia is equally well described in 18. 55o a 10. 

[ H.A. ix. 37. 622*22. 

6 Ko/i/7, supposed by Schneider to refer to the gills, cf. ra Tpt^wSr/, 
H.A. iv. i. 524 b 21, 4. 529* 32. Scaliger bases on Gaza's version the 
conjecture Tr)v Koi\lav ; A. and W. conjecture Kf^aAijv. For epvBpd 
various MSS. and the Aldine read 

AK. H.A. 


red formations resembling breasts, 1 with which the male is 
unprovided. In the sepia, apart from this distinction in the 
20 sexes, the male, as has been stated, 2 is more mottled than 
the female. 3 

With regard to insects, that the male is less than the 19 
female and that he mounts upon her back, and how he 
performs the act of copulation and the circumstance that he 
gives over reluctantly, all this has already been set forth ; 4 

25 in most cases of insect copulation 5 this process is speedily 
followed up by parturition. 

All insects engender grubs, with the exception of a species 
of butterfly ; and the female "of this species lays a hard egg, 
resembling the seed of the cnecus, 6 with a juice inside it. 
But from the grub, the young animal does not grow out of 
a mere portion of it, as a young animal grows from a portion 

30 only of an egg, but the grub entire grows and the animal 
becomes differentiated out of it. 7 

And of insects some are derived from insect congeners, 
as the venom-spider 8 and the common-spider from the 
venom-spider and the common-spider, and so with the 
attelabus or locust, 9 the acris or grasshopper, and the tettix 
55i a or cicada. Other insects are not derived from living 
parentage, but are generated spontaneously : some out of 
dew falling on leaves, ordinarily in spring-time, but not 
seldom in winter when there has been a stretch of fair 
weather and southerly winds ; others grow in decaying mud 
5 or dung ; others in timber, green or dry; some in the hair of 
animals; some in the flesh of animals; some in excrements : 
and some from excrement after it has been voided, and some 
from excrement yet within the living animal, like the helmin- 
thes or intestinal worms. And of these intestinal worms 
there are three species : one named the flat-worm, another 

1 H.A. iv. i. 525 a I. 2 524 b 3o. 

s [ ], A. andW. Cf. 524*30. 
1 H.A. v. 8. 

5 Dittm. transfers oaa o^erai to the next sentence. For orav 
& o^fvdfi, A. and W. cj. OTO.V Se dia\v6fj. 

6 A composite plant, probably Carthamus tinctorius. 

7 Cf. G.A. ii. I. 732* 29. 8 <a\uyyioj>. 
Cf. infra, cc. 28, 29. 

BOOK V. 19 55i a 

the round worm, and the third the ascarid. These intestinal 10 
worms do not in any case propagate their kind. The flat- 

. worm, however, in an exceptional way, clings fast to the 
gut, and lays a thing like a melon-seed, 1 by observing 
which indication the physician concludes that his patient is 
troubled with the worm. 

The so-called psyche or butterfly 2 is generated from 
caterpillars 3 which grow on green leaves, chiefly leaves of 
the raphanus, which some call crambe or cabbage. At 15 
first it is less than a grain of millet ; it then grows into a 
small grub ; and in three * days it is a tiny caterpillar. 
After this it grows on and on, and becomes quiescent and 
changes its shape, and is now called a chrysalis. The 
outer shell is hard, and the chrysalis moves if you touch it. 20 
It attaches itself by cobweb-like filaments, and is unfurnished 
with mouth or any other apparent organ. After a little while 
the outer covering bursts asunder, and out flies the winged 
creature that we call the psyche or butterfly. At first, when 
it is a caterpillar, it feeds and ejects excrement ; but when it 
turns into the chrysalis it neither feeds nor ejects excrement. 25 

The same remarks are applicable to all such insects as 
are developed out of the grub, both such grubs as are 
derived from the copulation of living animals and such as 
are generated without copulation on the part of parents. 
For the grub of the bee, the anthrena, and the wasp, whilst 
it is young, takes food and voids excrement ; but when it 55i b 
has passed from the grub shape to its defined form and 

v become what is termed a ' nympha ', it ceases to take food 
and to void excrement, and remains tightly wrapped up 
and motionless until it has reached its full size, when it 
breaks the formation with which the cell is closed, and 5 
issues forth. The insects named the hypera and the penia 5 

1 The * proglottis ' of the Taenia. Cf. Plin. xi. 38. 

2 The * cabbage white' butterfly, P. brassicae^ or allied species. 

3 Cf. Colum. x. 324 ' teneras audent erodere frondes 

Implicitus conchae Umax hirsutaque campe '. 

4 A. and W. suspect TKTIV for rpto-ic. 

6 nrjvlov (lit. spindle) and vrrepov (pestle) are evidently chrysalids 
derived from the ' looper ' caterpillars of the Geometridae ; and the 
reference to colour is suggestive of the common currant-moth, Abraxas 

P 2 


are derived from similar caterpillars, which move in an 
undulatory way, progressing with one part and then pulling 
up the hinder parts by a bend of the body. 1 The developed 
insect in each case takes its peculiar colour from the parent 

10 From one particular large grub, which has as it were 
horns, and in other respects differs from grubs in general, 
there comes, by a metamorphosis of the grub, first a 
caterpillar, then the cocoon, 2 then the necydalus ; and the 
creature passes through all these transformations within six 
months. A class of women unwind and reel off the 
cocoons of these creatures, and afterwards weave a fabric 

15 with the threads thus unwound.; a Coan woman of the 
name of Pamphila, daughter of Plateus, being credited with 
the first invention of the fabric. 3 After the same fashion 
the carabus or stag-beetle 4 comes from grubs that live in 
dry wood : at first the grub is motionless, but after a while 
the shell bursts and the stag-beetle issues forth. 

From the cabbage is engendered the cabbage-worm, and 

20 from the leek the prasocuris or leekbane ; 5 this creature is 

grossulariata. The gloss in Suid. nyviov* o>oi> 6p.oiov Kooj/omi is 
probably faulty ; qy. Ka^ny ? 

1 Cf. de Inc. J. 707^ 9 ( T< * <*7ro8a) fivcrt \pu>p,fva Trpoep^erai K.ap.nai$ 

2 For /3o/i/3uXio? or Pop.$v\ls we should have expected ftonfivKiov. 
The passage is usually taken to be an inaccurate description of the 
silkworm, Bombyx mori ; but the description of the caterpillar rather 
suggests one of the large Saturniae, such as furnish the Tussore silk 
of India. 

3 Cf. Plin. xi. 22, 23 for a fuller account. These passages have been 
much discussed. Pliny indicates that the invention came from Assyria, 
and Latreille, seeking for an Indian locality similar in name to Cos, 
found it in the island Cosmin, near Rangoon. It is believed that 
neither the true silkworm, nor its true food-plant, Morns alba, came 
to Greece before Justinian's reign, about A. D. 550. See inter alia, 
Brotier, Mtm. de I'Acad. des Inscr. xlvi. 1793. 

4 V. II. Kupa/3oi, Kopd/3ioi, Kapdp./3ioi, Kpdpftot. Cf. iv. 7. 53 I h 2$, 532* 

27 ; *epa/A|3v, Anton, lib. xxii. A longicorn (Cerambycid) beetle, here 
translated freely ' stag-beetle ', though that name is more strictly 
applied to Lucanus. 

' A faulty passage restored by Schn. from Ael. ix. 39. Cf. Theoph. 
H. P. vii. 5. Strattis also, ap. Athen. ii. 69, mentions the npaa-o- 
) ot Ka.Ta<pv\\ovs cii/a KTJTTOVS Trej/rjjKoj/ra 7roa>f i\vf(n /SaiVer', 
Tobolv (s. 7roo)v). For variants see Dittm., and for inter- 
pretations cf. Sundevall, p. 236. 


BOOK V. 19 551 

also winged. From the flat animalcule that skims 1 over 
the surface of rivers comes the oestrus or gadfly ; and this 
accounts for the fact that gadflies most abound in the 
neighbourhood of waters on whose surface these animalcules 
are observed. 2 From a certain small, black and hairy 
caterpillar comes first a wingless glow-worm ; 3 and this 
creature again suffers a metamorphosis, and transforms 25 
into a winged insect named the bostrychus (or hair-curl). 

Gnats grow from ascarids ; and ascarids are engendered 
in the slime of wells, or in places where there is a deposit 
left by the draining off of water. This slime decays, and 
first turns white, then black, and finally blood-red ; and at 55 2 * 
this stage there originate in it, as it were, little tiny bits 
of red weed, 4 which at first wriggle about all clinging 
together, and finally break loose and swim in the water, and 
are hereupon known as ascarids. After a few days they 5 
stand straight up on the water motionless and hard, and by 
and by the husk breaks off and the gnats are seen sitting 
upon it, until the sun's heat or a puff of wind sets them, in 
motion, when they fly away. 5 

With all grubs and all animals that break out from the 
grub state, generation 6 is due primarily to the heat of the 10 
sun or to wind. 

Ascarids are more likely to be found, and grow with 
unusual rapidity, in places where there is a deposit of a 
mixed and heterogeneous kind, as in kitchens 7 and in 

Joachim conjectures fmirkcovTav, after Sostrat. ap. 
Schol. Apoll. Rhod. i. 1265. 

2 The flies are not true gaclflies ( Tabanus\ but species of Syrphus 
or Stratiomys, whose larvae are aquatic ; but the ' animalcules ' seem 
to be small beetles of the genus Gyrimts, and are not the actual 

3 On glow-worms, or fire-flies (7rvyo\ap.7ri? t jrvpoXa^nis (Hesych.), 
Xa/M7ri>pi'r, Lat. cicindela\ cf. Plin. xi. 34, xviii. 67. In some species 
the female is apterous and much the more brilliant ; in others (e. g. 
Luciola italicd) the winged male is much the brighter, and the female 
is very rare. 

4 A. and W. conjecture o-icwXqKta. 

5 The description applies to the 'blood-worm', or larva of Chi- 
ronomus, a common gnat. Cf. H. A. i. I. 487 b 5. 

6 For ytveo-tais, Sylb., Pice., and A. and W. cj. /ai^o-eco?. 

7 Lect. dub. A. and W. suggest olov fv yvpols yiverai rols fv TO?? 
Zpyois (s. aypols)) or fv roty 


ploughed fields, for the contents of such places are disposed 
to rapid putrefaction. In autumn, also, owing to the drying 
up of moisture, they grow in unusual numbers. 
15 The tick is generated from couch-grass. The cockchafer 
comes from a grub that is generated in the dung of the 
cow or the ass. 1 The cantharus or scarabeus rolls a piece of 


dung into a ball, lies hidden within it during the winter, 
and gives birth therein to small grubs, from which grubs 
come new canthari. 2 Certain winged insects also come 
from the grubs that are found in pulse, in the same fashion 
20 as in the cases described. 

Flies grow from grubs in the dung that farmers have 
gathered up into heaps : for those who are engaged in this 
work assiduously gather up the compost, and this they 


technically term ' working-up ' the manure. 3 The grub is 

25 exceedingly minute 4 to begin with; first even at this 

stage it assumes a reddish colour, and then from a 

quiescent state it takes on the power of motion, as though 

born to it ; it then becomes a small motionless grub ; it 

then moves again, and again relapses into immobility ; it 

then comes out a perfect fly, and moves away under the 

influence of the sun's heat or of a puff of air. The myops 5 

30 or horse-fly is engendered in timber. The orsodacna or 

budbane is a transformed grub ; and this grub is engendered 

552 b in cabbage-stalks. 6 The cantharis 7 comes from the cater- 

is a cockchafer or 'rose-chafer', e.g. Cetonia aurata 
(Hesych. fjaj\o\6v0ij' dos K.av6dpa>v ovs nvfs xpva-oKavdapov Xcyov&t : 
cf. Aristoph. Nub. 763 ; xpvo-o/iqXoAov&oi/, id. Vesp, 1342 and Schol.) ; 
but the statement here made applies to one of the Copridae, e.g. 

2 Ael. x. 15, &c. Cf. Horap. i. 10 following whom, de Pauw would 
read in the above (552* 18) $o>Xfuov<ri T* TO ydi/i/za, for (p. TOV x (l t JL ^> va - 
Fabre has shown that some species do, though S. sacer does not, 
survive the winter, together with their eggs and young. 

3 This passage baffles translation, in spite of Schneider's explanation 
(Cur. post.-\o\. iv. p. 405). Dittm. cj. wxavvvTai for pdxovrat. 

4 For fjLiKpd Dittm. cj. d/zaupd. These grubs are the fv\at of H. A. 
ii. 15. 5o6 a 30, cf. //. xix. 26, &c. The description applies to the 
common house-fly and its close allies. 

5 Tabanus, Plin. xi. 38 ; cf. infra, 20. 553* 15. As a matter of fact, the 
Tabanid larvae (or many of them) live in decayed wood, in contrast to 
the parasitic larvae of the Oestridae, or bots. 

6 A curculionid beetle, probably Haltica oleracea. 

7 Theoph. H.P. viii. 10; Plin. xi. 41, xviii. 44; Ael. ix. 39. 

BOOK V. 19 552 

pillars that are found on fig-trees or pear-trees or fir-trees 
for on all these grubs are engendered and also from 
caterpillars found on the dog-rose ; and the cantharis takes 
eagerly to ill-scented substances, from the fact of its having 
been engendered in ill-scented woods. The conops comes 
from a grub that is engendered in the slime of vinegar. 1 5 

2 And, by the way, living animals are found in substances 
that are usually supposed to be incapable of putrefaction ; 
for instance, worms are found in long-lying snow ; 3 and 
snow of this description gets reddish in colour, and the 
grub that is engendered in it is red, as might have been 
expected, and it is also hairy. The grubs found in the 
snows of Media are large and white ; and all such grubs 
are little disposed to motion. In Cyprus, in places where 10 
copper-ore is smelted, with heaps of the ore piled on day 
after day, an animal is engendered in the fire, 4 somewhat 
larger than a bluebottle fly, furnished with wings, which 
can hop or crawl through the fire. And the grubs and 
these latter animals perish when you keep the one away 
from the fire and the other from the snow. Now the 15 
salamander 5 is a clear case in point, to show us that animals 
do actually exist that fire cannot destroy ; for this creature, 
so the story goes, not only walks through the fire but puts 
it out in doing so* 

On the river Hypanis in the Cimmerian Bosphorus, 
about the time of the summer solstice, there are brought 
down towards the sea by the stream what look like little 
sacks rather bigger than grapes, out of which at their 20 

Probably a blister-beetle, Cantharis, Lytta or Mylabris sp., but the 
account of its development is unverified. The ^oinrp^ns of fr. 338, 
I534 b 9> Pl m - xxx. 10, &c., was also a blister-beetle, and probably 
identical with that found by Belon on Mt. Athos, where it was still 
called Voupri.sti: cf. Kirby and Spence, i. p. 157, ed. 1816. 

1 The vinegar-fly, Oinopota cellaris: cf. Plin. /.<:., Geopon. vi. 12. 

2 A. and W. reject the rest of this chapter. 

3 Cf. Plin. xi. 41 ; Senec. Q. Nat. v. 6 ; Antig. Mirab. 90 ; Ael. ii. 2. 
The well-known snow-fleas, snow-worms, or glacier-fleas (Poduridae) : 
cf. Low, Verh.z. b. Ges. Wien> viii, 1858, p. 564 (cti.Camb. Nat. Hist.: 
Insects, Pt. i. p. 194), &c. 

4 Plin. xi. 42 ; Ael. ii. 2. This insect is unknown : cf. Meteor, iv. 4. 
382* 7 ei Trvpi (C<?a) OVK e<mv: G.A. ii. 3. 737 a I rrOp /*i> o\>6tv 

wq vov: Ovid, F. vi. 292, &c. 

5 Aei. ii. 31. 



bursting issues a winged quadruped. The insect lives and 
flies about until the evening, but as the sun goes down it 
pines away, and dies at sunset having lived just one day, 
from which circumstance it is called the ephemeron l 

As a rule, insects that come from caterpillars and grubs 
are held 2 at first by filaments resembling the threads of 
25 a spider's web. 3 

Such is the mode of generation of the insects above 

The wasps that are nicknamed ' the ichneumons ' (or 20 
hunters), less in size, by the way, than the ordinary wasp, 
kill spiders and carry off the dead bodies to a wall or 
some such place with a hole in it ; this hole they smear 
over with mud and lay their grubs inside it, and from the 
30 grubs come the hunter-wasps. 4 Some of the coleoptera 
and of the small and nameless insects make small holes or 
553 a cells of mud on a wall or on a grave-stone, and there 
deposit their grubs. 5 

6 With insects, as a general rule, the time of generation 
from its commencement to its completion comprises three 
or four weeks. With grubs and grub-like creatures the 
time is usually three weeks, and in the oviparous insects 7 
as a rule four. But, in the case of oviparous insects, the 
5 egg-formation comes at the close of seven days from 
copulation, and during the remaining three weeks the 
parent broods over and hatches its young ; i. e. where this 

1 Cf. Cic. Q. Tusc. i. 39 ; Plin. xi. 43 ; Ael. v. 43. (Hence Cicero's 
joke of the consul dialis.) A May-fly, probably (according to Sunde- 
vall, p. 199) the large Ephemera longicauda, Oliv., very common in 
S. Russia. In the Ephemeridae one pair of legs is usually smaller 
than the others : cf. H. A.\.$. 490* 34. 

2 A. and W. cj. Trepie^fTai, * wrapped.' 3 Cf. 551*20. 

4 The Sphegidae, which provision their nests with various insects : 
cf. H.A. ix. i. 609* 5 ; Plin. x. 95. The present account suggests 
Pelopaens (Sceliphron) 'spirifex, of S. Europe, which builds mud-cells 

- in nooks of walls, usually within peasants' cottages, and stores them 
with about eight spiders in each cell (Fabre, Svuvenirs entomologiques, 
ser. iv. p. i, 1891). 

5 Schneider suggests the little beetle Trichodes (Clerus] alvearius, 
which lays its eggs in the nests of mason-bees. 

! A. and W. reject the rest of this chapter and the next. 
7 ftWoKoCo-t, Gaza, Bekk., &c. ; {woroKoCo-i, codd. ; owmSeVj, A. and W., 

BOOK V. 20 553 Z 

is the result of copulation, as in the case of the spider and 
its congeners. As a rule, the transformations take place 
in intervals of three or four days, corresponding to the 10 
lengths of interval at which the crises recur in intermittent 

So much for the generation of insects. Their death is 
due to the shrivelling 1 of their organs, just as the larger 
animals die of old age. Winged insects die in autumn 
from the shrinking of their wings. The myops dies from 15 
dropsy in the eyes. 2 

_^e> vrt *y*j J 3- "2,<\ 

21 With regard to the generation of bees different hypo- 
theses are in vogue. Some affirm that bees neither copu- 
late nor give birth to young, but that they fetch their 
young. 3 And some say that they fetch their young from 
the flower of the callyntrum ; 4 others assert that they 20 
bring them from the flower of the reed, others, from the 
flower of the olive. And in respect to the olive theory, 
it is stated as a proof that, when the olive harvest is most 
abundant, the swarms are most numerous. 5 Others declare 
that they fetch the brood of the drones from such things 
as above mentioned, but that the working bees are 
engendered by the rulers of the hive. 2 5 

Now of these rulers there are two kinds : 6 the better 
kind is red in colour, the inferior kind is black and varie- 
gated ; the ruler is double the size of the working bee. 
These rulers have the abdomen or part below the waist 
half as large again, and they are called by some the 
' mothers ', 7 from an idea that they bear or generate the 

1 Or 'chilling'. 

2 Plin. xi. 43. The smaller Tabanidae are supposed to be blind or 
short-sighted, whence Linn. Tabanus caecutiens, Swed. blindknagg 

3 Verg. G. iv. 200 ; Colum. ix. 2. 7 ; Plin. xi. 16 ; G. A. iii. 10. ;6o a 
29. Cf. Aubert und Wimmer, ' Die Parthenogenesis bei Aristoteles,' 
Zeitschr.f. wiss. Zool. ix. pp. 509-21, 1858. 

4 An unidentified plant : lit. 'broom' ; qy. 'heather'. 

5 H. A. ix. 40. 624^ 10. 

6 Cf. H. A. ix. 40. 624 b 21 ; Varro, R. R. iii. 1 6. 18 ; Colum. ix. 10. 
The two kinds are probably the Italian or Ligurian and the common 

7 Cf. Xen, OeCOH. 7. 32 r; TUV 


30 bees ; and, as a proof of this theory of their motherhood, 
they declare that the brood of the drones appears even 
when there is no ruler-bee in the hive, but that the bees do 
not appear in his absence. Others, again, assert that these 
553 insects copulate, and that the^drones are male and the bees 

The ordinary bee is generated in the cells of the comb, 
but the ruler-bees in cells down below attached to the 
comb, suspended from it, 1 apart from the rest, six or seven 
in number, and growing in a way quite different from the 
mode of growth of the ordinary brood. 

5 Bees 2 are provided with a sting, but the drones are not 
so provided. The rulers 3 are provided with stings, but 
they never use them ; and this latter circumstance will 
account for the belief of some people that they have no 
stings at all. 

Of bees there are various species. 4 The best kind is 22 
a little round mottled insect; another is long, and resembles 

10 the anthrena ; a third is black and flat-bellied, and is nick- 
named the ' robber ' ; a fourth kind is the drone, the largest 
of all, but stingless and inactive. 5 And this proportionate 
size of the drone explains why some bee-masters place 
a net-work in front of the hives ; for the network is put to 
keep the big drones out while it lets the little bees go in. 
Of the king bees there are, as has been stated, two kinds. 

T 5 In every hive there are more kings than one; and a hive 
goes to ruin if there be too few kings, not because of 
anarchy thereby ensuing, but, as we are told, because these 
creatures contribute in some way to the generation of the 
common bees. A hive will go also to ruin if there be too 
large a number of kings in it ; for the members of the hives 
are thereby subdivided into too many separate factions. 

20 Whenever the spring-time is late a-coming, and when 

1 Cf. H.A. ix. 40. 624 2 ; Colum. R. R. ix.'il ; Ael. i. 59. 
Bees are more amply discussed, H.A. ix. 40. 623 b . 

3 MSS. and edd. have paa-iXels KO\ ffyf^oixs ; /3a<riXetV Km rejected by 
Dittm. as a gloss. Cf. G.A. iii. 10. 759* 21. 

4 Dittm. unnecessarily adds (<7rXe <'o>) from ix. 40. 6?4 b 20. 

5 Cf. H. A. ix. 40. 624 b 25 ; Varro, R.R. iii. 16. 19 ; Plin. xi. 17. 

BOOK V. 22 553 b 

there is drought and mildew, then the progeny of the hive 
is small in number. 1 But when the weather is dry they 
attend to the honey, and in rainy weather their attention is 
concentrated on the brood ; 2 and this will account for the 
coincidence of rich olive-harvests and abundant swarms. 

The bees first work at the honeycomb, and then put the 
pupae in it : by the mouth, say those who hold the theory 25 
of their bringing them from elsewhere. After putting in 
the pupae they put in the honey for subsistence, and this 
they do in the summer and autumn ; and, by the way, the 
autumn honey is the better of the two. 

The honeycomb is made from flowers, and the materials 
for the wax 3 they gather from the resinous gum of trees, 
while honey is distilled from dew, and is deposited chiefly 
at the risings of the constellations or when a rainbow is in 30 
the sky : 4 and as a general rule there is no honey before 
the rising of the Pleiads. [The bee, then, makes the wax 
from flowers. The honey, however, it does not make, but 
merely gathers what is deposited out of the atmosphere ; 5 554 a 
and as a proof of this statement we have the known fact 
that occasionally bee-keepers find the hives filled with 
honey within the space of two or three days. Furthermore, 
in autumn flowers are found, but honey, if it be withdrawn, 
is not replaced ; now, after the withdrawal of the original 
honey, when no food or very little is in the hives, there 5 
would be a fresh stock of honey, if the bees made it from 
flowers.] 6 Honey, if allowed to ripen and mature, gathers 
consistency ; for at first it is like water and remains liquid 
for several days. 7 If it be drawn off during these days it 
has no consistency; but it attains consistency in about 

1 H.A. ix. 40. 627 b 2o; Plin. xi. 18. * Plin. xi. 14. 

3 Qy., the substance for sealing up the cells. 

4 Perhaps 'under the influence of the Dog-star': cf. Plin.xi. 12.30. 
D a has o-iptos for 17 "pis. But cf. Probl. xii 3. 906* 37. 

5 Cf. Theoph. fr. 190 on at rov p.e\iros yfve&eis rptrrat. j) airo rwv 
av6cu)V KOI ev ols aXXoi? eoTti> 17 y\itKvrrjs' a\\r) 5' etc rov atpos. . . aXXr; 8' 
ev TO'IS Ka\ap.ots : cf. Ael. v. 22 ; Celsus ap. Colum. ix. 14. 20 ' ex floribus 
ceras fieri, ex matutino rore mella' ; Verg. G. iv. I 'aerii mellis caele- 
stia dona '. 

6 The passage is apparently spurious, and in conflict with 554* 13, 
554 b 9, &c. 

7 Plin. xi. 13. 


10 twenty days. The taste of thyme-honey l is discernible at 
once, from its peculiar sweetness and consistency. 

The bee gathers from every flower that is furnished with 
a calyx or cup, and from all other flowers that are sweet- 
tasted, without doing injury to any fruit ; and the juices of 
the flowers it takes up with the organ that resembles 
a tongue and carries off to the hive. 

15 Swarms are robbed of their honey on the appearance of 
the wild fig. 2 They produce the best larvae at the time 
the honey is a-making. The bee carries wax and bees' 
bread round its legs, but vomits the honey into the cell. 
After depositing its young, it broods over it like a bird. 
The grub when it is small lies slantwise in the comb, 3 but 

20 by and by rises up straight by an effort of its own and 
takes food, and holds 4 on so tightly to the honeycomb 
as actually to cling to it. 

The young of bees and of drones is white, and from 
the young come the grubs ; and the grubs grow into bees 
and drones. The egg of the king bee is reddish in colour, 

25 and its substance is about as consistent as thick honey ; 
and from the first it is about as big as the bee that is 
produced from it. From the young of the king bee there 
is no intermediate stage, it is said, of the grub, but the 
bee comes at once. 5 

Whenever the bee lays an egg in the comb there is 
always a drop of honey set against it. The larva of the 
bee gets feet and wings as soon as the cell has been 
stopped up with wax, and when it arrives at its com- 
554 b pleted form it breaks its membrane and flies away. It 
ejects excrement in the grub state, but not afterwards; 
that is, not until it has got out of -the encasing membrane, 
as we have already described. If you remove the heads 
from off the larvae before the coming of the wings, the 
bees will eat them up ; and if you nip off the wings from 

1 So Pice., for xv/iov. Cf. H. A. ix. 40. 626 b 20 ; Colum. ix. 4, &c. 

2 Plin. xi. 15. 
J Plin. xi. 16. 

1 Reading f^frat ; ov Trpoo-e^frat A* C a ; ov Trpoaep^erat Pice. 
5 Plin. xi. 16. 

BOOK V. 22 554 b 

a drone and let it go, the bees will spontaneously bite off 5 
the wings from off all the remaining drones. 

The bee lives for six years as a rule, as an exception for 
seven years. 1 If a swarm lasts for nine years, or ten, great 
credit is considered due to its management. 

In Pontus 2 are found bees exceedingly white in colour, 
and these bees produce their honey twice a month. 3 (The 
bees in Themiscyra, on the banks of the river Thermodon, 10 
build honeycombs in the ground and in hives, and these 
honeycombs are furnished with very little wax but with 
honey of great consistency ; and the honeycomb, by the 
way, is smooth and level.) But this is not always the case 
with these bees, but only in the winter season ; for in Pontus 
the ivy is abundant, and it flowers at this time of the year, 
and it is from the ivy-flower that they derive their honey. 
A white and very consistent honey is brought down from 15 
the upper country to Amisus, which is deposited by bees on 
trees 4 without the employment of honeycombs : 6 and this 
kind of honey is produced in other districts in Pontus. 

There are bees also that construct triple honeycombs in 
the ground ; and these honeycombs supply honey but never 
contain grubs. 6 But the honeycombs in these places are 20 
not all of this sort, nor do all the bees construct them. 

23 Anthrenae 7 and wasps construct combs for their 

1 Virg. G. iv. 206 ; Plin. xi. 22. 

2 On honey of various kinds, in various localities, cf. de Mirab. 16. 
83i b 18 seq. ; Plin. xxi. 45. 

3 Plin. xi. 19. dls TOV pr)v6s is doubtful. Dittm. suggests fit' (KOO-TOV 
nr)v6s, or else Xvaro-ofMavcs. On the Pontic honey, which causes madness, 
cf.Xen.Exfi. Cyr. iv. s.fin. ; Arist. de Mirab. 18. 83l b 23 ; Diod. Sic. 
xiv. 29 ; Strabo, xii. 3 ; Ael. v. 42 ; Diosc. ii. 103, &c. Cf. Beckmann, 
Arist. de Mirab. p. 44. 

4 Plin. I.e. 5 De Mirab. 16. 83 i b 20 ; Ael. v. 42. 

6 We may compare, perhaps, the ' honey-tubs ' of Bombus. 

7 dvOprjvr) is not to be identified, several different wasps appearing to 
be included under this name and that of o-0^|. Those that ' have no 
king' are either solitary wasps or those forming small colonies, e.g. 
Polishes. The elegant nest of the latter is perhaps that referred to as 
one of those made by avdpyvrj. The underground nests are such as 
those of V. r vulgaris,germanica,&&& rufa, cf. H. A. ix. 42. 629* 7, but 
see note in loc. The hornet, V. crabro, which usually builds in a 
hollow tree, is not mentioned here, but would seem to be the <r< 
aypios of ix. 41. 627 b 23. 


young. 1 When they have no king, but are wandering about 
in search of one, the anthrene constructs its comb on some 
high place, and the wasp inside a hole. When the anthrene 

25 and the wasp have a king, they construct their combs 
underground. Their combs are in all cases hexagonal like 
the comb of the bee. They are composed, however, not of 
wax, but of a bark-like filamented 2 fibre, and the comb of 
the anthrene is much neater than the comb of the wasp. 
Like the bee, they put their young just like a drop of 
555 a liquid on to the side of the cell, and the egg clings to the 
wall of the cell. But the eggs are not deposited in the 
cells simultaneously ; on the contrary, in some cells are 
creatures big enough to fly, in others are nymphae, and in 
others are mere grubs. As in the case of bees, excrement 
is observed only in the cells where the grubs are found. 
5 As long as the creatures are in the nymph condition they 
are motionless, and the cell is cemented over. In the 
comb of the anthrene there is found in the cell of the 
young a drop of honey in front of it. The larvae of the 
anthrene and the wasp make their appearance not in 
the spring but in the autumn ; and their growth is especially 
discernible in times of full moon. And, by the way, the 

10 eggs and the grubs never rest at the bottom of the cells, 
but always cling on to the side wall. 

There is a kind of humble-bee 3 that builds a cone-shaped 24 
nest of clay against a stone or in some similar situation, 
besmearing the clay with something like spittle. 4 And 

1 H. A. ix. 40, 41 ; Plin. xi. 21. 

2 apaxvivdovs A. and W. ; dpaxv<a8ovs MSS., al. d/z/^coSous- (A a C a ) ; 
cf. Plin. xi. 24, where the reading araneosa was restored by Harduin, 
in place of cortice et arena. 

3 Cf. //. A. ix. 43. The description applies accurately to the 
mason -bee, Chalicodoma muraria (Latr.), save for the word ou. 
The mason-bee's nest is rounded, like half an orange. There is 
a solitary wasp, Eumenes coarctata, L., which builds a tiny, hard, 
one-celled nest of clay and spittle, conically pointed ; but this insect 
does not resemble the humble-bee, nor has it any sort of ' honey- 
comb '. 

4 o-iaXep A. and W., which is in accord with the facts. Schn. (Cur. 
post.} oxTTrepet a\t. Pice, wvntpel a\os oTi'A/30. Cf. Plin. xi. 25 * nidos 
Into fingunt salis specie applicatos lapidi '. 


BOOK V. 24 555 

this nest or hive is exceedingly thick and hard ; in point 
of fact, one can hardly break it open with a spike. 1 Here 15 
the insects lay their eggs, and white grubs are produced 
wrapped in a black membrane. Apart from the membrane 
there is found some wax 2 in the honey'comb ; and this wax 
is much sallower in hue than the wax in the honeycomb of 
the bee. 

25 Ants copulate and engender grubs ; y and these grubs 
attach themselves to nothing in particular, but grow on and 20 
on from small and rounded shapes until they become elon- 
gated and defined in shape : and they are engendered in 

26 The land-scorpion also lays a number of egg-shaped 
grubs, 4 and broods over them. When the hatching is 
completed, the parent animal, as happens with the parent 
spider, is ejected and put to death by the young ones ; for 25 
very often the young ones are about eleven in number. 

27 Spiders 5 in all cases copulate in the way above men- 
tioned, and generate at first small grubs. 6 And these 
grubs metamorphose in their entirety, and not partially, 
into spiders ; for, by the way, the grubs are round-shaped 
at the outset. And the spider, when it lays its eggs, 

x broods over them, and in three days the eggs or grubs 555 b 
take definite shape. 

All spiders lay their eggs in a web ; but some spiders 
lay in a small and fine web, and others in a thick one ; and 
some, as a rule, lay in a round-shaped case or capsule, and 
some are only partially enveloped in the web. The young 
grubs are not all developed at one and the same time into 
young spiders ; but the moment the development takes 
place, the young spider makes a leap and begins to spin his 5 

1 Lit. 'spear' ; spiculis, Plin. xi. 25. 

2 Schn. and A. W. read o-KwX^Kia (wWSJ}) ; cf. Plin. xi. 36. 

3 Not ' wax ', but a mixture of honey and pollen stored up for food 
for the young. 

4 Plin. xi. 30. 

5 For a fuller account of various species see H. A. ix. 38. 622 b . 

6 H. A. v. 8. 542 a 13 ; G. A. Hi. 9. 758 b 9 ; Plin. xi. 29. 


web. The juice of the grub, if you squeeze it, is the same 
as the juice found in the spider when young ; that is to say, 
it is thick and white. 

The meadow spider l lays its eggs into a web, one half 
of which is attached to itself 2 and the other half is free; 
and on this the parent broods until the eggs are hatched. 

10 The phalangia lay their eggs in a sort of strong basket 
which they have woven, and brood over it until the eggs 
are hatched. The smooth spider is much less prolific than 
the phalangium or hairy spider. These phalangia, when 
they grow to full size, very often envelop the mother 
phalangium and eject and kill her ; and not seldom they 
kill the father-phalangium as well, if they catch him : for, 
by the way, he has the habit of co-operating with the 

15 mother in the hatching. The brood of a single phalangium 
is sometimes three hundred in number. The spider attains 
its full growth in about four weeks. 

Grasshoppers 3 (or locusts) copulate in the same way as 28 
other insects ; that is to say, with the lesser covering the 
20 larger, for the male is smaller than the female. The females 

1 Lye os a sp. 

2 npos avTats, or ai/raiy, is not very intelligible, but the description 
seems somehow to refer to the gossamer webs which the field-spider 
shoots out, remains attached to, and is sometimes borne upon. 

3 aKpidfs, Lat. locustae (Plin. xi. 35, c.), are grasshoppers, including 
locusts, but precise identification is not possible, either of dicpis or 
arreXa/Sos, or of the many other kindred names in Greek, many of 
them obviously foreign, e. g. do-ipaKos (Diosc., cf. Talmud, NIpDN), 
/SpovKos, /zaora, poXovpis (Nic. Ther. 416, 802), irapvo^, Kopvo^, opnas 

(Hesych., Arab. ^^/ : )> n-erijXfc, rpwt;a\is (Ael. vi. 19), &c. I am not 
sure that drTeXafios in cap. 29 is not an interpolation, for Pliny's 
account of locusta (I. c.} seems to embody the substance of both 
chapters. drreXaftos is a favourite word of Plutarch's for the locust ; 
cf. Plin. xxix. 29 ' locustarum minimae sine pennis, quos attelabos 
vocant': cf. Hesych., arreXa/Sor, dxp\s piKpa, and August, in Ps. 104 
* una plaga est locusta et bruchus, quoniam altera est parens et alter 
est foetus '. It is a fact that the wingless larvae are often as destructive 
as the perfect insect. Theoph. fr. 174 (Wimmer) does not help our 
identification further, ^aXerrat /ui/ ovv at diepides, ^aXeTTtortpot 8f ol 

dlTeXa/3ot, gat TOVTUV /idXtOTd OVS KoXoVCTl ftpOVKOVS '. cf. alSO HeSych. 

s. v. &POVKOS. There are about three or four migratory and destructive 
species in the Mediterranean countries, of which Acridium peregrinum } 
the largest, is probably that of Exod. x. 4 ; PaChytylus migratorius, 
P. cinerascens and Cahptenus italicus are commoner in S. Europe. 

BOOK V. 28 555 b 

first insert the hollow tube, 1 which they have at their tails, 
in the ground, and then lay their eggs: and the male, by 
the way, is not furnished with this tube. The females lay 
their eggs all in a lump together, and in one spot, so that 
the entire lump of eggs resembles a honeycomb. After they 
have laid their eggs, the eggs assume the shape of oval 
grubs that are enveloped by a sort of thin clay, like 
a membrane ; in this membrane-like formation they grow 25 
on to maturity. The larva is so soft that it collapses at 
a touch. The larva is not placed on the surface of the 
ground, but a little beneath the surface ; and, when it 
reaches maturity, it comes out of its clayey investiture in 
the shape of a little black grasshopper ; by and by, the 
skin integument strips off, 2 and it grows larger and larger. 
The grasshopper lays its eggs at the close of summer, 
and dies after laying them. The fact is that, at the time 556 a 
of laying the eggs, grubs are engendered in the region of 
the mother grasshopper's neck ; 3 and the male grasshop- 
pers die about the same time. In spring-time they come 
out of the ground ; and, by the way, no grasshoppers are 
found in mountainous land or in poor land, but only in 
flat and loamy 4 land, for the fact is they lay their eggs 5 
in cracks of the soil. During the winter their eggs remain 
in the ground ; and with the coming of summer the last 
year's larva develops into the perfect grasshopper. 5 

29 The attelabi or locusts lay their eggs and die in like 
manner after laying them. Their eggs are subject to 

It is doubtful whether we should read, with PD a , ovXoi/, or 
ov with other MSS. and edd. The former is intrinsically probable, 
but Plin. (/. c.) has ' demisso spinae caule '. Either word suggests a long 
ovipositor such as is found in the ' green grasshoppers ', e. g. Locusta 
I'iridissima, but not in the ordinary grasshoppers and locusts (Acri- 
diidae) : the latter insert the abdomen itself in the ground, making 
a hole by means of two little valvular appendages at its end, and the 
sexual difference is not obvious. While this particular observation 
may apply to one particular form, the rest of the chapter may well be 
of more general import. 

2 Cf. H.A. viii. 17. 6oi a 6. 

3 Cf. Theophr. fr. 174 ^ e fyBopa TOVT&V f) fo-nv olov < 
Ki \oipu>8rjs' vnb Kvvn yap olo'Tpq KOI (yyivfrai ri (TKO)\f]Kiov ev rfj 

)6fipfTai : the grubs of some ichneumon or other parasitic insect. 

4 Lit. ' crumbly '. 

5 A. and W. bracket 556"* 1-7, Dittm. 3-6. 6 See note, p. 555 b 18. 

AR t 11. A. \^ 


destruction by the autumn rains, when the rains are un- 
10 usually heavy ; but in seasons of drought the locusts are 
exceedingly numerous, from the absence of any destructive 
cause, since their destruction seems then to be a matter of 
accident and to depend on luck. 

Of the cicada there are two kinds ; l one, small in size, 30 

15 the first to come and the last to disappear ; the other, large, 

the singing one, that comes last and first disappears. Both 

in the small and the large species some are divided at the 

waist, to wit, the singing ones, and some are undivided ; 

and these latter have no song. The large and singing 

cicada is by some designated the ' chirper ', and the small 

cicada the ' tettigonium ' or cicadelle. And, by the way, 

20 such of the tettigonia as are divided at the waist can sing 

just a little. 

The cicada is not found where there are no trees ; and 
this accounts for the fact that in the district surrounding 
the city of Cyrene it is not found at all in the plain 
country, but is found in great numbers in the neighbourhood 
of the city, and especially where olive-trees a are growing : 
for an olive grove is not thickly shaded. And the cicada is 
not found in cold places, and consequently is not found in 
any grove that keeps out the sunlight. 3 

^5 The large and the small cicada copulate alike, belly to 
belly. The male discharges sperm into the female, 4 as is 
the case with insects in general, and the female cicada has 
a cleft generative organ ; and it is the female into which 
the male discharges the sperm. 

1 Plin. xi. 32 ; H. A . iv. 7. 532 b 1 1. Probably the two common Euro- 
pean cicadas, C.plebeia, Scop., and C. orni, L. ; the former, the larger, 
is black above, the latter greenish yellow with black spots. As to C. orni, 
' son chant est comme enroue et ne se fait pas entendre de loin ! ' 
Olivier, cit. Amyot et Seville, Hdmipteres, Paris, 1843, p. 481. There 
are, however, other smaller species of C. in Southern Europe. 

2 Cf. H.A. viii. 17. 6oi a 7; Strabo vi. I. 9. 

3 Verg. Ed. ii. 13 ' Sole sub ardenti resonant arbusta cicadis '. Some 
MSS. have o-imW for cvaKiois. 

4 A. and W. consider the whole passage corrupt, and rewrite as 

follows : va(pir^(Ti 8* 6 appr/v is TTJV 6r)\tav t ov\ f) OTJ\HI els TOV appev 
raXXa eWo/^a' e^et 6' TJ 6fj\eta aldolov e(T\icru(.vov (is 6 affoirjcrtv 6 

Cf. H.A. v. 8. 542 a i. 

BOOK V. 30 556 a 

They lay their eggs in fallow lands, boring a hole with 
the pointed organ they carry in the rear, 1 as do the 
locusts likewise ; for the locust lays its eggs in untilled 556 b 
lands, and this fact may account for their numbers in the 
territory adjacent to the city of Cyrene. The cicadae also 
lay their eggs in the canes on which husbandmen prop 
vines, perforating the canes ; and also in the stalks of the 
squill. This brood runs into the ground. 2 And they are 5 
most numerous in rainy weather. The grub, on attaining 
full size in the ground, becomes a tettigometra (or nymph), 
and the creature is sweetest to the taste 3 at this stage before 
the husk is broken. When the summer solstice comes, the 
creature issues from the husk at night-time, and in a 
moment, as the husk breaks, the larva becomes the perfect 
cicada. 4 The creature, also, at once turns black 5 in colour 10 
and harder and larger, and takes to singing. In both 
species, the larger and the smaller, it is the male that sings, 
and the female that is unvocal. 6 At first, the males are the 
sweeter eating ; but, after copulation, the females, as they 
are full then of white eggs. 

If you make a sudden noise as they are flying overhead 
they let drop something like water. Country people, in 15 
regard to this, say that they are voiding urine, i. e.'that they 
have an excrement, and that they feed upon dew. 7 

If you present your finger to a cicada and bend back the 
tip of it and then extend it again, it will endure the presenta- 
tion more quietly than if you were to keep your finger 
outstretched altogether ; and it will set to climbing your 
finger : 8 for the creature is so weak-sighted that it will take 

1 The female cicada has a long and powerful ovipositor ; cf. note 
antea, 28. 555 b 21. 

2 The cicada lays its eggs in dead twigs : the larva, issuing in the 
following year, becomes a ' nymph ', which burrows deep in the 
ground, and after another year issues from its envelope as the perfect 

3 On cicadas as food cf. Ael. xii. 6. 

4 Cf. H. A. viii. 17. 601*9: Ar. Av. 1095; Lucr. iv. 56, v. 803 
' Folliculos ut nunc tereteis aestate cicadae Linquunt sponte sua victum 
vitamque petenteis '. 

' Cf. Martial, i. 116. 6 Cf. Xenarch. in AnthoL 

Theocr. iv. 16; Verg. Eel. v. 77, &c. 
8 ' Si on lui presente une canne, en continuant de siffler, elle s'y pose 



ao to climbing your finger as though that were a moving 

Of insects that are not carnivorous but that live on the 31 
juices of living flesh, such as lice and fleas and bugs, all, 
without exception, generate what are called ' nits ', and 
these nits generate nothing. 

25 Of these insects the flea is generated out of the slightest 
amount of putrefying matter ; for wherever there is any 
dry excrement, a flea is sure to be found. Bugs are 
generated from the moisture of living animals, as it dries 
up outside their bodies. Lice are generated out of the 
flesh of animals. 

When lice are coming there is a kind of small erup- 
tion visible, unaccompanied by any discharge of purulent 
matter ; and, if you prick an animal when in this condition 
557 a at the spot of eruption, the lice jump out. 1 In some men 
the appearance of lice is a disease, in cases where the body 
is surcharged with moisture ; and, indeed, men have been 
known to succumb to this louse-disease, as Alcman the 
poet and the Syrian Pherecydes are said to have done. 2 
Moreover, in certain diseases lice appear in great 

There is also a species of louse called the * wild louse ', 
5 and this is harder than the ordinary louse, and there is 
exceptional difficulty in getting the skin rid of it. Boys' 
heads are apt to be lousy, but men's in less degree ; and 
women are more subject to lice than men. But, whenever 
people are troubled with lousy heads, they are less than 
10 ordinarily troubled with headache. And lice are generated 
in other animals than man. For birds are infested with 
them ; and pheasants, unless they clean themselves in the 
dust, are actually destroyed by them. All other winged 
animals that are furnished with feathers are similarly in- 

et redescend lentement encore a reculons ; . . . M. Boyer est parvenu 
ainsi a en faire placer une sur son nez.' Amyot et Seville, p. 480. 

1 This refers to the very minute itch-mite, Sarc&ptes scabiei: cf. 
Sundevall, p. 229 : generally stated to have been first discovered in 
the twelfth century by Avenzoar, a Moorish physician of Seville. 

3 The morbus, or phthiriasis, due to the louse Phthirius 
inguinalis, and similar diseases due to Acari: cf. Antig. H. Mirab. xcv ; 
Plin. xi. 39. 

BOOK V. 31 557 

Tested, and all hair-coated creatures also, with the single 
exception of the ass, 1 which is infested neither wjth lice 
nor with ticks. 

Cattle suffer both from lice and from ticks. Sheep and 15 
goats breed ticks, but do not breed lice. Pigs breed lice 
large and hard. In dogs are found the flea peculiar to the 
animal, the Cynoroestes? In all animals that are subject 
to lice, the latter originate from the animals themselves. 
Moreover, in animals that bathe at all, lice are more than 
usually abundant when they change the water in which 20 
they bathe. 

In the sea, lice are found on fishes, but they are 
generated not out of the fish but out of slime ; and they 
resemble multipedal wood-lice, only that their tail is flat. 
Sea-lice are uniform in shape and universal in locality, and 25 
are particularly numerous on the body of the red mullet. 3 
And all these insects are multipedal and devoid of blood. 4 

The parasite that feeds on the tunny is found in the 
region of the fins ; it resembles a scorpion, and is about 
the size of a spider. 5 In the seas between Cyrene and 
Egypt there is a fish that attends on the dolphin, which 30 
is called the ' dolphin's louse '. fi This fish gets exceedingly 
fat from enjoying an abundance of food while the dolphin 
is out in pursuit of its prey. 

32 Other animalcules besides these are generated, as we 
have already remarked, some in wool or in articles made 
of wool, as the ses or clothes-moth." And these animal- 
cules come in greater numbers if the woollen substances 
are dusty ; and they come in especially large numbers if 
a spider 8 be shut up in the cloth or wool, for the creature 

1 Plin. xi. 39. 

2 Od. xvii. 300. Doubtless the common tick, Ixodes ritinus; cf. 
Plin. xi. 40. 

3 Read rpiy\as : al. rpwyXay. Cf. Athen. vii. 324; H. A. vi. 17. 
57 b 5 viii. 20. 6o2 b 29. Dittm. cj. nrepvyns, ' about the fins ' ; I should 
prefer ^pay^ia. 

4 Read avaipa ra cro/i<i. ' See note to viii. 19. 
Naucrates duct or : cf. Ael. ix. 7. 

7 Tinea, and allied genera : cf. Plin. xi. 41. 

8 A doubtful reading, though followed by Plin. /. r. For apa\-js 
A. and W. suggest &pa \vovs. 


drinks up any moisture that may be there, and dries up 

5 the woollen substance. This grub is found also in men's 

A creature is also found in wax l long laid by, just as in 
wood, and it is the smallest of animalcules and is white in 
colour, and is designated the acari or mite. In books also 
other animalcules are found, some resembling the grubs 

10 found in garments, and some resembling tailless scorpions, 2 
but very small. As a general rule we may state that such 
animalcules are found in practically anything, both in dry 
things that are becoming moist and in moist things that 
are drying, provided they contain the conditions of life. 

There is a grub entitled the ' faggot-bearer ', 3 as strange 
a creature as is known. 4 Its head projects outside its shell, 

15 mottled in colour, and its feet are near the end or apex, as 
is the case with grubs in general ; but the rest of its body 
is cased in a tunic as it were of spider's web, and there are 
little dry twigs about it, that look as though they had stuck 
by accident to the creature as it went walking about. But 
these twig-like formations are naturally connected with the 
tunic, for just as the shell is with the body of the snail so is 
the whole superstructure with our grub ; and they do not 
drop off, but can only be torn off, as though they were all 

20 of a piece with him, and the removal of the tunic is as fatal 
to this grub as the removal of the shell would be to the 
snail. In course of time this grub becomes a chrysalis, 
as is the case with the silkworm, and lives in a motionless 
condition. But as yet it is not known into what winged 

25 condition it is transformed. 

The fruit of the wild fig contains the psen, or fig-wasp. 
This creature is a grub at first ; but in due time the husk peels 
off and the psen leaves the husk behind it and flies away, 
and enters into the fruit of the fig-tree through its orifice. 5 and 

1 For KT)piu> or c^po) Sylb. and A. and W. cj. rvpy, ( cheese.' There 
are no mites in wax. 

2 The book-scorpion, Chelifer cancroides; cf. H. A. iv. 17. 532 a 18. 
s |uXo$6poy. So Schn., A. and W., and Dittm. for v\o<f)6opov of the 


4 The creature is not our caddis-worm, but the 'basket-worm', or 
caterpillar of Psyche, a species of moth common in Southern Europe. 

6 <TTO[j.(iT<t)v MSS., Bekk. ; aTi-y\iaru>v Dittm. ; dta<TTop.S>v Sylb. I read 
8' i (i aTo/^uircoy, Km Trote?, instead of Km 8ui err. TT. 

BOOK V. 32 557 b 

causes the fruit not to drop off; and with a view to this 
phenomenon, country folk are in the habit of tying wild 30 
figs on to fig-trees, and of planting wild fig-trees near 
domesticated ones. 1 

33 In the case of animals that are quadrupeds and red- 
blooded and oviparous, generation takes place in the spring, 558 a 
but copulation does not take place in an uniform season. 
In some cases it takes place in the spring, in others in 
summer time, and in others in the autumn; according as the 
subsequent season may be favourable for the young. 

The tortoise lays eggs with a hard shell and of two 
colours within, like birds' eggs, and after laying them buries 5 
them in the ground and treads the ground hard over them ; 
it then broods over the eggs on the surface of the ground, 
and hatches the eggs the next year. The hemys, or fresh- 
water tortoise, 2 leaves the water and lays its eggs. It digs 
a hole of a cask-like shape, and deposits therein the eggs ; 
after rather less than thirty days it digs the eggs up again 
and hatches them with great rapidity, and leads its young to 
at once off to the water. The sea-turtle lays on the ground 
eggs just like the eggs of domesticated birds, buries the 
eggs in the ground, and broods over them in the night-time. 
It lays a very great number of eggs, amounting at times to 
one hundred. 

Lizards and crocodiles, terrestrial and fluvial, lay eggs on 15 
land. The eggs of lizards hatch spontaneously on land, for 

1 The wild fig and the cultivated fig stand to one another in the 
relation of male and female. Cf. G.A. i. I. 7l5 b 21 KOI yap fv rot? 
(pvTots vTrapxfi TCI p.ev Kapno(p6pa Sevbpa TOV avTov ycvovs, TO. 8* aura ptv 
oi> (pcpfi KapTrov, cri;/z/3aXA?Tai 8e rots (pepovcri npos TO 7TTTtv, oioi/ 
ffvu&aivfi TTfpl rrjv (TVKIJV KO\ TOV epivfov. Both bear flowers of both 
sexes, but one brings male and the other female flowers to maturity. 
Caprification, or artificial fertilization, consists in hanging ripe fruit of 
the Caprificus on fig-trees, whose figs are then in their female stage. 
Wasps (Cynips Psenes, L., Blastophaga grossorum, Grav.) hatched 
within the former, enter the latter, carrying pollen with them. The 
literature on caprification is very large ; cf. (int. al.) Paul Mayer, 
Mitth. d. Zool. Stat. Neapel, iii. pp. 551-78, 1882 ; and, among classical 
references, Herod, i. 193 (cf. Athen. xiv. 651) ; Theophr. H.P. ii. 8; 
C. P. ii. 9, iii. 18; Plin. xv. 19, xvii. 27, 44; Colum. R.R. xi. 2. 56; 
Pallad. iv. 10, vii. 6; Arnob. passim ; Varro, L. L. v. 3; Suid. s. v. 

ovfpivao-roSj &C. 

2 Plin. xxxii. 4. 


the lizard does not live on into the next year ; in fact, the 
life of the animal is said not to exceed six months. The 
river-crocodile l lays a number of eggs, sixty at the most, 
white in colour, and broods over them for sixty days : for, 
20 by the way, the creature is very long-lived. And the dis- 
proportion is more marked in this animal than in any other 
between the smallness of the original egg and the huge size of 
the full-grown animal. 2 For the egg is not larger than that of 
the goose, and the young crocodile is small, answering to 
the egg in size, but the full-grown animal attains the length 
of twenty-six feet ; in fact, it is actually stated that the 
animal goes on growing to the end of its days. 

25 With regard to serpents or snakes, the viper is externally 34 
viviparous, having been previously oviparous internally. 3 
The egg, as with the egg of fishes, is uniform in colour and 
soft-skinned. The young serpent grows on the surface of 
the egg, and, like the young of fishes, has no shell-like 
envelopment. The young of the viper is born inside a 
membrane that bursts from off the young creature in three 
30 days ; and at times the young viper eats its way out from 
the inside of the egg. The mother viper brings forth all 
its young in one day, twenty in number, and one at a time. 
558 b The other serpents are externally oviparous, and their eggs 
are strung on to one another like a lady's necklace ; after 
the dam has laid her eggs in the ground she broods over 
them, and hatches the eggs in the following year. 

1 Cf. Herod, ii. 68 ; Plin. viii. 37. 

2 Reading, with Schn., A. and W., and Dittm., yiyverai TOVTO, for 
y. (K TovruiV. Pice. f (Xa^iaTov 6' tv a><u <aov ptyiaTov yiyiXTin fv 
TOVTO. The sentence does not admit of literal translation into English. 

3 G. A. ii. I. 732 b 23, iv. 3. 7yo u 24; H.A. iii. i. 511* 16. 


So much for the generative processes in snakes and 558 b 
insects, and also in oviparous quadrupeds. 

Birds without exception lay eggs, but the pairing season 10 
and the times of parturition are not alike for all. 1 Some 
birds couple and lay at almost any time in the year, as for 
instance the barn-door hen and the pigeon : the former of 
these coupling and laying during the entire year, with the 
exception of the month before and the month after the 
winter solstice. 2 Some hens, even in the high breeds, lay 15 
a large quantity of eggs before brooding, amounting to as 
many as sixty ; and, by the way, the higher breeds are 
less prolific than the inferior ones. The Adrian hens 3 are 
small-sized, but they lay every day; they are cross-tempered, 
and often kill their chickens ; they are of all colours. Some 
domesticated hens lay twice a day ; 4 indeed, instances have 20 
been known where hens, after exhibiting extreme fecundity, 
have died suddenly. Hens, then, lay eggs, as has been 
stated, at all times indiscriminately ; the pigeon, the ring- 
dove, the turtle-dove, and the stock- dove lay twice a year, 5 
and the pigeon actually lays ten times a year. The great 
majority of birds lay during the spring-time. Some birds 25 
are prolific, and prolific in either of two ways either by 
laying often, as the pigeon, or by laying many eggs at a 
sitting, as the barn-door hen. All birds of prey, or birds 
with crooked talons, are unprolific, except the kestrel : this 

1 Cf. H. A. ix. cc. 7-36. 

2 H.A. v. 13. 544 b 33 ; Plin. x. 74. 

1 G.A. iii. i. 749 b 2o; Athen. vii. 285 d . 

4 G.A. iii. I. 750*27. 

6 We translate with Plin. x. 74 ' palumbi et turtures bis anno 
pariunt ' : so Schn., { male Gaza vertit bina pariunt '. A. and \V. trans- 
late with Gaza, comparing G.A. iii. i. 750* 15 T<\ fie 7rf/uo-Tepo><?>;; fii/o 
us TI\ TroXXn TiKTdv tlv>Q(v, but that is another matter. 


bird is the most prolific of birds of prey ; * as many as four 
eggs have been observed in the nest, and occasionally it 

30 lays even more. 

Birds in general lay their eggs in nests, but such 
559 a as are disqualified for flight, as the partridge and the 
quail, 2 do not lay them in nests but on the ground, 
and cover them over with loose material. The same is 
the case with the lark and the tetrix. These birds hatch 
in sheltered places ; but the bird called merops in Boeotia, 3 
alone of all birds, burrows into holes in the ground and 
hatches there. 

5 Thrushes, like swallows, build nests of clay, on high 
trees, and build them in rows all close together, so that 
from their continuity the structure resembles a necklace of 
nests. 4 Of all birds that hatch for themselves the hoopoe is 
the only one that builds no nest whatever ; it gets into the 

10 hollow of the trunk of a tree, and lays its eggs there with- 
out making any sort of nest. 5 The circus builds either 
under a dwelling-roof or on cliffs. The tetrix, called ourax 
in Athens, builds neither on the ground nor on trees, but on 
low-lying shrubs. 

15 The egg in the case of all birds alike is hard-shelled, if it 2 
be the produce of copulation and be laid by a healthy hen 
for some hens lay soft eggs. The interior of the egg 

1 G.A. iii. I. 750* 7 ; Plin. x. 73. 

1 H.A. ix. 8. 6i3 b 6; Xen. Mem. ii. I. 4. 

8 Read ^fpona (with PD a ), the bee-eater. H. A. ix. 13. 6i5 b 24 ; 

Plin. x. 51. 

4 This description (with which cf. Plin. x. 74) is not true of the 
thrush, nor is it known to be true as a whole of any other bird. That 
the thrush builds her nest of clay, or at least lines it therewiih, is true, 
and this is all that we are told by Alex. Myndius: cf. Athen. ii. 65*. 
I am therefore inclined to think that the latter part of the sentence 
should refer to the swallow. On the swallow's nest cf. H.A. ix. 
7. 6i2 b 21 ; Plin. x. 49 ; Ael. iii. 24, 25, &c. 

5 A different account in H.A. ix. 15. 616*35; Ael. iv. 26. The 
phrase *a#' e.Ardv, as Seal., Schn., and others have shown, is difficult, 
nor is the sense made much clearer by substituting naff envra. The 
contrast implied may be with the cuckoo, which neither builds nor 
hatches, and this reference is the less unlikely from the resemblance 
in note and connexion in story between the two birds. Note the 
juxtaposition of 7ro\/^ and Kip/coy, as in the well-known myth. For 
KipKos, some MSS. have KOKKV : Dittm. cj. KityfXoy. Pice, discerns 
a lacuna, 6 <5e KOKKV . . . 

BOOK VI. 2 559' 

is of two colours, and the white part is outside and the 
yellow part within. 1 

The eggs of birds that frequent rivers and marshes differ 
from those of birds that live on dry land ; that is to say, o 
the eggs of water-birds have comparatively more of the 
yellow or yolk and less of the white. Eggs vary in colour 
according to their kind. Some eggs are white, as those of 
the pigeon and of the partridge ; others are yellowish, as the 
eggs of marsh birds ; in some cases the eggs are mottled, as 
the eggs of the guinea-fowl and the pheasant ; 2 while the 2 5 
eggs of the kestrel are red, like vermilion. 

Eggs are not symmetrically shaped at both ends: in 
other words, one end is comparatively sharp, and the other 
end is comparatively blunt ; and it is the latter end that 
protrudes first at the time of laying. Long and pointed 
eggs are female ; those that are round, or more rounded at 
the narrow end, are male. 3 Eggs are hatched by the 
incubation of the mother-bird. In some cases, as in Egypt, 559 
they are hatched spontaneously in the ground, by being 
buried in dung heaps. 4 A story is told of a toper in 
Syracuse, how he used to put eggs into the ground under 
his rush-mat and to keep on drinking until he hatched 
them. 5 Instances have occurred of eggs being deposited in 
warm vessels and getting hatched spontaneously. => 

The sperm of birds, as of animals in general, is white. 
After the female has submitted to the male, she draws up 6 
the sperm to underneath her midriff. At first it is little in 
size and white in colour ; by and by it is red, the colour of 
blood ; as it grows, it becomes pale and yellow all over. 10 
When at length it is .getting ripe for hatching, it is subject 
to differentiation of substance, and the yolk gathers together 

1 G.A.ui. i. 751*32, c. ; Plin. x. 74 ' intus autem omne ovum 
volucrum bicolor '. 

2 Plin. I.e. 'alia punctis distincta, ut meleagridi ; alia rubri colons, 
ut phasianis, cenchridi '. 

Plin. I.e., Colum. viii. 5, Antig. de Mirab. 103 all assert the 

4 Diod. Sic. i. 74; Geopon. xiv. i. I. 

5 Antig. de Mirab. 104 ; Plin. x. 75. 

6 Xnpfriwt. Gaza tr. ' concipit ovum ', but the phrase here seems 
to be descriptive rather than technical : cf. G. A. ii. 4. 739'' 8. 


within and the white settles round it on the outside. When 
the full time is come, the egg detaches itself and protrudes, 
changing from soft to hard with such temporal exactitude 
that, whereas it is not hard during the process of pro- 
is trusion, it hardens immediately after the process is com- 
pleted : l that is if there be no concomitant pathological 
circumstances. Cases have occurred where substances 
resembling the egg at a critical point of its growth 
that is, when it is yellow all over, as the yolk is subsequently 
have been found in the cock when cut open, underneath 
his midriff, just where the hen has her eggs ; and these 
are entirely yellow in appearance and of the same size as 
20 ordinary eggs. Such phenomena are regarded as unnatural 
and portentous. 

Such as affirm that wind-eggs are the residua of eggs 
previously begotten from copulation are mistaken in this 
assertion, for we have cases well authenticated where 
chickens of the common hen and goose have laid wind- 
eggs without ever having been subjected to copulation. 2 
25 Wind-eggs are smaller, less palatable, and more liquid 
than true eggs, and are produced in greater numbers. 
When they are put under the mother bird, the liquid 
contents never coagulate, but both the yellow and the 
white remain as they were. Wind-eggs are laid by a 
number of birds : as for instance by the common hen, the 
hen partridge, the hen pigeon, the peahen, the goose, 
and the vulpanser. 3 Eggs are hatched under brooding 

1 G.A. iii. i. 752*35 ; Plin. /. c. 

2 G. A. iii. i. 751*9, &c. ; Plin. x. 80. 

3 The only characters that these birds seem to possess in common 
is that all are more or less sacred, mystical, or associated with supersti- 
tion. On wind-eggs, <aa vnr)vepia, Kvvo<rovpa t oupia, aptfuaia, [cffrvpia, 
cf. supra, v. i. 539 a 3i i G.A. i. 21. 73o a 4, "- 5- 74i a I7 "i- * 749 a I, 
75 b 3> 75 ia 9> & c - Athen. i. 57 c ; Colum. vi. 27, &c. ; and especially 
G.A. ii. 3. 737 a 27 TO yap dfjXv &<nrtp apptv e'ori TTfTrqpoofifVov, KOI ra 

(TTrc'p/za, ov xadapbv 8f' ev yap OVK. f\(i povov, rr\v TTJS ^VXTJ? 
KOI 6ta TOVTO oaois virT]Vfp.ta yiverai ru>v tao>v t ap.<poT(p<i>v f\fi ra 
TO avviaTap.(vov <uoi/, dXXa rfjv ap\r)V OVK e^et, dto ov yivfrai fp.^v\ov' 
ravrr]v yap TO TOV apptvos enitpepd o~n(pfjui. It was the aitrffifriKr) ^V\T), 
that wherein the animal differs from the plant, that without which the 
body would be but as a corpse, that the female cannot supply and 
that it is the special virtue of the male to contribute (G.A. ii.5- 741* 12). 
The o>oj/ vnrfvffMiov of a bird does not come to perfect life, neither is it 

BOOK VI. 2 559 b 

hens more rapidly in summer than in winter ; that is to 
say, hens hatch in eighteen days in summer, but occasionally 560* 
in winter take as many as twenty-five. 1 And by the way 
for brooding purposes some birds make better mothers 
than others. If it thunders while a hen-bird is brooding, 
the eggs get addled. Wind-eggs that are called by some 
cynosura and tiria are produced chiefly in summer. Wind- 5 
eggs are called by some zephyr-eggs, because at spring- 
time hen-birds are observed to inhale the breezes ; they do 
the same if they be stroked in a peculiar way by hand. 
Wind-eggs can turn into fertile eggs, and eggs due to previous 10 
copulation can change breed, if before the change of the 
yellow to the white the hen that contains wind-eggs or eggs 
begotten of copulation be trodden by another cock-bird. 
Under these circumstances the wind-eggs turn into fertile 
eggs, and the previously impregnated eggs follow the breed 
of the impregnator ; but if the latter impregnation takes 
place during the change of the yellow to the white, then no 15 
change in the egg takes place : the wind-egg does not 
become a true egg, and the true egg does not take on the 
breed of the latter impregnator. 2 If when the egg-substance 
is small copulation be intermitted, the previously existing 
egg-substance exhibits no increase ; but if the hen be again 
submitted to the male the increase in size proceeds with 

dead as a stick or a stone is dead : it manifestly possesses 
but this is the last and lowest, 17 Opcnrix.^, that which plants also 
possess. Further development takes place if impregnation be at 
length effected, TO yap iwrjvcfua yiWrai yovipa, f(iv fv TIVI Kaipca TO nppev 

In describing as a V7rt)v(p.iov u>6v the primaeval 'Orphic egg' that 
Night and Chaos laid (Ar. Av. 694). the phrase very likely suggests 
or embodies some special mystical significance, akin to which we have 
the story in Horap. i. n of how the Vulture, as symbolizing the year, 
is impregnated by the North Wind in the five ?^e'pat eVay6/ii>ai : 
cf. Ael. ii. 46 ; Plut. Q. Ro)n. xciii, &c. On the \(VKOVOTOI *al opvidiai 
avffj.01, the Etesian winds, or genetabilis aura Favoni, cf. Olympiod. in 
Arist. Meteor, ii. 5. 382* 14 ; Plin. xi. 47, &c. On fables of the similar 
conception of mares in Lusitania cf. Varro, R. R. ii. 2 ; Plin. xii. 42; 
Verg. G. iii. 275 ; Sil. It. iii. 381 ; Augustin. Civ. D. xxi. 5 (in Cappa- 
docia) ; of sheep, Ael. vii. 27 ; of tigers, Opp. Cyn. iii. 355, &c., &c. 

1 G. A. iii. 2. 753 a 17; Plin. x. 75. 

8 A. and W. stigmatize the remainder of this paragraph and the 


20 The yolk and the white are diverse not only in colour 
but also in properties. 1 Thus, the yolk congeals under the 
influence of cold, whereas the white instead of congealing 
is inclined rather to liquefy. Again, the white stiffens 
under the influence of fire, whereas the yolk does not stiffen ; 

25 but, unless it be burnt through and through, it remains soft, 
and in point of fact is inclined to set or to harden more 
from the boiling than from the roasting of the egg. 2 The 
yolk and the white are separated by a membrane from one 
another. The so-called * hail-stones ', or treadles, that are 
found at the extremity 3 of the yellow in no way contribute 
towards generation, as some erroneously suppose : 4 they 

30 are two in number, one below and the other above. If 

you take out of the shells a number of yolks and a number 

56o b of whites and pour them into a saucepan and boil them 

slowly over a low fire, the yolks will gather into the centre 

and the whites will set all round them. 5 

Young hens are the first to lay, and they do so at the 
5 beginning of spring and lay more eggs than the older hens, but 
the eggs of the younger hens are comparatively small. As a 
general rule, if hens get no brooding they pine and sicken. 7 
After copulation hens shiver and shake themselves, and 
often kick rubbish about all round them 8 and this, by the 
way, they do sometimes after laying whereas pigeons trail 

1 G.A. iii. 2. 753 a 34- 

2 Doubtful, and at variance with G.A. I.e. Trvpovpevov de K<U 
ojTTWfjievov ov yivfTai (TK\r)pov Suit TO tlvai rrjv (frvortit yecodts ovras axnrfp 

3 dpxfj is somewhat suspicious, inasmuch as there are two : qy. p 
s. pxi. Cf. infra,) 3. 56i a 10. 

4 A. andW. quote appositely from C. F. Wolff, Bildungd. Darm- 
kanals, Halle, 1812, p. 87 'Da ich mich zuerst mit der Untersuchung 
bebriiteter Eier beschaftigte, suchte ich den Embryo im Hageldes Eies 
(Chalazae), und noch jetzt hebe ich zum Andenken eine sehr sorgfaltige 
Zeichnung von einer Chalaze auf, wovon ich die Rudimente des Embryo 
gefunden zu haben glaubte. Nachher las ich mit Vergniigen im 
Harvey, dass Fabricius in denselben Irrthum gerathen und sogar 
darin geblieben ist.' 

5 G.A. iii. i. 752 a 4. 
Plin. /. c. 

7 Cf. G.A. iii. I. 753 a 15 *ai cVa>uou<rat oi 6 facial, orav reKaxri 
BiariBcvrai ^etpoj/, vanep evos nvos crTfpHTKOfj.'vai TU>V trvftfpvTtov (? crvp.- 

8 Theoph. fr. clxxv TroXXa 6e KOI aXXa TrpurreTai rots d\6yois Z>i> OVK 

BOOK VI. 2 56o l 

their rumps on the ground, and geese dive under the water. 1 10 
Conception of the true egg and conformation of the wind- 
egg take place rapidly with most birds ; as for instance with 
the hen-partridge when in heat. 2 The fact is that, when 
she stands to windward and within scent of the male, she 
conceives, 3 and becomes useless for decoy purposes : for, by 15 
the way, the partridge appears to have a very acute sense 
of smell. 

The generation of the egg after copulation and the genera- 
tion of the chick from the subsequent hatching of the egg 
are not brought about within equal periods for all birds, 
but differ as to time according to the size of the parent- 
birds. The egg of the common hen after copulation sets 
and matures in ten days as a general rule ; the egg of the 20 
pigeon in a somewhat lesser period. 4 Pigeons have the 
faculty of holding back the egg at the very moment of 
parturition ; if a hen pigeon be put about by any one, for 
instance if it be disturbed on its nest, or have a feather 
plucked out, or sustain any other annoyance or disturbance, 
then even though she had made up her mind to lay she 
can keep the egg back in abeyance. 

A singular phenomenon is observed in pigeons with re- 25 
gard to pairing : that is, they kiss one another just when the 
male is on the point of mounting the female, 5 and without 
this preliminary the male would decline to perform his 

\6yov atrobovvai' olov ftia rl f) opvts orav TfKy ntpippiTTTfi ra 
Plin. x. (41) 57 ' Villaribus gallinis et religio inest. Inhorrescunt 
edito ovo, excutiuntque sese, et circumactae purificant, ac festuca aliqua 
sese et ova lustrant '. So Plut. Syinp. vii. 700 D, s. v. Trepi 
Cf. also Dion, de Avib. i. 26 npos cvTOKiav de avrais, j)i/ co 
Xpj^ri/iOf K TTJS yrjs TO) oro/nan K(ip(pos Xa/3eiv nal eiriTi&fvai rols 
The alleged phenomenon is merely one of the many remedies, 
charms, or fasdnationes, the use of which is attributed to particular 

1 Varro, R. R. iii. 10. 3. 

2 H. A. v. 5. 541*26; G. A. iii. I. 75i a i5; Ael. H. A. xvii. 15; 
Antig. de Mirab. 81 (87) ; Athen. ix. 390; Plin. x. 51. 

This myth, probably Egyptian, is, like the similar one of the 
vulture, referred to frequently by the Fathers, e.g. Isid. xii. 7 ; Orig. 
vii : cf. note, p. 559 b 29. 

4 Plin. x. 74. 

6 G.A. iii. 6. 756 b 23; Athen. ix. 394 d ; Ael. V.ff. i. 15; Dion. 
de Avid. i. 25 ; Plin. x. 79 ; Ovid, Am. ii. 6. 56. 


function. 1 With the older males the preliminary kiss is 
only given to begin with, and subsequently he mounts 
without previously kissing ; 2 with younger males the pre- 
liminary is never omitted. Another singularity in these 
30 birds is that the hens tread one another when a cock is 
not forthcoming, after kissing one another just as takes 
place in the normal pairing. Though they do not impreg- 
56i a nate one another they lay more eggs under these than 
under ordinary circumstances ; no chicks, however, result 
therefrom, but all such eggs are wind-eggs. 

3 Generation from the egg proceeds in an identical manner 3 

5 with all birds, but the full periods from conception to birth 

differ, as has been said. With the common hen after three 

days and three nights there is the first indication of the 

embryo ; with larger birds the interval being longer, with 

smaller birds shorter. Meanwhile the yolk comes into being, 

10 rising towards the sharp end, 4 where the primal element of 

the egg is situated, and where the egg gets hatched ; and 

1 For fj OVK av n^eva-ftev, which we read, Schn. conj. f) OVK 
from Athen. and Ael. /. <:., p.rj yap dveXfo-Oai TUP drjXdas rfjv T<av apptvtav 
6p.i\iav TOV (pi\r)p.aTns e'/j^juoi'. Dittm. reads r) OVK (oWgoyraf, 5to 

av ofV(Teifv 

2 The version in Dion, de Ai'ib. is somewhat different : 

/j.(v OVK av TTpb TTJS TMV \(i\(ov p.f3o\r]s dvd(T\oiTo fjLi^fws' at 6e vtm 
TroAAaKi? npbs rrjv avvovcriai' Ka\ St^a Ta>i/ (piX^f^aTa>v oppaHriv. Our text 
and translation accord fairly with Athenaeus's excerpt : 6 fit npfo-fivrfpos, 
\ [6 'Ap.]> xa\ TTpoavaftaivfi ^17 KI eras' nl 5< i/ecorfpoi aid roOro 7roiT](ravTs 

3 This chapter is in great part open to suspicion. The parts which 
I have bracketed as especially doubtful do not correspond precisely 
with those which Dittmeyer has bracketed. 

4 The fuller account in G. A. iii. 2. 752* is in part fanciful. The 
egg must not be spherical, but unsymmetrical in order that the part 
wherein lies the dpxr) may be differentiated ; the dp^r) is at the point 
of attachment of the egg to the parent, as of the seed to its pod, and 
the broad end being found to issue first from the parent, and further, 
the fact that in deformed eggs an irregular outgrowth like an imperfect 
stalk is seen at the narrow end, determine the latter as the point of 
origin of the egg, the seat of the aptf. That being so, the head of the 
chicken, the nobler part, must ultimately be found here, and the egg 
is laid, so to speak, feet first, conversely to the birth of the vivipara. 
But this is a curious error, for it is easy to observe that in the ripened 
egg the chick's head is at the broad end, and that there it breaks the 
shell ; in the early stages the embryo floats uppermost, and confronts 
us at whatever point we open the egg. 


the heart appears, like a speck of blood, in the white of the 
egg. 1 This point beats and moves as though endowed 
with life, and from it two vein-ducts with blood in them 
trend in a convoluted course [as the egg-substance goes on 
growing, towards each of the two circumjacent integu- 
ments] ; 2 and a membrane carrying bloody fibres now 15 
envelops the yolk, 3 leading off from the vein-ducts. A little 
afterwards the body is differentiated, at first very small 
and white. The head is clearly distinguished, and in it 
the eyes, swollen out to a great extent. This condition 
of the eyes lasts on for a good while, as it is only by 20 
degrees that they diminish in size and collapse. At the 
outset the under portion of the body appears insignificant 
in comparison with the upper portion. Of the two ducts 
that lead from the heart, the one proceeds towards the 
circumjacent integument, 4 and the other, like a navel-string, 
towards the yolk. The life-element of the chick is in the 
white of the egg, and the nutriment comes through the 25 
navel-string out of the yolk. 5 

When the egg is now ten days old the chick and all its 
parts are distinctly visible. The head is still larger than 
the rest of its body, and the eyes larger than the head, but 
still devoid of vision. The eyes, if removed about this 
time, are found to be larger than beans, and black ; if the 30 
cuticle be peeled off them there is a white and cold liquid 
inside, quite glittering in the sunlight, but there is no hard 
substance whatsoever. Such is the condition of the head 

1 Plin. x. 74. 

2 Gaza tr. ' ad ambientern album liquorem '. We have no textual 
authority for this rendering, which is more correct in meaning than 
the text, and which suggests the omission of the words bracketed. 
What are afterwards described as the two integuments (allantois and 
yolk-sac) are not yet differentiated on the third day. 

3 I conjecture \em6ov in place of XCVKOV. 

4 Dittm. unnecessarily supplies {\6piov} : cf. G. A. iii. 2. 753 b 3Q. 

B This statement is contrary to the view of the Hippocratic school. Cf. 
Hippocr. vii. 536 L. yivfrai 8e e*c rov ^Xcopov TOV <aoC TO opveov, rpocpq e KU\ 
i$ fo~Tiv dnb TOV ACVKOV ToG ei/ T<U <*>&> eovros : SO also Alcmaeon of 

Croton, cit. G. A. iii. 2. 7$2 b 25. With the Aristotelian account cf. Clear- 
chus fv TuTlfpi 'Q'ivv, ap. Suid. s.v. vforros (emend. Bernhardy), cp irapa- 
dp\n UTTO i> vpeva TOV XeuKoV (V Totlro) -ytip TO antp^d KOI OVK tv ro> 

. fforTG)* die^evo'drjo'av yap ol Trpcorot TOVTO (prjcravrff, KOI ecrrt TO o)\pov 
rov o-7rf'pp.aTo?. Cf. also G.A. iii. 2. 753 b 10; Plin. x. 74, &c. 

AR. H.A, 



and eyes. At this time also the larger internal organs are 
visible, as also the stomach and the arrangement of the 
viscera ; and the veins that seem to proceed from the heart 
5 are now close to the navel. From the navel there stretch 
a pair of veins ; one l towards the membrane that envelops 
the yoke (and, by the way, the yolk is now liquid, or more 
so than is normal), and the other 2 towards that membrane 
which envelops collectively the membrane wherein the 
chick lies, the membrane of the yolk, and the intervening 
10 liquid. [For, as the chick grows, little by little one part of 
the yolk goes upward, and another part downward, and the 
white liquid is between them ; and the white of the egg is 
underneath the lower part of the yolk, as it was at the 
outset.] On the tenth day the white is at the extreme 
outer surface, reduced in amount, glutinous, firm in sub- 
is stance, and sallow in colour. 

The disposition of the several constituent parts is as 
follows. First and outermost comes the membrane of the 
egg, not that of the shell, but 3 underneath it. Inside this 
membrane 4 is a white liquid ; then comes the chick, and 
a membrane round about it, 5 separating it off so as to keep 
the chick free from the liquid ; next after the chick comes 
20 the yolk, into which one of the two veins was described as 
leading, the other one leading into the enveloping white 
substance. [A membrane 4 with a liquid resembling serum 
envelops the entire structure. Then comes another mem- 
brane 5 right round the embryo, as has been described, 
separating it off against the liquid. Underneath this comes 
the yolk, enveloped in another membrane (into which yolk 
25 proceeds the navel-string that leads from the heart and the 
big vein), so as to keep the embryo free of both liquids.] 

About the twentieth day, if you open the egg and touch 
the chick, it moves inside and chirps ; and it is already 
coming to be covered with down, when, after the twentieth 

1 The vitelline vein and artery. 
The allantoic vein and artery. 

8 Pice, and Dittm., following Schneider, insert <6) : I think 
* The allantois. 6 The amnion. 

BOOK VI. 3 56i b 

day is past, the chick begins to break the shell. 1 The head 
is situated over the right leg close to the flank, and the 30 
wing is placed over the head ; and about this time is plain 
to be seen the membrane resembling an after-birth that 
comes next after the outermost membrane of the shell, 
into which membrane the one of the navel-strings was 562* 
described as leading (and, by the way, the chick in its 
entirety is now within it), and so also is the other mem- 
brane resembling an after-birth, namely that surrounding 
the yolk, into which 2 the second navel-string was described 
as leading ; and both of them were described as being con- 
nected with the heart and the big vein. At this conjuncture 5 
the navel-string that leads to the outer after-birth collapses 
and becomes detached from the chick, and the membrane 
that leads into the yolk is fastened on to the thin gut of the 
creature, and by this time a considerable amount of the 
yolk is inside the chick and a yellow sediment is in its 
stomach. About this time it discharges residuum 3 in the 10 
direction of the outer after-birth, and has residuum inside 
its stomach ; and the outer residuum is white [and there 
comes a white substance inside]. 4 By and by the yolk, 
diminishing gradually in size, at length becomes entirely 
used up and comprehended within the chick (so that, ten 
days after hatching, if you cut open the chick, a small 15 
remnant of the yolk is still left in connexion with the 
gut), 5 but it is detached from the navel, and there is 
nothing in the interval between, but it has been used up 
entirely. During the period above referred to the chick 
sleeps, wakes up, makes a move and looks up and chirps ; 
and the heart and the navel together palpitate as though 20 
the creature were respiring. So much as to generation 
from the egg in the case of birds. 6 

1 Plin./.c. 

2 i. e. the yolk, unless we should read oy, in which case its ante- 
cedent would be v/i^c. 

3 The urates of the allantoic fluid. 

4 Cf. Scalig. in loc. ' Hoc non caret mendi suspicione. Gaza vertit : 
" Excrementum etiam album eodem tempore pullus emittit, et in alvo 
quiddam album consistit." Omisit igitur verba otiosa aut vitiosa.' 

3 G. A. iii. 2. 754 a II. 

8 This is probably the chief passage referred to in G. A. iii. 2. 

R 2 


Birds lay some eggs that are unfruitful, even eggs that 
are the result of copulation, and no life comes from such 
eggs by incubation ; and this phenomenon is observed 
especially with pigeons. 

1 Twin eggs have two yolks. In some twin eggs a thin 

25 partition of white intervenes to prevent the yolks mixing 

with each other, but some twin eggs are unprovided with 

such partition, and the yokes run into one another. There 

are some hens that lay nothing but twin eggs, 2 and in 

their case the phenomenon regarding the yolks has been 

observed. For instance, a hen has been known to lay 

3 o eighteen eggs, and to hatch twins out of them all, except 

those that were wind-eggs ; the rest were fertile (though, 

562 b by the way, one of the twins is always bigger than the 

other), but the eighteenth was abnormal or monstrous. 3 

Birds of the pigeon kind, such as the ring-dove and the 4 
turtle-dove, lay two eggs at a time ; that is to say, they 
5 do so as a general rule, and they never lay more than three. 
The pigeon, as has been said, lays at all seasons ; the 
ring-dove and the turtle-dove lay in the spring-time, and 
they never lay more than twice in the same season. The 
hen-bird lays the second pair of eggs when the first pair 
happens to have been destroyed, for many of the hen- 
pigeons destroy the first brood. The hen-pigeon, as has 
been said, occasionally lays three eggs, but it never rears 
10 more than two chicks, and sometimes rears only one; and 
the odd one is always a wind -egg. 4 

Very few birds propagate within their first year. All 
birds, after once they have begun laying, keep on having 

14 81' aKpifidas pcv ovv, ov rpoTrov \ova-i ravra Trpos aXX^Xa 
Tt rrjs yevecrcws KCU (rwiorra/zcva)!' T&V tou>v, tn 8e nfpi rf TU>V 
i>p,i>Q)v *ai Trept TWI/ o/jcpaAeoi/, ex TU>V tv rms iffTOpiats yeypafjififv^v 8fl 

1 Cf. G. A . iv. 4. ;69 b 30 et seq. 

2 Plin. x. 74 ' Quaedam gallinae omnia gemina ova pariunt, et gemirfbs 
interdum excludunt, ut Corn. Celsus auctor est, alterum maiorem. 
Aliqui negant omnino geminos excludi.' 

' A. and W. CJ. ra 8e ddiopicna (s. <rvyK(\v[Jieva) Tepar^dr), for TO 8( 
TflfVTaiov rep. : cf. G. A. iv. 4. 771* 15. 

4 G. A. iii. 2. 753 a '3o (of hawks). 

BOOK VI. 4 562* 

eggs, though in the case of some birds it is difficult to 
detect the fact from the minute size of the creature. 

The pigeon, as a rule, lays a male and a female egg, and 15 
generally lays the male egg first ; after laying it allows 
a day's interval to ensue and then lays the second egg. 
The male takes its turn of sitting during the daytime ; 
the female sits during the night. The first-laid egg is 
hatched and brought to birth within twenty days ; and the 
mother bird pecks a hole in the egg the day before she 20 
hatches it out. The two parent birds brood for some time 
over the chicks in the way in which they brooded previously 
over the eggs. In all connected with the rearing of the 
young the female parent is more cross-tempered than the 
male, as is the case with most animals after parturition. 
The hens lay as many as ten times in the year ; l occasional 
instances have been known of their laying eleven times, and 25 
in Egypt they actually lay twelve times. The pigeon, male 
and female, couples within the year ; in fact, it couples 
when only six months old. Some assert that ring-doves 
and turtle-doves pair and procreate when only three 
months old, and instance their superabundant numbers by 
way of proof of the assertion. The hen-pigeon carries her 
eggs fourteen days ; for as many more days the parent 30 
birds hatch the eggs ; by the end of another fourteen days 
the chicks are so far capable of flight as to be overtaken 
with difficulty. [The ring-dove according to all accounts, 
lives up to forty years. 2 The partridge lives over sixteen.] 3 
[After one brood the pigeon is ready for another within 
thirty days.] 4 

5 The vulture 5 builds its nest on inaccessible cliffs; 6 for 5 
which reason its nest and young are rarely seen. And 
therefore Herodorus, father of Bryson the Sophist, declares 
that vultures belong to some foreign country unknown to 
us, stating as a proof of the assertion that no one has ever 

1 Athen. ix. 394 ; Ael. V.H.\. 15 ; Plin. x. 74. 
! H.A. ix. 7. 6i3 a 17. 3 [ ]A. andW. 4 [ ] Dittm. 

6 H. A. ix. ii. 614* 8; Antig. Mirab. 42; Plin. x. 7; Plut 
Romul. ix, Q. Rotn. 286 A. 

Cf. Aesch. Suppl. 796 Kpfftus yvjrias Trerpa. 


seen a vulture's nest, and also that vultures in great numbers 
10 make a sudden appearance in the rear of armies. However, 
difficult as it is to get a sight of it, a vulture's nest has been 
seen. The vulture lays two eggs. 

[Carnivorous birds in general are observed to lay but 

once a year. The swallow is the only carnivorous bird 

that builds a nest twice. 1 If you prick out the eyes 2 of 

swallow chicks while they are yet young, the birds will get 

15 well again and will see by and by.] 3 

The eagle 4 lays three eggs and hatches two of them, as 6 
it is said in the verses ascribed to Musaeus : 

That lays three, hatches two, and cares for one. 

This is the case in most instances, though occasionally 
20 a brood of three has been observed. As the young ones 
grow, the mother becomes wearied with feeding them and 
extrudes one of the pair from the nest. At the same time 
the bird is said to abstain from food, 5 to avoid harrying the 
young of wild animals. That is to say, its wings blanch, and 
25 for some days its talons get turned awry. It is in conse- 
quence about this time cross-tempered to its own young. 
The phene is said to rear the young one that has been 
expelled the nest. The eagle broods for about thirty days. 6 

1 H.A.v. 13. 544* 26. 

2 H. A. ii. 17. 5o8 b 5 ; G.A. iv. 6. 774 b 3l ; Antig. Mirab. 72, 98 ; 
Ael. xvii. 20. 

1 [ ] A. and W. 

4 This portion of the book, and this chapter in particular, are inter- 
woven with Egyptian myth. The eagle or vulture was a symbol of 
compassion : cf. Horap. ii. 99 uv&pmtov dnoTa^ap-fvov TO. tSta rcKva fit' 
djropiav /3ouXo/^ffot crt]p.fivai, jepa/ca tyKVfiova a>ypa<^)oCo~ii/' (twos yap 
TIKTW rpla <un, TO tv p.6vov fViXeyerat KCU rpe<pet, ra de nXXa 8uo K\a' TOVTO 
de Trout, dia TO Kar* (Kclvov TOV xpovov TOVS ovv\as nrro/SaXXeiy-, KOI fvrev&ev 
p.}] 8vvao8ai ra rpla Ppcffrr} rp(pii>. A deeper allegorical meaning is 
doubtless present, but the riddle is unsolved. Cf. also Horap. i. II, 
Tzetz. ChiL xii. 439, where the eagle is a symbol of the year. 

6 Reading mrao-ro? : the reading is very dubious. Guil. tr. ' dicitur 
in tempore eodem extra genus aquilae fieri,' perhaps reading, with C a , 
(TrdfTos : cf. Gaza ' nam et degenerare ac hebescere aquila dicitur ' : 
aTraaTos, which, according to Dittm. occurs in PD a , was suggested 
by Sylburg from Plin. x. 4 'quippe eo tempore ipsis cibum negavit 
natura '. Schneider prefers (inaypos, i.e. drv^s nep\ ras aypas (Hesych.). 

6 //. A. ix. 34. 6i9 b 25 ; Plin. x. 4 ; Horap. ii. 99 ; Ambros. Hexaeni. 
v. 18, &c. 

BOOK VI. 6 563 

The hatching period is about the same for the larger 
birds, such as the goose and the great bustard ; for the 
middle-sized birds it extends over about twenty days, as in 
the case of the kite and the hawk. 1 The kite in general 30 
lays two eggs, but occasionally rears three young ones. 
The so-called aegolius at times rears four. It is not true 
that, as some aver, the raven lays only two eggs ; 2 it lays a 
larger number. It broods for about twenty days and then 
extrudes its young. 3 Other birds perform the same opera- 
tion ; at all events mother birds that lay several eggs often 
extrude one of their young. 

Birds of the eagle species are not alike in the treatment 5 
of their young. The white-tailed eagle is cross, the black 
eagle is affectionate in the feeding of the young ; though, 
by the way, all birds of prey, when their brood is rather 
forward in being able to fly, beat and extrude them from 
the nest. 4 The majority of birds other than birds of prey, 
as has been said, also act in this manner, and after feeding 10 
their young take no further care of them ; but the crow is 
an exception. This bird for a considerable time takes 
charge of her young ; for, even when her young can fly, she 
flies alongside of them and supplies them with food. 5 

7 The cuckoo is said by some to be a hawk transformed, 6 
because at the time of the cuckoo's coming, the hawk, 15 
which it resembles, 7 is never seen ; and indeed it is only 

1 Plin. x. 74. 

2 Here again an Egyptian reference. Horap. i. 8 r6j/ v Apa <al rt]v 

'A<ppo6iT77' ypdfpovns, dvo Kopu>vas <i>ypa<pov<nv, as avdpa KOI yvvcuKa' 
7Tft TCWTO TO <uof dvo (od yfvvd, d<P' a)i> appfv KCU 6rj\v yfvvacrBai del. This 
is the av^vyia or Gotterpaar, Isis and Nephthys : cf. Brugsch, iv. 
p. 1559, s.v. terau ; Lauth, Manetho, p. 147, c. 
8 H. A. ix. 31. 6i8 b 10; Plin. x. 15. 

4 Plin. x. 3. 

5 Horap. ii. 97 dvBpwirov del ei> Kii/ryaei *cat dvjjup didyovra xai /j.rj8e ev Tto 
rpffaaOai r]crvxdovTa 0ov\6p.voi (rrjfjLtjvat^ >copa)v^y vo<T<rovs a>ypa(pov<nv' 
aiiTrj yap i7TTap.(vr) rpf(pei rovs vcocrcrovs, Cf. Plin. x. 15. 

6 While, as related here, a superficial resemblance does exist 
between the cuckoo and the hawk, the fabled metamorphosis lies 
deeper (cf. Aes. Fab. 198, ed. Halm, Plut. Arat. xxx, Tzetz. ad Lye. 
395, &c.) ; it is connected with the confusion, based on similarity of 
note, between the cuckoo and the hoopoe (KovKov(pa) y and the mystical 
relation or metamorphosis of the latter with the hawk (K/PKOS), both 
solar emblems. Cf. H.A. ix. 49 B. 633* II ; Plin. x. n, c. 

7 Reading w o/ioid? e'orii>, PD a . 


for a few days that you will see hawks about when the 
cuckoo's note sounds early in the season. The cuckoo 
appears only for a short time in summer, and in winter 
disappears. The hawk has crooked talons, which the cuckoo 

20 has not ; neither with regard to the head does the cuckoo 
resemble the hawk. In point of fact, both as regards the 
head and the claws it more resembles the pigeon. 1 How- 
ever, in colour and in colour alone it does resemble the 
hawk, only that the markings of the hawk are striped, and 
of the cuckoo mottled. And, by the way, in size and flight 

25 it resembles the smallest of the hawk tribe, 2 which bird dis- 
appears as a rule about the time of the appearance of the 
cuckoo, though the two have been seen simultaneously. 
The cuckoo has been seen to be preyed on by the hawk ; 
and this never happens between birds of the same species. 3 
They say no one has ever seen the young of the cuckoo. 

30 The bird lays eggs, but does not build a nest. 4 Sometimes 
it lays its eggs in the nest of a smaller bird after first 
devouring the eggs of this bird ; it lays by preference in the 

a nest of the ring-dove, after first devouring the eggs of the 
pigeon. (It occasionally lays two, but usually one.) It lays 
also in the nest of the hypolais, 5 and the hypolais hatches 
and rears the brood. It is about this time that the bird 
becomes fat and palatable. [The young of hawks also get 
5 palatable and fat. One species builds a nest in the wilder- 
ness and on sheer and inaccessible cliffs.] 6 

With most birds, as has been said of the pigeon, the 8 
hatching is carried on by the male and the female in turns : 
with some birds, however, the male only sits long enough to 

1 In Chinese folklore both Pigeon and Cuckoo metamorphose with 
the hawk: cf. Walters, Tr. /?. As. Soc. (N. China Br.), 1867, p. 225. 

2 The merlin, F. aesalon^ a winter-migrant in Greece, Kriiper, 
p. 1 60. 

1 A. and W. bracket the foregoing part of the chapter. 

4 H. A. ix. 29. 618*8; G. A.m. I. 750** 15; Arist. de Mirab.'^. 
83o b II ; Antig. Mirab. 109; Theophr. C. PI. ii. 17. 9. 

6 According to Kruper (p. 184) the cuckoo in Greece lays oftenest 
in the nest of Sylvia orphea^ and also in that of Saxicola rubicola and 
aurita. As to 0a\^ cf. infra^ ix. 29, Antig. /.<:., Ael. iii. 31, and my 
Gl. of Gk. Birds, p. 146. 

6 A disjointed statement, regarding not the cuckoo but a hawk. 

BOOK VI. 8 564 a 

allow the female to provide herself with food. In the goose 
tribe the female alone incubates, and after once sitting on 10 
the eggs she continues brooding until they are hatched. 1 

The nests of all marsh-birds are built in districts fenny 
and well supplied with grass ; consequently, the mother- 
bird while sitting quiet on her eggs can provide herself 
with food without having to submit to absolute fasting. 

With the crow also the female alone broods, and broods 15 
throughout the whole period ; the male bird supports the 
female, bringing her food and feeding her. The female of 
the ring-dove begins to brood in the afternoon and broods 
through the entire night until breakfast-time of the follow- 
ing day ; the male broods during the rest of the time. 2 20 
Partridges build a nest in two compartments ; the male 
broods on the one and the female on the other. 3 After 
hatching, each of the parent birds rears its brood. But the 
male, when he first takes his young out of the nest, treads 
them. 4 

9 Peafowl 5 live for about twenty-five years, breed about *5 
the third year, and at the same tinie take on their spangled 
plumage. They hatch their eggs within thirty days or rather 
more. The peahen lays but once a year, and lays twelve 
eggs, or may be a slightly lesser number : she does not lay 
all the eggs there and then one after the other, but at 
intervals of two or three days. Such as lay for the first 30 
time lay about eight eggs. The peahen lays wind-eggs. 
They pair in the spring ; and laying begins immediately 
after pairing. The bird moults when the earliest trees are 564 b 
shedding their leaves, and recovers its plumage when the 
same trees are recovering their foliage. 6 People that rear 

1 Cf. Horap. i. 53 <j>ihoTfKv<oTaTov TO u>ov [17 

2 Plin. x. 79. Antig. Mirab. no. 

4 This is one .of the many fables of the salacity and unnatural lust 
of the partridge. Cf. Horap. ii. 95 Trmdepaoriav j3ovX6p.fvot o-Tjpfjvm 8vo 
ntpbiKas faypafpovo-iv, KT\. See also Gl. of Gk. Birds, p. 138. It is 
impossible to accept A. and W.'s conjecture of avdis for avrovs. Cf. 
Antig. /. C, TOVS 8e nepdiKas noiflcrOai crrjKOvs TO>V cpojy KGU C7T(j)d(iv Ka\ 



5 Athen. ix. 379 ; Ael. v. 32 ; Varro, R. R. iii. 9; Plin. x. 79. 

6 Plin. x. 22. 


peafowl put the eggs under the barn-door hen, 1 owing to 
the fact that when the peahen is brooding over them the 
5 peacock attacks her and tries to trample on them ; owing 
to this circumstance some birds of wild varieties run away 
from the males and lay their eggs and brood in solitude. 
Only two eggs are put under a barn-door hen, for she could 
not brood over and hatch a large number. They take 
every precaution, by supplying her with food, to prevent 
her going off the eggs and discontinuing the brooding. 
10 With male birds about pairing time the testicles are 
obviously larger than at other times, and this is conspicuously 
the case with the more salacious birds, such as the barn- 
door cock and the cock partridge ; the peculiarity is less 
conspicuous in such birds as are intermittent in regard to 
pairing. 2 

So much for the conception and generation of birds. 10 

15 It has been previously stated that fishes are not all 
oviparous. 3 Fishes of the cartilaginous genus are viviparous ; 
the rest are oviparous. And cartilaginous fishes are first 
oviparous internally and subsequently viviparous ; 4 they 
rear the embryos internally, the batrachus or fishing-frog 
being an exception. 5 

Fishes also, as was above stated, are provided with 
wombs, and wombs of diverse kinds. The oviparous 

1 Colum. viii. 1 1 ; Pallad. i. 28, &c. ; Plin. x. 79. 

2 Probably corrupt. Cf. the explicit and accurate statement supra 
iii. i. 510*3; G.A. i. 4. 717*8. The MSS. are discrepant; with 
Schn. and Pice, we lean to the Medicean, oi pcv /uaXW oveimicoi *ai 



H.A. iii. 15. 5ii d 6. 

G.A. iii. 3. 754 a 23 ; Plin. ix. (24) 40; Ael. xiii. 5, &c. 

The general statement explicitly made here and in G.A. iii. 3. 
75 l a 2 3 is erroneous, the skates, rays, and several sharks being ovi- 
parous. There is perhaps, however, a misunderstanding. The descrip- 
tion of the egg of the ftdrpaxos 6 BaXdTTios, in Ael. xiii. 5, is not that of 
our fishing-frog, Lophius piscatorius, whose eggs are minute, and float 
agglutinated in a long chain ; they are very rarely seen. On the 
contrary, Aelian's account is apparently a poor description of the 
skate's egg; and again, in G.A. iii. 3. 754* 33, it is probably the 
skate's egg that is referred to. The account in H.A. vi. 17. 570** 33 
is again not true of the fishing-frog. In the whole matter it is im- 
possible to disentangle zoological error from confusion of nomen- 
clature, or from possible textual corruption of /3aVoy for ^d 

BOOK VI. 10 564* 

genera have wombs bifurcate in shape and low down in 20 
position ; the cartilaginous genus have wombs shaped like 
those of birds. 1 The womb, however, in the cartilaginous 
fishes differs in this respect from the womb of birds, that 
with some cartilaginous fishes the eggs do not settle close 
to the diaphragm but middle-ways 2 along the backbone, 
and as they grow they shift their position. 

The egg with all fishes is not of two colours within but 
is of even hue ; and the colour is nearer to white than to 25 
yellow, and that both when the young is inside it and 
previously as well. 

Development from the egg in fishes differs from that in 
birds in this respect, that it does not exhibit that one of the 
two navel-strings that 3 leads off to the membrane that lies 
close under the shell, while it does exhibit that one of the 
two that in the case of birds leads off to the yolk. 4 In a 
general way the rest of the development from the egg 30 
onwards is identical in birds and fishes. That is to say, 
development takes place at the upper part of the egg, and 
the veins extend in like manner, at first from the heart ; 
and at first the head, the eyes, and the upper parts are 
largest ; and as the creature grows the egg-substance 
decreases and eventually disappears, and becomes absorbed 
within the embryo, just as takes place with the yolk in 

The navel-string is attached a little way below the aperture 
of the belly. 5 When the creatures are young the navel- 
string is long, but as they grow it diminishes in size ; at length 5 
it gets small and becomes incorporated, as was described in 
the case of birds. The embryo and the egg are enveloped 
by a common membrane, and just under this is another 
membrane that envelops the embryo by itself; and in be- 
tween the two membranes is a liquid. The food inside 10 

1 H.A. iii. i. 5ii a 6; G.A.I ii. ;i8 b 2, &c. 

' Cf. 56s a i5. " 

3 Reading 6p.<f)a\bv (rbv) relvovra, with Schn. and Pice., after G. A. 

"i- 3- 754 b 5- 

In other words, there is a yolk-sac, but no allantors. 

5 As A. and W. point out, the statement would be correct if we read 
rfi yaa-rpi, i.e. 'attached to the belly, a little way below the mouth'. 
Dittm. cj. (fTri) rfjs 


the stomach of the little fishes resembles that inside the 
stomach of young chicks, and is partly white and partly 

As regards the shape of the womb, the reader is referred 
to my treatise on Anatomy. The womb, however, is 
diverse in diverse fishes, as for instance in the sharks as 
compared one with another or as compared with the skate. 
That is to say, in some sharks the eggs adhere in the 

15 middle of the womb : round about the backbone, as has 
been stated, and this is the case with the dog-fish ; 2 as the 
eggs grow they shift their place ; and since the womb is 
bifurcate and adheres to the midriff, as in the rest of similar 
creatures, the eggs pass into one or other of the two com- 
partments. This womb and the womb of the other sharks 

20 exhibit, as you go a little way off from the midriff, some- 
thing resembling white breasts, 3 which never make their 
appearance unless there be conception. 

Dog-fish and skate have a kind of egg-shell, in the which 
is found an egg-like liquid. The shape of the egg-shell 
resembles the tongue of a bagpipe, 4 and hair-like ducts are 

25 attached to the shell. With the dog-fish which is called 
by some the 'dappled shark', 5 the young are born when 
the shell-formation breaks in pieces and falls out ; with the 
ray, after it has laid the egg the shell-formation breaks up 
and the young move out. 6 The spiny dog-fish has its eggs 

1 i. e. 'between the horns of the womb'. 

2 <TKV\IOI>. The smaller dog-fish, e.g. Scy Ilium canicula, Mod. Gk. 

The ' oviducal glands ', which s.ecrete the egg-shell. 

4 We translate bagpipe rather thany?ttte. The resemblance of such 
an egg-case as that of Scyllium (especially after it has split at one end 
for the escape of the young) to a ' split ' reed such as that of the bag- 
pipes is close and accurate. Theoph. H.P.'iv. n describes clearly 
how the cane is split and two pieces applied together to form the 
4 reed'. A. and W. miss the point when they say that the comparison 
is with the stalk of the reed, and ' nicht sowohl auf die Figur als auf 
die Masse und deren ausseres Aussehen zu beziehen'. 

5 vtftpias. Probably Scyllium stellare, the 'spotted dog-fish', 
gatto pardo in the Adriatic. 

6 In both alike the embryo is developed alter the egg is laid. In 
the viviparous Mustelus (yaXebs 6 Xeior) there is, however, a thin and 
temporary egg-shell which breaks up at an early stage ; and it may 
be that vfftpias refers to some species intermediate in character of 
which we lack recent information. 

BOOK VI. 10 56 5 

close to the midriff above the breast-like formations ; when 30 
the egg descends, as soon as it gets detached the young is 
born. The mode of generation is the same in the case of 
the fox-shark. 

The so-called smooth shark has its eggs in betwixt the 
wombs like the dog-fish ; these eggs shift into each of 
the two horns of the womb and descend, and the young 
develop with the navel-string attached to the womb, so that, 5 
as the egg-substance gets used up, the embryo is sustained 
to all appearance just as in the case of quadrupeds. 1 The 
navel-string is long and adheres to the under part of the 
womb (each navel-string being attached as it were by 
a sucker), and also to the centre of the embryo in the place 
where the liver is situated. If the embryo be cut open, 
even though it has the egg-substance no longer, the food 
inside is egg-like in appearance. Each embryo, as in the 10 
case of quadrupeds, is provided with a chorion and separate 
membranes. When young the embryo has its head up- 
wards, but downwards when it gets strong and is completed 
in form. Males are generated on the left-hand side of the 
womb, and females on the right-hand side, and males and 
females on the same side together. 2 If the embryo be cut 15 
open, then, as- with quadrupeds, such internal organs as it 
is furnished with, as for instance the liver, are found to be 
large and supplied with blood. 

All cartilaginous fishes have at one and the same time 
eggs above close to the midriff (some larger, some smaller), 
in considerable numbers, 3 and also embryos lower down. 20 
And this circumstance leads many to suppose that fishes of 
this species pair and bear young every month, inasmuch as 
they do not produce all their young at once, but now and 
again and over a lengthened period. But such eggs as have 
come down below within the womb are simultaneously 
ripened and completed in growth. 

1 See Job. Miiller's classic memoir, ' Ueber d. glatten Hai des 
Aristoteles (Mustelus laevis},' Abh. d. Berlin. Akad., 1840. Cf. Plut. 
Soil. An. 982 A. 

2 i.e. males are not restricted to the right nor females to the left 
side, as Anaxagoras would have it, cf. G. A. iv. i. 763** 34. 

3 A. and W. del. 


Dog-fish in general can extrude and take in again their 
25 young, 1 as can also the angel-fish and the electric ray and, 
by the way, a large electric ray has been seen with about 
eighty embryos inside it but the spiny dog-fish 2 is an 
exception to the rule, being prevented by the spine of the 
young fish from so doing. Of the flat cartilaginous fish, 
the trygon and the ray cannot extrude and take in again 
in consequence of the roughness of the tails of the young. 
The batrachus 3 or fishing-frog also is unable to take in its 
30 young owing to the size of the head and the prickles ; and, 
by the way, as was previously remarked, it is the only one 
of these fishes that is not viviparous. 

566 a So much for the varieties of the cartilaginous species and 
for their modes of generation from the egg. 

At the breeding season the sperm-ducts of the male are II 
filled with sperm, so much so that if they be squeezed the 
sperm flows out spontaneously as a white fluid ; the ducts 
5 are bifurcate, and start from the midriff and the great vein. 
About this period the sperm-ducts of the male are quite 
distinct [from the womb of the female], 4 but at any other 
than the actual breeding time 5 their distinctness is not 
obvious to a non-expert. The fact is that in certain fishes 
at certain times these organs are imperceptible, as was 
stated regarding the testicles of birds. 6 

10 Among other distinctions observed between the thoric 
ducts and the womb-ducts is the circumstance that the 
thoric ducts are attached to the loins, while the womb- 
ducts move about freely and are attached by a thin mem- 
brane. The particulars regarding the thoric ducts may 

1 A common belief; for many reff., classical and patristic, see 
Bochart, Hieroz. pp. 1033-5 : 'maxima de nihilo nascitur historia.' 

2 Acanthias vulgaris, Mod. Gk. aKavQias, It. spinello^ spinarolo,&.c. 
The spine is in front of the dorsal fin. 

3 Gaza tr. raia, i.e. /3aros : cf. note antea, p. 564 b 1 8. 

The words irpb? rfjv T&V drjXfi&v ia-repav disturb the sense, and 
should probably be expunged. They are absent from Gaza's reading, 
' patent eo tempore etiam imperitis, scilicet incremento seminis et 
turgentis fastu libidinis. Interdum enim ac nonnullis admodum 
incerti redduntur, ut de testiculis avium.' 
D Reading ^ atriy j? &pa ?/. 6 Cf. iii. I. 509 29, vi. 9. 564** 10. 


BOOK VI. II 566 

be studied by a reference to the diagrams in my treatise 
on Anatomy. 

Cartilaginous fishes are capable of superfoetation, and 15 
their period of gestation is six months at the longest. The 
so-called starry dog-fish bears young the most frequently ; 
in other words it bears twice a month. 1 The breeding- 
season is in the month of Maemacterion. 2 The dog-fish as 
a general rule bear twice in the year, with the exception of 20 
the little dog-fish, 3 which bears only once a year. Some of 
them bring forth in the springtime. The rhine, or angel- 
fish, bears its first brood in the springtime, and its second 
in the autumn, about the winter setting of the Pleiads ; 4 
the second brood is the stronger of the two. The electric 
ray brings forth in the late autumn. 5 

Cartilaginous fishes come out from the main seas and 
deep waters towards the shore and there bring forth their 
young, and they do so for the sake of warmth and by way 25 
of protection for their young. 

Observations would lead to the general rule that no one 
variety of fish pairs with another variety. The angel-fish, 
however, and the batus or skate appear to pair with one 
another ; for there is a fish called the rhinobatus, with the 
head and front parts of the skate and the after parts of the 
rhine or angel-fish, just as though it were made up of both 30 
fishes together. 6 

Sharks then and their congeners, as the fox-shark " and 
the dog-fish, and the flat fishes, such as the electric ray, the 
ray, the smooth skate, and the trygon, are first oviparous 566 b 

1 H.A. v. 10. 543 a 17. 

2 September-October. 

3 Galeus cants and similar species. 

4 About the end of December ; cf. Ideler, i. p. 250. 

6 Plin. ix. (51) 74. 

c puoftaros is probably the modern genus Rhinobatus, the Squati- 
noraia of Willughby and other older writers, including R. Columnae, 
and other species common in the Greek fish-markets, pivrj is probably 
the angel-fish, Rhina squatina (Sqiiatina laevis, Cuv.), which is itself 
somewhat intermediate in appearance between a shark and a skate. 
Cf. G. A. ii. 7. 746 b 5 ; Plin. I.e. 

7 Probably Alopecias wipes, which retains, among other names 
that of wipe, renard, &c. 


and then viviparous in the way above mentioned, [as are 
also the saw-fish and the ox-ray]. 1 

The dolphin, the whale, and all the rest of the Cetacea, 12 
all, that is to say. that are provided with a blow-hole 
instead of gills, are viviparous. 2 That is to say, no one of 
all these fishes is ever seen to be supplied with eggs, but 
5 directly with an embryo from whose differentiation comes 
the fish, just as in the case of mankind and the viviparous 

The dolphin bears one at a time generally, but occasion- 
ally two. 3 The whale bears one or at the most two, generally 
two. The porpoise in this respect resembles the dolphin, 
and, by the way, it is in form like a little dolphin, and is 
10 found in the Euxine; 4 it differs, however, from the dolphin 
as being less in size and broader in the back ; its colour is 
leaden-black. Many people are of opinion that the porpoise 
is a variety of the dolphin. 

All creatures that have a blow-hole respire and inspire, 
for they are provided with lungs. 5 The dolphin has been 
1 5 seen asleep with his nose above water, and when asleep he 
snores. 6 

The dolphin and the porpoise are provided with milk, 
and suckle their young. 7 They also take their young, 
when small, inside them. The young of the dolphin 
grows rapidly, being full-grown at ten 8 years of age. 
20 Its period of gestation is ten months. It brings forth its 
young in summer, and never at any other season ; [and, 
singularly enough, under the Dog-star it disappears for 
about thirty days]. 9 Its young accompany it for a con- 

1 We have transferred these words, on Dittmeyer's suggestion, from 
the following sentence. On /3o{5y cf. note to v. 5. 54o b 17. 

2 Plin. ix. 15. l Opp. Hal. i. 654. 
1 H.A. viii. 13. 598 b I. 5 H. A. iv. 10. 537 b I. 

6 Perhaps an interpolation from iv. 10. 537"* 31, A. and W. 

7 Plin. ix. 7 ; Ael. v. 4 ; Opp. Hal. i. 656. 

8 A. and W. cj. 8', \.t.four. 

9 In this and some similar statements I am strongly inclined to 
look for an astronomical meaning ; in other words, for a reference not 
to the animal itself but to its stellar namesake. The constellation of 
the Dolphin sets as the Dog-star rises, and therefore undergoes its 

ROOK VI. 12 566 b 

siderable period ; and, in fact, the creature is remarkable 
for the strength of its parental affection. 1 It lives for many 
years ; some are known to have lived for more than 
twenty-five, and some for thirty years ; the fact is fisher- 25 
men nick their tails sometimes and set them adrift again, 
and by this expedient their ages are ascertained. 

The seal is an amphibious animal : that is to say, it 
cannot take in water, but breathes and sleeps and brings 
forth on dry land 2 only close to the shore as being an 
animal furnished with feet ; it spends, however, the greater 
part of its time in the sea and derives its food from it, so 30 
that it must be classed in the category of marine animals. 
It is viviparous by immediate conception and brings forth 
its young alive, and exhibits an after-birth and all else 
just like a ewe. It bears one or two at a time, and three at 
the most. It has two teats, and suckles its young like 
a quadruped. Like the human species it brings forth at 
all seasons of the year, but especially at the time when the 
earliest kids are forthcoming. It conducts its young ones, 
when they are about twelve days old, over and over again 5 
during the day down to the sea, accustoming them by slow 
degrees to the water. 3 It slips down steep places instead 
of walking, from the fact that it cannot steady itself by its 
feet. It can contract and draw itself in, for it is fleshy and 
soft and its bones are gristly. 4 Owing to the flabbiness of 
its body it is difficult to kill a seal by a blow, unless you 10 
strike it on the temple. It looks like a cow. The female 
in regard to its genital organs resembles the female of the 
ray ; 5 in all other respects it resembles the female of the 
human species. 

So much for the phenomena of generation and of parturi- 15 
tion in animals that live in water and are viviparous either 
internally or externally. 

period of occultation (or conjunction with the Sun) about the season 
when Sirius is rising at sunset, viz. in the beginning of the year. 

1 Opp. Hal. i. 667 ; Ael. v. 6. 

2 Plin. ix. 15 ; Ael. ix. 50. 

3 Opp. Hal. i. 690 ; Ael. ix. 9. 
Plin. xi. 87. 

5 /3an'6i is doubtless corrupt: A. and W. cj. /3o? ; Dittm. /3oiffii'<w. 

AR. H.A. 


Oviparous fishes have their womb bifurcate and placed 13 
low down, as was said previously } -and, by the way, all 
scaly fish are oviparous, as the basse, the mullet, the grey 

20 mullet, and the etelis, 2 and all the so-called white-fish, 
and all the smooth or slippery fish except the eel 3 and 
their roe is of a crumbling or granular substance. This 
appearance 4 is due to the fact that the whole womb of 
such fishes is full of eggs, so that in little fishes there 
seem to be only a couple of eggs there ; 5 for in small fishes 
the womb is indistinguishable, from its diminutive size and 
thin contexture. The pairing of fishes has been discussed 

25 previously. 6 

Fishes for the most part are divided into males and 
females, but one is puzzled to account for the erythrinus 
and the channa, 7 for specimens of these species are never 
caught except in a condition of pregnancy. 

With such fish as pair, eggs are the result of copulation, 
but such fish have them also without copulation ; 8 and this 

30 is shown in the case of some river-fish, for the minnow fl 
has eggs when quite small, almost, one may say, as soon 
as it is born. These fishes shed 10 their eggs little by little, 
and, as is stated, the males swallow the greater part of 
them, 11 and some portion of them goes to waste in the 
water ; but such of the eggs as the female deposits on the 
spawning beds are saved. 12 If all the eggs were preserved, 

1 H. A. iii. i. 5io b 20, vi. 10. 564 b 19. 

2 ereXtr, an unknown fish. Synesius mentions eVre'Xa? in a list of 
African fishes. 

3 H.A. iv. ii. 538* 3. 

1 For TOVTO 8e (paivfTdt Schn. and Pice. cj. roCro 5' !i/ (/xziWrai, i.e. 
'This looks like one single egg [on each side] '. 

' Cf. G.A. i. 8. 718^ II TO<ravTa laxovcnv wore doKflv dbv emu rr)v 
vcrrtpav KdTfpav fv ye rols fiiKpols ixdvdioif, where we should probably 
read ev uov. cf. also H.A. iii. i. 5io b 25. 

5 H.A.v. 5. 

7 Serranidae, vide iv.'n. 538* 20; cf. G.A. iii. I. 75o b 30, &c. 

1 G.A. iii. 5. 756 a 17, &c. 

9 (fjogvos* 'impossible a reconnaitre,' Cuv. and Val. xiii. p. 368; 
usually identified with the minnow. 

3 anoppaivtiv' TO K TroXXeuv oXrya dtdovai, Hesych. Cf. H.A. vi. 
14. 568* 13. 

1 Cf. Herod, ii. 93. 

n I have translated the MS. reading, but should rather expect 
some such reading as els ronovs f'-n-irrjddovs TW fW/cTeiv (cf. viii. 13. 598 b 

BOOK VI. 13 567' 

each species would be infinite in number. The greater 
number of these eggs so deposited are not productive, but 
only those over which the male sheds the milt or sperm ; 
for when the female has laid her eggs, the male follows 
and sheds its sperm over them, and from all the eggs so 5 
besprinkled young fishes proceed, while the rest are left 
to their fate. 1 

2 The same phenomenon is observed in the case of molluscs 
also ; for in the case of the cuttlefish or sepia, after the 
female has deposited her eggs, the male besprinkles them. 3 
It is highly probable that a similar phenomenon takes 
place in regard to molluscs in general, though up to the 10 
present time the phenomenon has been observed only in the 
case of the cuttlefish. 

Fishes deposit their eggs close in to shore, the goby 
close to stones ; and, by the way, the spawn of the goby is 
flat and crumbly. Fish in general so deposit their eggs ; 
for the water close in to shore is warm and is better supplied 
with food than the outer sea, and serves as a protection to 
the spawn against the voracity of the larger fish. And it is 15 
for this reason that in the Euxine most fishes spawn near 
the mouth of the river Thermodon, because the locality is 
sheltered, genial, and supplied with fresh water. 

Oviparous fish as a rule spawn only once a year. The 
little phycis or black goby is an exception, as it spawns 
twice ; the male of the black goby 4 differs from the female 20 
as being blacker and having larger scales. 

Fishes then in general produce their young by copulation, 
and lay their eggs ; but the pipe-fish, as some call it, when 
the time of parturition arrives, bursts in two, and the eggs 

4), and from some such text Gaza and Albertus translate. Dittm. cj. 

oiKfiovs CKTIKTCIV, Pice, els ovs ev TrinTovcri. 

1 The meaning is doubtful, and the phrase probably does not mean 
much. We should be reluctant to read in it the assertion that un- 
fertilized eggs sometimes do and sometimes do not develop, especially 
in view of the foregoing sentence, of 568 b 8, and of parallel passages in 
the G. A. ; while on the other hand the Greek is somewhat strained by 
the rendering above given, which, however, I take to express the idea 
that was present to the author's mind. 

2 A. and W. bracket $67 b 8-22, Dittm. 12-22. 
1 G.A.m. 8. 758 a 15. 

4 , Gobius niger (Apostolides). Cf. Arist. ap. Athen. vii. 319. 

S 2 


escape out. 1 For the fish has a diaphysis or cloven growth 
25 under the belly and abdomen (like the blind snakes), 2 and, 
after it has spawned by the splitting of this diaphysis, the 
sides of the split 3 grow together again. 

Development from the egg takes place similarly with 
fishes that are oviparous internally and with fishes that are 
oviparous externally ; that is to say, the embryo comes at 
the upper end of the egg and is enveloped in a membrane, 
30 and the eyes, large and spherical, are the first organs visible. 
From this circumstance it is plain that the assertion is un- 
tenable which is made by some writers, to wit, that the 
young of oviparous fishes are generated like the grubs of 
worms ; for the opposite phenomena are observed in the 
case of these grubs, in that their lower extremities are the 
larger at the outset, and that the eyes and the head appear 
later on. 4 

568 a After the egg has been used up, the young fishes are like 
tadpoles 5 in shape, and at first, -without taking any nutri- 
ment, they grow by sustenance derived from the juice 
oozing from the egg ; by and by, they are nourished up to 
full growth by the river-waters. 

When the Euxine is ' purged ' 6 a substance called phycus 

5 is carried into the Hellespont, and this substance is of a 

pale yellow colour. Some writers aver that it is the flower 

of the phycus, from which rouge is made ; T it comes at the 

1 Cf. Cuvier. ad Plin. ix. 76 ' Syngnatho acui, L., et generaliter 
omnibus syngnathis, post anum sub cauda fossa inest quam duplex 
valva claudit mobilis, in qua ova ponunt dum pariunt. Mox patentibus 
sponte valvis, erumpunt ova aut pisciculi. Unde creditum scisso 
tantum ventre iis edi ova aut fetus.' The fact was rediscovered by 
Cavolini, and establishes the identity of /3fXd^, in this and similar 
passages, with the pipe-fish, Syngnathus. H.A. vi. 17. 571* 3; G. A. 
iii. 3. 755 a 32 ; Plin. ix. 76 (52). 

1 Probably Pseudopus pallasi-, cf. Ael. viii. 13 and Schneider's note. 

8 Plin. ix. 76 ' a partu coalescit vulnus '. Hence Schn. cj. here 
TO rpavfjia for raura. 

4 No such statement is made elsewhere where o-KcoA/j/ctf are described. 
Cf. G.A. ii. I. 732. 

6 yvpivoiy tadpoles, are not mentioned elsewhere by A., and the 
whole passage is open to suspicion. 

8 Schn. aptly quotes Plut. de ira cohib. 456 C. TI}V p.fv yap 6d\ao-o-av, 

oTav (HTapaxG(io~a TO'IS 7rv(vp.aoi TO. /3pua al TO (piinos dra/3aAXj7, KaOatprdai 

Xtyovfftv. Cf. also Arist. de Mundo 5. 397 a 33 ^ yr) KaBaipop.{vrj 6'/u3poif. 

Reading, with PD a , avdos di>ai TOV <PVKOV, d<p* ov TO (fivKiov dvni. 

Bekk. flvai TI (pvambv TO (pvniov. 

BOOK VI. 13 568 

beginning of summer. Oysters and the small fish of these 
localities feed on this substance, and some of the inhabitants 
of these maritime districts say that the purple murex derives 
its peculiar colour from it. 1 10 

14 Marsh-fishes and river-fishes conceive at the age of five 
months as a general rule, and deposit their spawn towards 
the close of the year without exception. 2 And with these 
fishes, like as with the marine fishes, the female does not 
void all her eggs at one time, nor the male his 'sperm ; but 15 
they are at all times more or less provided, the female with 
eggs, and the male with sperm. The carp spawns as the 
seasons come round, five or six times, and follows in spawn- 
ing the rising of the greater constellations. a The chalcis 
spawns three times, and the other fishes once only in the 
year. They all spawn in pools left by the overflowing of 20 
rivers, and near to reedy places in marshes ; as for instance 
the phoxinus or minnow and the perch. 

The glanis or sheat-fish 4 and the perch deposit their 
spawn in one continuous string, like the frog ; so con- 
tinuous, in fact, is the convoluted spawn of the perch that, 5 
by reason of its smoothness, the fishermen in the marshes 
can unwind it off the reeds like threads off a reel. The 25 
larger individuals of the sheat-fish spawn in deep waters, 
some in water of a fathom's depth, the smaller in shallower 
water, generally close to the roots of the willow or of 
some other tree, or close to reeds or to moss. At times 

1 A. and W. bracket this paragraph ; it may be out of place, but it 
is of no small interest and value. Phycus is mentioned as a sea-weed 
yielding a rouge or purple dye, Theoph. H.P. iv. 7 ; Plin. xiii. 25, c. 

2 Cf. viii. 15. 

3 e.g. the Pleiads, Arcturus, and the Dog-star, Plin. xi. 14. 

4 The common European Silurus glanis deposits its eggs in a hole, 
and leaves them after fertilization without further care. But there is 
another species in Greece, Parasilurus Aristotelis (Agassiz), and 
Agassiz and Gill argue that we learn from Aristotle the habits of this 
fish, habits which agree with those of its allies, the N. American cat- 
fishes. This fish is still called -yXdi/oy, yXawSt, &c., and is common in 
the Achelous, the Peneus, and elsewhere. Cf. L. Agassiz, Proc. 
Am. Acad. of Arts and Sc. iii. pp. 325-34, 185 ; Th. Gill, Washing- 
ton Univ. Bull. v. pp. 5-13, 1907. 

5 The roe of the perch consists of a concatenation of little eggs, 
like poppy-seeds, enveloped in a gelatinous meshwork ; it has a 
considerable resemblance to frog- spawn. 



30 these fishes intertwine with one another, a big with a little 
one, and bring into juxtaposition the ducts which some 
writers designate as navels at the point where they emit 
568 b the generative products and discharge the egg in the case 
of the female and the milt in the case of the male. 
Such eggs as are besprinkled with the milt grow, in a 
day or thereabouts, whiter and larger, and in a little while 
afterwards the fish's eyes become visible, for these organs in 
5 all fishes, as for that matter in all other animals, are early 
conspicuous and seem disproportionately big. But such 
eggs as the milt fails to touch remain, as with marine 
fishes, useless and infertile. From the fertile eggs, as the 
little fish grow, a kind of sheath detaches itself; this is a 

10 membrane that envelops the egg and the young fish. When 
the milt has mingled with the eggs, the resulting product 
becomes very sticky or viscous, and adheres to the roots 
of trees or wherever it may have been laid. The male 
keeps on guard at the principal spawning-place, and the 
female after spawning goes away. 

*5 In the case of the sheat-fish the growth from the egg is 
exceptionally slow, and, in consequence, the male has to keep 
watch for forty or fifty days to prevent the spawn being 
devoured by such little fishes as chance to come by. 1 Next 
in point of slowness is the generation of the carp. As with 
fishes in general, so even with these, the spawn thus protected 
disappears and gets lost rapidly. 2 

In the case of some of the smaller fishes 3 when they are 
only three days old young fishes are generated. Eggs 

20 touched by the male sperm take on increase both the same 
day and also later. The egg of the sheat-fish is as big as a 
vetch-seed ; the egg of the carp and of the carp-species as 
big as a millet-seed. 

These fishes then spawn and generate in the way here 
described. The chalcis, 4 however, spawns in deep water 

1 Cf. ix. 37. 621* 25. 
The text and translation are alike doubtful. Dittm. tr. 'aeque 

celeriter atque glani etiam cyprini exclusi dififugiunt '. 
Dittm. suggests the insertion of <ua>v after r&v 8\ 
The MSS. have also yXaimV, which suggests a possible misreading 

of yXdi/ty. xaAKtV, spoken of in this chapter (cf. 568* 18) among the fresh- 

BOOK VI. 14 5 68 b 

in dense shoals of fish ; 1 and the so-called tilon 2 spawns 25 
near to beaches in sheltered spots in shoals likewise. 
The carp, the baleros, and fishes in general push eagerly 
into the shallows for the purpose of spawning, and very 
often thirteen or fourteen males are seen following a single 
female. When the female deposits her spawn and departs, 30 
the males follow on and shed the milt. The greater portion 
of the spawn gets wasted ; because, owing to the fact that 
the female moves about while spawning, the spawn scatters, 569* 
or so much of it as is caught in the stream and does not 
get entangled with some rubbish. For, with the exception 
of the sheat-fish, no fish keeps on guard ; unless, by the way, 
it be the carp, which is said to remain on guard, 3 if it so 
happen that its spawn lies in a solid mass. 

All male fishes are supplied with milt, excepting the 5 
eel : 4 with the eel, the male is devoid of milt, and the 
female of spawn. The mullet goes up from the sea to 
marshes and rivers ; the eels, on the contrary, make their 
way down from the marshes and rivers to the sea. 

5 5 The great majority of fish, then, as has been stated, 10 
proceed from eggs. However, there are some fish that 
proceed from mud and sand, even of those kinds that 
proceed also From pairing and the egg. This occurs 
in ponds here and there, and especially in a pond 
in the neighbourhood of Cnidos. This pond, it is said, 
at one time ran dry about the rising of the Dog-star, 
and the mud had all dried up ; 6 at the first fall of the 15 
rains 7 there was a show of water in the pond, and 
on the first appearance of the water shoals of tiny fish 
were found in the pond. The fish in question was 

water fish, is elsewhere referred to as marine. Cf. iv. 9. 535 b 18, viii. 
20. 6o2 b 28, ix. 37. 62 i b 7. 

1 Read adpoa KOI ayeXma. For <ai Dittm. CJ. eoy. 

2 See note, viii. 20. 6o2 b 26. 

3 For TOVTOV Seal. cj. rore &?'. The meaning is far from clear. 

4 Cf. infra, cap. 16; G. A. ii. 5. 74i b I. 

5 B. St. Hilaire and Dittm. regard this chapter as spurious. 

6 elflpetro. A. and W. cj. e^pavTo, after Gaza ; Dittm. e 
Seal. tr. ' ne quis dicat latuisse in limi humore '. 

7 Dittm. cj. (6y/3pos), Sylb. and Schn. (v6a<ni/); Pice. cj. 
x Setpi'oi/} 


a kind of mullet, one which does not proceed from normal 
pairing, about the size of a small sprat, and not one of these 
fishes was provided with either spawn or milt. There 
are found also in Asia Minor, in rivers not communicating 

20 with the sea, little fishes like whitebait, 1 differing from the 
small fry found near Cnidos but found under similar cir- 
cumstances. Some writers actually aver that mullet all 
grow spontaneously. 2 In this assertion they are mistaken, 
for the female of the fish is found provided with spawn, 
and the male with milt. However, there is a species of 
mullet that grows spontaneously out of mud and sand. 

25 From theTacts above enimTeTatd-4t--fs~cJuite pro"ved~ihat 
certain fishes come spontaneously into existence, not being 
derived from eggs or from copulation. Such fish as are 
neither oviparous nor viviparous arise all from one of two 
sources, from mud, or from sand and from decayed matter 
that rises thence as a scum ; for instance, the so-called 
froth of the small fry 3 comes out of sandy ground. This 

30 fry is incapable of growth and of propagating its kind ; 
56g b after living for a while it dies away and another creature 
takes its place, and so, with short intervals excepted, it 
may be said to last the whole year through. At all events, 
it lasts from the autumn rising of Arcturus 4 up to the 
spring-time. As a proof that these fish occasionally come 
5 out of the ground we have the fact that in cold weather 
they are not caught, and that they are caught in warm 
weather, obviously coming up out of the ground to catch 
the heat ; also, when the fishermen use dredges and the 
ground is scraped up fairly often, the fishes appear in 
larger numbers and of superior quality. All other small 
fry are inferior in quality owing to rapidity of growth. 

' Non est nomen piscis sed artis in genere piscium 
coquendo ad epulas,' Seal. Cf. Terent. Andr. ii. 2. 32 ' pisciculos 
minutos ferre obolo in coenam seni ', so translating Menander, TO 

Tratdiov 5' ti(Tr)\6fv tyrjfovs 0epoj-. 

8 For navras Pice. cj. ravrrj, ' in this fashion.' 

3 a<pvrj. Young fry, especially those of the atherine or sand-smelt, 
are still called nonnati in the Adriatic, nonnats at Marseilles (Faber). 
The young atherines cling together in dense masses and in incredible 
numbers ; they are sold chiefly to the poor, fried, baked in milk, or 
preserved in oil. Carus ascribes the name nonnati to Gobius pellncidus, 
Nardo. * Middle of September. 

BOOK VI. 15 56g b 

The fry are found in sheltered and marshy ] districts, 10 
when after a spell of fine weather the ground is getting 
warmer, as, for instance, in the neighbourhood of Athens, 
at Salamis and near the tomb of Themistocles and at 
Marathon ; for in these districts the froth is found. 2 It 
appears, then, in such districts and during such weather, 
and occasionally appears after a heavy fall of rain in the 15 
froth that is thrown up by the falling rain, from which 
circumstance the substance derives its specific name. :j 
Foam is occasionally brought in on the surface of the sea 
in fair weather. [And 4 in this, where it has formed on the 
surface, the so-called froth collects, as grubs swarm in 
manure ; for which reason this fry is often brought in from 20 
the open sea. The fish is at its best in quality and quantity 
in moist warm weather.] 

The ordinary fry is the normal issue of parent fishes : 
the so-called gudgeon-fry of small insignificant gudgeon-like 
fish that burrow under the ground. From the Phaleric fry 
comes the membras, 5 from the membras the trichis, from 25 
the trichis the trichias, and from one particular sort of fry, 
to wit from that found in the harbour of Athens, comes 
what is called the encrasicholus, or anchovy. 6 There is 
another fry, derived from the maenis 7 and the mullet. 

The unfertile fry is watery and keeps only a short time, 
as has been stated, for at last only head and eyes are left. 3 
However, the fishermen of late have hit upon a method of 57o a 

1 The reading aXectvols, mild, warm, of D a and the Aldine, seems 
preferable. For ema-Kiois A. and W. cj. fvciXois. 

2 Diod. Perieg. ap. Plut. V. Themist. c. xxxii ; Paus. Attic, i. I. 

3 i.e. afypos, froth or foam. 

4 The text is manifestly spurious, and the rendering here given is 

5 pfufipddfs' Canis. ftepffpades. 

6 All of these seem to be clupeoid^ fishes, but are otherwise un- 
recognizable. In M. Gk. #piWa, (ppio-o-a is applied to Sardinella 
aurita, rpixios to the pilchard (Hoffman). (yKp(t<rix<>\os (or eyypavXis, 
Ael. viii. 18) is probably the anchovy ; Cuvier derives the name from 
(v Kpar\ xoXos-, in allusion to the method of gutting, by nipping off the 
head, to which the liver, c. remain attached. 

7 futivis' Maena vulgaris and allied species, Mod. Gk. /uuVouAo, 
p.f\\(Dva Erhard (qy. ^eWwXa), It. menola, mendola, c. One of the 
commonest and cheapest of Mediterranean fishes, a food of the poor ; 
hence the Venetian byword mangia mendole : cf. Athen. vii. p. 313. 


transporting it to a distance, as when salted it keeps for 
a considerable time. 

Eels are not the issue of pairing, neither are theyjw- 16 
parous ; nor was an eel ever found supplied with either 
milt or spawn, nor are they when cut open found to have 
5 within them passages for spawn or for eggs. In point 
of fact, this entire l species of blooded animals proceeds 
neither from pairing nor from the egg. 

There can be no doubt that the case is so. For in some 
standing pools, after the water has been drained off and 
the mud has been dredged away, the eels appear again 
o after a fall of rain. In time of drought they do not appear 
even in stagnant ponds, for the simple reason that their 
existence and sustenance is derived from rain-water. 

There is no doubt, then, that they proceed neither from 
pairing nor from an egg. Some writers, however, are of 
opinion that they generate their kind, because in some eels 
little worms are found, from which they suppose that eels 
15 are derived. 2 But this opinion is not founded on fact. Eels 
are derived from the so-called ' earth's guts ' that grow 
spontaneously in mud and in humid ground ; :j in fact, eels 
have at times been seen to emerge out of such earthworms, 
and on other occasions have been rendered visible when the 
earthworms were laid open by either scraping or cutting. 
Such earthworms are found both in the sea and in rivers, 
20 especially where there is decayed matter : in the sea in 
places where sea-weed abounds, and in rivers and marshes 
near to the edge ; for it is near to the water's edge that 
sun-heat has its chief power and produces putrefaction. 
So much for the generation of the eel. 

2 5 Fish do not all bring forth their young at the same 17 
season nor all in like manner, neither is the period of 
gestation for all of the same duration. 

Before pairing the males and females gather together in 
shoals ; at the time for copulation and parturition they 

1 For oXoi/ Schn. cj. /ioi/oi/. 2 H.A.v. II. 538* 4. 

3 For many reff. see Schneider ad loc., in Hist. litt. Piscium, 
pp. 38, 323. 


BOOK VI. 17 570 

pair off. With some fishes the time of gestation l is not 
longer than thirty days, with others it is a lesser period ; 
but with all it extends over a number of days divisible by 30 
seven. The longest period of gestation is that of the 
species which some call a marmus. 2 

The sargue conceives during the month of Poseideon (or 
December), 3 and carries its spawn for thirty days ; and the 57o b 
species of mullet named by some the chelon, and the 
myxon, 4 go with spawn at the same period and over the 
same length of time. 

All fish suffer greatly during the period of gestation, and 
are in consequence very apt to be thrown up on shore at 
this time. In some cases they are driven frantic with pain 5 
and throw themselves on land. At all events they are 
throughout this time continually in motion until parturition 
is over (this being especially true of the mullet), and after 
parturition they are in repose. With many fish the time 
for jjarturition terminates on the appearance of grubs 
within the belly ; 5 for small living grubs get generated 
there and eat up c the spawn. I0 

With shoal fishes parturition takes place in the spring, 
and indeed, with most fishes, about the time of the spring 
equinox ; 7 with others it is at different times, in summer 
with some, and with others about the autumn equinox. 

The first of shoal fishes to spawn is the atherine, 8 and it 
spawns close to land ; the last is the cephalus: and this is '5 
inferred from the fact that the brood of the atherine 
appears first of all and the brood of the cephalus last. The 

* /zdpii/oy, cf. pvptvos, If. A. viii. 19. 602* I ; alike unknown. 

8 H.A. v. ii. 543 b 14: cf. v. 9. 543* 7, b 8, vi. 2. 59i b 19, where 
apparently a different fish is referred to. 

* nvfrv. Apparently another species of grey mullet. According to 
Apostolides Mugil saliens is called p.vivapi at Missolonghi and at 

8 Athen. vri. 324. Cf. Schn. H. Pise. p. 89. 

6 I read c'!r0i for cfXawri, as suggested by A ; and W. Cf. Arist. 
ap. Athen. I.e. \j\ rplyXrj] ro rpirov rtKovaa ayovos (ffn. yiVerat yap nva 
(TKa>\T)Kia avrrj ev rfj vore'pa, & rov yovov TOV yivopfvov Karfffdiei. 

7 H.A. viii. 13'. 598 a 28 ; Ael. ix. 46. 

8 Atherina hepsetus, Mod. Gk. adfpiva, dQcpvos. A very common 
fish, hence derivation on atifpifcrai, Phavorinus. 


mullet also spawns early. 1 The saupe spawns usually at 
the beginning of summer, but occasionally in the autumn. 
The aulopias, which some call the anthias, 2 spawns in the 

.20 summer. Next in order of spawning comes the chryso- 
phrys 3 or gilthead, the basse, 4 the mormyrus, 5 and in 
general such fish as are nicknamed * runners '. 6 Latest in 
order of the shoal fish come the red mullet 7 and the 
coracine ; these spawn in autumn. The red mullet spawns 
on mud, and consequently, as the mud continues cold for 
a long while, spawns late in the year. The coracine carries 
its spawn for a long time ; but, as it lives usually on ror\y 
ground, it goes to a distance and spawns in places abounding 

35 in sea-weed, at a period later than the red mullet. The 
maenis spawns about the winter solstice. Of the others, 
such as are pelagic spawn for the most part in summer; 
which fact is proved by their not being caught by fishermen 
during this period. 

Of ordinary fishes the most prolific is the sprat ; of car- 

30 tilaginous fishes, the fishing-frog. Specimens, however, of 
the fishing-frog are rare from the facility with which the 
young are destroyed, as the female lays her spawn all in 
a lump close in to shore. 8 As a rule, cartilaginous fish are 
less prolific than other fish owing to their being viviparous ; 
57 1 * and their young by reason of their size have a better 
chance of escaping destruction. 

The so-called needle-fish (or pipe-fish) is late in spawning, 
and the greater portion of them are burst asunder by the 
eggs before spawning ; and the eggs are not so many in 
number as large in size. 9 The young fish cluster round the 

5 parent like so many young spiders, for the fish spawns on 

1 H.A. v. 9. 543 a 8, ii. 543 b 8. 

2 According to Cuvier, Serranus anthias^ C.V. (Anthias sacer, 
Bloch). The description in Ael. xiii. 17 is of a much larger fish, which 
Cuvier takes to be Thynnus alalonga, the Albicore. According to 
Dorio ap. Athen. vii. 282, the fish is identical with KaXXt'xdvr, <caX- 
Aiawu/ior and eXo>^, but cf. ibid. 282. 

1 H.A. v. 10. 543 b 3. 4 H.A. v. 11. 543 b II. 

5 Pagellus mormirus, according to Cuvier, Mod. Gk. pavpnvpiov, &c. 
Cf. Athen. vii. 313; Plin. xxxii. n. Some MSS. have ooyxCAor ; 
/idp/iuXof, Opp. Hal. i. loo. 

6 i.e. migrants. 7 H.A. v. 9. 543* 5. 
8 Vide note, vi. 10. s64 b 18. 9 Vide note, 13. 56j b 22. 

BOOK VI. 17 571* 

to herself; and, if any one touch the young, they swim 
away. The atherine spawns by rubbing its belly against 
the sand. 

Tunny fish also burst asunder by reason of their fat. 
They live for two years ; l and the fishermen infer this age 
from the circumstance that once when there was a failure of 
the young tunny fish for a year there was a failure of the 10 
full-grown tunny the next summer. 2 They are of opinion 
that the tunny is a fish a year older than the pelamyd. 
The tunny and the mackerel 3 pair about the close of the 
month of Elaphebolion, 4 and spawn about the commence- 
ment of the month of Hecatombaeon ; 5 they deposit their 
spawn in a sort of bag. 6 The growth of the young tunny is 
rapid. After the females have spawned in the Euxine, there 15 
comes from the egg what some call scordylae, but what the 
Byzantines nickname the * auxids ' or { growers ', from their 
growing to a considerable size in a few days ; these fish go 
out of the Pontus in autumn along with the young tunnies, 
and enter Pontus in the spring as pelamyds. Fishes as a 
rule take on growth with rapidity, 7 but this is peculiarly 20 
the case with all species of fish found in the Pontus ; the 
growth, for instance, of the amia-tunny 8 is quite visible 
from day to day. 

To resume, we must bear in mind that the same fish in the 
same localities have not the same season for pairing, for 
conception, for parturition, or for favouring weather. The 25 
coracine, for instance, in some places spawns about wheat- 
harvest. The statements here given pretend only to give 
the results of general observation. 

The conger also spawns, but the fact is not equally 
obvious in all localities, nor is the spawn plainly visible 
owing to the fat of the fish ; for the spawn is lanky in shape 
as it is with, serpents. However, if it be put on the fire it 3 

Plin. ix. 15. 

8 Sostrat. ap. Athen. vii. 303. 

3 aKopftpos' It. scombro, scurmu, &c., mackerel. See note on 
KoXi'as, v. 9. 543* 2. 

' February-March. 5 June-July. 

5 H.A.v. ii. 543 b 13, and note. 7 Plin. ix. 19. 

8 For TTO\V we should perhaps read rraw. Cf. Schn. Hist. litt. Pise. 

P- 345- 


shows its nature ; for the fat evaporates and melts, while 
the eggs dance about and explode with a crack. Further, 
if you touch the substances and rub them with your fingers, 
the fat feels smooth and the egg rough. Some congers are 
57i b provided with fat but not with any spawn, others are un- 
provided with fat but have egg-spawn as here described. 

We have, then, treated pretty fully of the animals 18 
that fly in the air or swim in the water, and of such of 
those that walk on dry land as are oviparous, to wit of their 

5 pairing, conception, and the like phenomena ; it now remains 
to treat of the same phenomena in connexion with viviparous 
land animals and with man. 

The statements made in regard to the pairing of the sexes 
apply partly to the particular kinds of animal and partly to 
all in general. It is common to all animals to be most 
excited by the desire of one sex for the other and by the 
10 pleasure derived from copulation. The female is most 
cross-tempered just after parturition, the male during the 
time of pairing ; for instance, stallions at this period bite 
one another, throw their riders, and chase them. Wild 
boars, 1 though usually enfeebled at this time as the result 
of copulation, are now unusually fierce, and fight with one 

15 another in an extraordinary way, clothing themselves with 
defensive armour, or in other words deliberately thickening 
their hide by rubbing against trees or by coating themselves 
repeatedly all over with mud and then drying themselves 
in the sun. They drive one another away from the swine 

20 pastures, and fight with such fury that very often both com- 
batants succumb. The case is similar with bulls, rams, and 
he-goats ; for, though at ordinar)' times they herd together, 
at breeding time they hold aloof from and quarrel with one 
another. The male camel also is cross-tempered at pairing 

25 time if either a man or a camel comes near him ; as for a 
horse, 2 a camel is ready to fight him at any time. It is the 
same with wild animals. The bear, the wolf, and the lion 

1 Antig. H. Mir. 102 (no). 

a Herod, i. 80; Xen. Cyr. vi. 2. 18, vii. i. 27 ; Ael. iii. 7, xi. 36 ; 
Plin. viii. 26. 

BOOK VI. 18 57i b 

are all at this time ferocious towards such as come in their 
way, but the males of these animals are less given to fight 
with one another from the fact that they are at no time 
gregarious. The she-bear is fierce after cubbing, and the 30 
bitch after pupping. 

Male elephants get savage about pairing time, and for 
this reason it is stated that men who have charge of elephants 
in India never allow the males to have intercourse with the ' 
females ; on the ground that the males go wild at this 
time and turn topsy-turvy the dwellings of their keepers, 572* 
lightly constructed as they are, and commit all kinds of 
havoc. They also state that abundancy of food has a 
tendency to tame the males. 1 They further introduce other 
elephants amongst the wild ones, and punish and break 
them in by setting on the new-comers to chastise the 

Animals that pair frequently and not at a single specific 5 
season, as for instance animals domesticated by man, such 
as swine and dogs, are found to indulge in such freaks to a 
lesser degree owing to the frequency of their sexual inter- 

Of female animals the mare is the most sexually wanton, 
and next in order comes the cow. In fact, the mare is said 
to go a-horsing ; 2 and the term derived from the habits of 10 
this one animal serves as a term of abuse applicable to such 
females of the human species as are unbridled in the way of 
sexual appetite. This is the common phenomenon as 
observed in the sow when she is said to go a-boaring. 3 The 
mare is said also about this time to get wind-impregnated 
if not impregnated by the stallion, 4 and for this reason in 

1 Cf. Ael. x. 10, xii. 14. 

2 Ael. iv. ii ; cf. also G. A. iv. 5. 773** 25. 

9 I have transposed this sentence, which in the MSS. and edd. 
follows the next. 

4 The fable of mares impregnated by the wind is widespread. Cf. 
Varro, /?. R. ii. I ' In Lusitania ad Oceanum in ea regione ubi est oppi- 
dum Olysippo in monte sacro quaedam a vento concipiunt certo tempore 
equae, ut hie gallinae quoque solent quarum ova vTn/i/e'/wa appellant. 
Sed ex his equis qui nati pulli non plus triennio vivunt.' See also 
Plin. viii. 67 ; Solin. xxiii. 43 ; Colum. vi. 27 ; August, de Civ. Dei^ 
xxi. 5 'In Cappadocia vento equae concipiunt', &c. Cf. Justin, 
xliv. 3 (exTrogo) ' in Lusitanis iuxta fluvium Tagum, vento equas fetus 


Crete they never remove the stallion from the mares ; for 
when the mare gets into this condition she runs away from 

15 all other horses. The mares under these circumstances 
fly invariably either northwards or southwards, and never 
towards either east or west. When this complaint is on 
them they allow no one to approach, until either they are 
exhausted with fatigue * or have reached the sea. Under 
either of these circumstances they discharge a certain sub- 

20 stance called ' hippomanes ', the title given to a growth on 
a new-born foal ; 2 this resembles the sow-virus, and is in 
great request amongst women who deal in drugs and potions. 
About horsing time the mares huddle closer together, are 
continually switching their tails, their neigh is abnormal in 

25 sound, and from the sexual organ there flows a liquid 
resembling genital sperm, but much thinner than the sperm 
of the male. It is this substance that some call hippo- 
manes, instead of the growth found on the foal ; they say it 
is extremely difficult to get as it oozes out only in small 
drops at a time. Mares also, when in heat, discharge 

30 urine frequently, and frisk with one another. Such are the 
phenomena connected with the horse. 

Cows go a-bulling ; and so completely are they under 
the influence of the sexual excitement that the herdsmen 
have no control over them and cannot catch hold of them 

concipere multi auctores prodidere ; quae fab ulae ex equarum fecund itate 
et gregum multitudine natae sunt ; qui tanti in Galloecia et Lusitania, ac 
tain pernices visuntur ut non immerito vento ipso concepti videantur'; 
Sil. Ital. iii. 381 (where the offspring are said to live for seven years). 
We may trace the fable back to the story of //. xx. 223, the mares of 
Erichthonius, raw KO.\ Boptrjs ^pdo-craro /SoaKo/ze^dou 1 , [ tTnra) &' etcru/zevo? 
7rapeAe'uTo /cva^o^atY// ' w i tn which cf. Verg. Georg. iii. 273. Claudian, 
de rapt. Proserp. iii. 265, alludes to a similar myth respecting the 
tiger. Cf. note on vnrjvefjLia, supra, 3. 559 b 30. 

1 Guil. has destderium, reading nufov for novev. 

2 Plin. viii. 66 ' Et sane equis amoris innasci veheficium, hippomanes 
appellatum, in fronte, caricae magnitudine, colore nigro ; quod statim 
edito partu devorat feta, aut partum ad ubera non admittit '. Cf. 
Solin. xlv ; Ael. xiv. 18 Imros orav re'/c?/, TOV ftpetyovs KTr((pvKV~iav o~dpKa 
ov 7ro\\f)i> dXXa o\iyr]i> drrripTfjcrdai ol p.ev Kara TOV /ieTco7rou (f)ao~ii', ol 
8e Kara TTJS 6cr(f)vos, a\\oi -ye n^v Kara TOV atSoiov, KT\. '. cf. ibid. iii. 17. 
Vergil mentions both kinds: Aen. iv. 515 ' Quaeritur et nascentis 
equi de fronte revulsus, Et matri prereptus amor ' ; Georg. iii. 280 
' Hie demum hippomanes vero quod nomine dicunt Pastores lentum 
distillat ab inguine virus'. Cf. Tibull. ii. 4. 58 'Hippomanes cupidae 
stillat ab inguine equae'. Vide infra, viii. 24. 6o5 a 2. 

BOOK VI. 18 5?a b 

in the fields. Mares and kine alike, when in heat, indicate 
the fact by the upraising of their genital organs, and by 
continually voiding urine. Further, kine mount the bulls, 
follow them about, and keep standing beside them. The 
younger females both with horses and oxen are the first to 5 
get in heat ; and their sexual appetites are all the keener if 
the weather be warm and their bodily condition be healthy. 
Mares, when dipt of their coat, have the sexual feeling 
checked, and assume a downcast drooping appearance. 1 
The stallion recognizes by the scent the mares that form ID 
his company, even though they have been together only a 
few days before breeding time : if they get mixed up with 
other mares, 2 the stallion bites and drives away the inter- 
lopers. He feeds apart, accompanied by his own troop of 
mares. Each stallion has assigned to him about thirty 
mares or even somewhat more ; when a strange stallion 
approaches, he huddles his mares into a close ring, runs 15 
round them, then advances to the encounter of the new- 
comer ; if one of the mares make a movement, he bites 
her and drives her back. The bull in breeding time 
begins to graze with the cows, and fights with other 
bulls (having hitherto grazed with them), which is termed 
by graziers ' herd-spurning'. 3 Often in Epirus a bull dis- 
appears for three months together. In a general way one 20 
may state that of male 4 animals either none or few herd 
with their respective females before breeding time ; but 
they keep separate after reaching maturity, and the two 
sexes feed apart. Sows, when they are moved by sexual 
desire, or are, as it is called, a-boaring, will attack even 
human beings. 

With bitches the same sexual condition is termed 25 
' getting into heat '. The sexual organ rises at this time, 
and there is a moisture about the parts. Mares drip with 
a white liquid at this season. 

Female animals are subject to menstrual discharges, but 

1 Plin. viii. 66. Cf. Arist. ap. Ael. xi. 18. So also of the ass, Ael. 
xii. 16: cf. Boch. Hieroz. p. 120. 

2 Reading KOI/ di/a/uix&oaii/ dXX^Xaty. 
5 H.A. ix. 3. 6ii a 2. 

4 apptva, SO A. and W. for aypia S. dypia>rpa. 

AR. H.A. T 


30 never in such abundance as is the female of the human 
species. With ewes and she-goats there are signs of men- 
struation in breeding time, just before the time for submit- 
ting to the male ; after copulation also the signs are 
manifest, and then cease for an interval until the period of 
573 a parturition arrives ; the process then supervenes, and it is 
by this supervention that the shepherd knows that such 
and such an ewe is about to bring forth. After parturition 
comes copious menstruation, not at first much tinged with 
blood, but deeply dyed with it by and by. With the cow, 
the she-ass, and the mare, the discharge is more copious 
5 actually, owing to their greater bulk, but proportionally to 
the greater bulk it is far less copious. The cow, for instance, 
when in heat, exhibits a small discharge to the extent of 
a quarter of a pint of liquid or a little less ; and the time 
when this discharge takes place is the best time for her to 
be covered by the bull. Of all quadrupeds the mare is 
the most easily delivered of its young, exhibits the least 

10 amount of discharge after parturition, and emits the least 
amount of blood ; that is to say, of all animals in propor- 
tion to size. With kine and mares menstruation usually 
manifests itself at intervals of two, four, and six months ; 1 
but, unless one be constantly attending to and thoroughly 
acquainted with such animals, it is difficult to verify the 
circumstance, and the result is that many people are under 
the belief that the process never takes place with these 
animals at all. 

15 With mules menstruation never takes place, but the urine 
of the female is thicker than the urine of the male. As a 
general rule the discharge from the bladder in the case of 
quadrupeds is thicker than it is in the human species, and 
this discharge with ewes and she-goats is thicker than with 
rams and he-goats ; but the urine of the jackass is thicker 

20 than the urine of the she-ass, and the urine of the bull is 

more pungent than the urine of the cow. After parturition 
the urine of all quadrupeds becomes thicker, especially with 

1 Gaza translates otherwise, ' Conceptus indicium maximum cum 
menses cessaverunt spatio temporis trimestri,' &c. ; and Scaliger 

BOOK VI. 18 573 a 

such animals as exhibit comparatively slight discharges. 
At breeding time the milk becomes purulent, 1 but after 
parturition it becomes wholesome. During pregnancy ewes 25 
and she-goats get fatter and eat more ; as is also the case 
with cows, and, indeed, with the females of all quadrupeds. 

In general the sexual appetites of animals are keenest in 
spring-time ; the time of pairing, however, is not the same 
for all, but is adapted so as to ensure the rearing of the 
young at a convenient season. 30 

Domesticated swine carry their young for four months, 
and bring forth a litter of twenty at the utmost ; and, by 
the way, if the litter be exceedingly numerous they cannot 
rear all the young. As the sow grows old she continues to 
bear, but grows indifferent to the boar ; she conceives after 
a single copulation, but they have to put the boar to her 
repeatedly owing to her dropping after intercourse what isS73 b 
called the sow-virus." This incident befalls all sows, but 
some of them discharge the genital sperm as well. During 
conception any one of the litter that gets injured or dwarfed 
is called an after-pig or scut : 3 such injury may occur at 5 
any part of the womb. After littering the mother offers 
the foremost teat to the first-born. When the sow is in heat, 
she must not at once be put to the boar, but only after she 
lets her lugs drop, for otherwise she is apt to get into heat 
again ; if she be put to the boar when in full condition of 
heat, one copulation, as has been said, is sufficient. It is as 
well to supply the boar at the period of copulation with 10 
barley, and the sow at the time of parturition with boiled 
barley. Some swine give fine litters only at the beginning, 
with others the litters improve as the mothers grow in age 
and size. It is said that a sow, if she have one of her eyes 
knocked out, is almost sure to die soon afterwards. 4 Swine 15 
for the most part live for fifteen years, but some fall little 
short of the twenty. 5 

Ewes conceive after three or four copulations with the 

1 The so-called colostrum ; vide note, iii. 20. 522* I. 

2 Plin. viii. 51. 

3 H.A. vi. 24. 577 b 27 ; G.A. ii. 8. 749* i, iv. 4. 77o b 7, &c. 

4 Antig. H. M. no; Plin. viii. 51. 

5 [ ] A. and W. Cf. v. 14. 546* 26. 

T 2 


ram. If rain falls after intercourse, the ram impregnates 
the ewe again ; l and it is the same with the she-goat. The 

20 ewe bears usually two lambs, sometimes three or four. 
Both ewe and she-goat carry their young for five months ; 
consequently wherever a district is sunny and the animals 
are used to comfort and well fed, they bear twice in the 
year. The goat lives for eight years and the sheep 
for ten, but in most cases not so long ; the bell-wether, 

25 however, lives to fifteen years. In every flock they 
train one of the rams for bell-wether. 2 When he 
is called on by name by the shepherd, he takes the 
lead of the flock : and to this duty the creature is 
trained from its earliest years. Sheep in Ethiopia live for 
twelve or thirteen years, goats for ten or eleven. 3 In the 

30 case of the sheep and the goat the two sexes have inter- 
course all their lives long. 

Twins with sheep and goats may be due to richness of 
pasturage, or to the fact that either the ram or the he-goat is 
a twin-begetter or that the ewe or the she-goat is a twin- 
bearer. 4 Of these animals some give birth to males and 
others to females ; and the difference in this respect depends 
on the waters they drink and also on the sires. And if they 
submit to the male when north winds are blowing, they 
574 a are apt to bear males ; if when south winds are blowing, 
females. 5 Such as bear females may get to bear males, due 
regard being paid to their looking northwards when put to 
the male. Ewes accustomed to be put to the ram early 6 
will refuse him if he attempt to mount them late. Lambs 
5 are born white and black according as white or black veins 
are under the ram's tongue ; the lambs are white if the 
veins are white, and black if the veins are black, and white 

is doubtful: cf. Dittm. ad loc. 

11. vii. 196. Plin. viii. 75. 

4 Theocr. Id. i. 25, &c. ; Varro, R. R. ii.2. Cf. Lat. ambegna^ in Lex. 
' Cf. Ael. vii. 27 TU -ye p.i]v Trpoftara Kal endvo ol8(v } on avrols 6 fioppas 
6 VOTOS o-vp./jLaxovTai jrpbs TO TIKTCIV, ov p.elov ra>v Kpt5>v avaftaivovrw 
(ivra. ol8c KOI TotTO, on apa 6 ptv fBoppas dppevonoios f&riv, 6 &e VOTOS 
6r)\vyovos flvai 7re'0v/ce KT\. Also G. A. iv. 2. 766 b 29; Plin. viii. 62 (47) ; 
Arist. a,p. Colum. vii. 3. 12; Antig. H. M. m ; Didymus in Geopon. 
xviii. 3, &c. 

* i. e. in the morning, Gaza, Seal. ; but in the season, Schn. 

BOOK VI. 19 574* 

and black if the veins are white and black ; and red if the 
veins are red. 1 The females that drink salted waters are 
the first to take the male ; the water should be salted 
before and after parturition, and again in the spring-time. 2 10 
With goats the shepherds appoint no bell-wether, as the 
animal is not capable of repose but frisky and apt to 
ramble. If at the appointed season the elders of the flock 
are eager for intercourse, the shepherds say that it bodes 
well for the flock ; ?> if the younger ones, that the flock is 
going to be bad. 15 

20 Of dogs there are several breeds. Of these the Laconian 
hound of either sex is fit for breeding purposes when eight 
months old : at about the same age some dogs lift the leg 
when voiding urine. The bitch conceives with one lining ; 
this is clearly seen in the case where a dog contrives to line 
a bitch by stealth, as they impregnate after mounting only a 
once. 4 The Laconian bitch carries her young the sixth 
part of a year or sixty days : or more by one, two, or 
three, or less by one ; "' the pups are blind for twelve days 
after birth. After pupping, the bitch gets in heat again 
in six months, but not before. Some bitches carry their 
young for the fifth part of the year or for seventy-two 
days ; and their pups are blind for fourteen days. Other 
bitches carry their young for a quarter of a year or for three 
whole months ; and the whelps of these are blind for 
seventeen days. 6 The bitch appears to go in heat for the 30 
same length of time. Menstruation continues for seven 
days, and a swelling of the genital organ occurs simul- 
taneously ; it is not during this period that the bitch is 
disposed to submit to the dog, but in the seven days that 
follow. The bitch as a rule goes in heat for fourteen days, 574 b 
but occasionally for sixteen. The birth-discharge occurs 

1 Cf. also Verg. G. iii. 387 ; Plin. viii. (47) 72 ; Varro, R. R. ii. 2. 4 ; 
Colum. vii. 3. I ; Pallad. viii. 4. 2 ; Geopan. xviii. 6. 

2 Cf. de Mirab. 150 ; Plin. xxxi. 7. 

3 A weather-prophecy, foreboding a hard or early winter, is the 
commoner deduction; cf. infra, 575 b 20; Arat. 336; Ael. vii. 8; 
Theoph. de Sign. Temp. pp. 113, 124 (Wimmer); Geopon. i. 4. 2. 

Plin. x. 83. 5 Cf. v. 14. 54S b 8. 

tt Plin. /. c. ; Pollux, Onomast. v. 52. 


simultaneously with the delivery of the whelps, and the 
5 substance of it is thick and mucous. [The falling-off in 
bulk on the part of the mother is not so great as might 
have been inferred from the size of her frame.] 1 The 
bitch is usually supplied with milk five days before parturi- 
tion ; some seven days previously, some four ; and the 

10 milk is serviceable immediately after birth. The Laconian 
bitch is supplied with milk thirty days after lining. The 
milk at first is thickish, but gets thinner by degrees ; with 
the bitch the milk is thicker than with the female of any 
other animal excepting the sow and the hare. When the 
bitch arrives at full growth an indication is given of her 
capacity for the male ; that is to say, just as occurs in the 

'5 female of the human species, a swelling takes place in the 
teats of the breasts, and the breasts take on gristle. 2 This 
incident, however, it is difficult for any but an expert to 
detect, as the part that gives the indication is inconsider- 
able. The preceding statements relate to the female, and 
not one of them to the male. The male as a rule lifts his 

20 leg to void urine when six months old ; some at a later 
period, when eight months old, some before they reach six 
months. In a general way one may put it that they do so 
when they are out of puppy hood. 3 The bitch squats down 
when she voids urine ; it is a rare exception that she lifts 

25 the leg to do so. The bitch bears twelve pups at the most, 
but usually five or six ; occasionally a bitch will bear one 
only. The bitch of the Laconian breed generally bears 
eight. 4 The two sexes have intercourse with each other 
at all periods of life. 5 A very remarkable phenomenon is 
observed in the case of the Laconian hound : in other 
words, he is found to be more vigorous in commerce with 

1 The rendering is conjectural. Schn. would read Kara n\ri6os, and 
tr. ' purgationem de partu magis magisque tenuem et minus crassam, 
non minus copiosam, reddi '. Dittm. interprets ro irXrjGos rrjs Ka0dp<rta>s. 
I think that fj Kara TO aS>fw is probably faulty : qy. fj icd6ap<ns, or 

1 Cf. A6t. Med. xiii. 36 orav nara rqv firi<f>opnv roO 
8ioyKoi>p.(i>oi ol /iam irapSavrai /cat aXycocri, Xcycrai \ovbpicuris, KT\. 

8 Lit. 'when they begin to be strong'; vatere, Plin. x. 5. 83 ; for 
la-\viv some MSS. have o^cwti/. 

4 Plin. x. 83. 6 But cf. H.A. v. 14. 546* 28. 

BOOK VI. 20 574 b 

the female after being hard-worked than when allowed 
to live idle. 1 

The dog of the Laconian breed lives ten years, and the 30 
bitch twelve. The bitch of other breeds usually lives for 
fourteen or fifteen years, but some live to twenty ; and for 
this reason certain critics consider that Homer did well in 
representing the dog of Ulysses as having died in his 575 a 
twentieth year. 2 With the Laconian hound, owing to the 
hardships to which the male is put, he is less long-lived 
than the female; with other breeds the distinction as to 
longevity is not very apparent, though as a general rule 
the male is the longer-lived. 

The dog sheds no teeth except the so-called ' canines ' ; 5 
these a dog of either sex sheds when four months old. 3 As 
they shed these only, many people are in doubt as to the 
fact, and some people, owing to their shedding but two and 
its being hard to hit upon the time when they do so, fancy 
that the animal sheds no teeth at all ; others, after observing 
the shedding of two, come to the conclusion that the 
creature sheds the rest in due turn. Men discern the age I0 
of a dog by inspection of its teeth ; with young dogs the 
teeth are white and sharp pointed, with old dogs black 
and blunted. 4 

21 The bull impregnates the cow at a single mount, and 
mounts with such vigour as to weigh down the cow ; if his 
effort be unsuccessful, the cow must be allowed an interval 
of twenty days before being again submitted. 5 Bulls of '5 
mature age decline to mount the same cow several times 
on one day, except, by the way, at considerable intervals. 
Young bulls by reason of their vigour are enabled to 
mount the same cow several times in one day, and a good 
many cows besides. The bull is the least salacious of 
male animals. . . . 6 The victor among the bulls is the one 20 

1 Plin. x. 83 ; Ael. iv. 40; Antig. H. M. 112. Plin. I.e. ' Propria in 
eo genere maribus laboris alacritas'; ubi Pintian. 'post laborem 
salacitas '. 

2 Od. xvii. 326. Plin. xi. 63. 

4 Cf. H. A. ii. 2. 50i b 1 1. ' Plin. viii. 70. 

6 Here, apparently, is a lacuna. Dittm. would supply something 


that mounts the females ; when he gets exhausted by his 
amorous efforts, his beaten antagonist sets on him and very 
often gets the better of the conflict. The bull and the cow 
are about a year old when it is possible for them to have 
commerce with chance of offspring: as a rule, however, 
they are about twenty months old, but it is universally 
allowed that they are capable in this respect at the age of 

25 two years. The cow goes with calf for nine months, and 
she calves in the tenth month ; some maintain that they go 
in calf for ten months, to the very day. A calf delivered 
before the times here specified is an abortion and never 
lives, however little premature its birth may have been, as its 
hooves are weak and imperfect. The cow as a rule bears 

30 but one calf, very seldom two ; she submits to the bull and 
bears as long as she lives. 

Cows live for about fifteen years, and the bulls too, if 
they have been castrated ; but some live for twenty years 
or even more, if their bodily constitutions be sound. The 
575 b herdsmen tame the castrated bulls, and give them an office 
in the herd analogous to the office of the bell-wether in 
a flock ; and these bulls live to an exceptionally advanced 
age, owing to their exemption l from hardship and to their 
browsing on pasture of good quality. The bull is in fullest 
vigour when five years old, which leads the critics to com- 

5 mend Homer for applying to the bull the epithets of ' five- 
year-old ', or ' of nine seasons ', which epithets are alike in 
meaning. 2 The ox sheds his teeth at the age of two years, 
not all together but just as the horse sheds his. 3 When 
the animal suffers from podagra it does not shed the hoof, 
but is subject to a painful swelling in the feet. The milk 

10 of the cow is serviceable after parturition, and before 
parturition there is no milk at all. 4 The milk that first 
presents itself becomes as hard as stone when it clots ; this 
result ensues unless it be previously diluted with water. 
Oxen younger than a year old do not copulate unless 

like opus 8e fjnixfrm ox^oSpa rep avrnraXat 6 /3oCr. A longer story, how- 
ever, may have been omitted ; cf. Ael. vi. i. 

1 TO(U/)) novf'iv fjiT) inserted here by Seal., Sylb., and others. 

2 //. ii. 403, vii. 315 ; Od. x. 19, xix. 420. Cf. Hesiod, Op, 2. 

3 Plin. xi. 64. 4 Plin. xi. 96. 


BOOK VI. 21 575 

under circumstances of an unnatural and portentous kind : 
instances have been recorded of copulation in both sexes 
at the age of four 1 months. Kine in general begin to 
submit to the male about the month of Thargelion or of 15 
Scirophorion ; 2 some, however, are capable of conception 
right on to the autumn. 3 When kine in large numbers 
receive the bull and conceive, it is looked upon as prognostic 
of rain and stormy weather. 4 Kine herd together like mares, 
but in lesser degree. 20 

22 In the case of horses, the stallion and the mare are first 
fitted for breeding purposes when two years old. Instances, 
however, of such early maturity are rare, and their young 
are exceptionally small and weak; ^he ordinary age for 
sexual maturity is three years, and from that age to 
twenty the two sexes go on improving in the quality of 25 
their offspring/ 3 The mare carries her foal for eleven 
months, and casts it in the twelfth. 6 It is not a fixed 
number of days that the stallion takes to impregnate the 
mare ; it may be one, two, three, or more. An ass in 
covering will impregnate more expeditiously than a stallion. 
The act of intercourse with horses is not laborious as it is 3 
with oxen. In both sexes the horse is the most salacious 
of animals next after the human species. 7 The breeding 
faculties of the younger horses may be stimulated beyond 
their years if they be supplied with good feeding in 
abundance. The mare as a rule bears only one foal ; 76 
occasionally she has two, but never more. A mare has 
been known to cast two mules ; but such a circumstance 
was regarded as unnatural and portentous. 

The horse then is first fitted for breeding purposes at the 
age of two and a half years, but achieves full sexual 
maturity when it has ceased to shed teeth, except it be 
naturally infertile ; it must be added, however, that some 5 

1 Piccolos em. dcica/iijvoi. 2 April to June. 

3 Plin. viii. 70; Varro, /?. R. ii. 5. 

4 Reff. are frequent to a similar prognostic in the case of sheep and 
goats: cf. note to 574* 15. 

5 H.A. v. 12. c G.A. iv. 10. 777 b 12. 
7 G.A. iv. 5. 773 b 29. 


horses have been known to impregnate the mare while the 
teeth were in procss of shedding. 

The horse has forty teeth. It sheds its first set of four, 
two from the upper jaw and two from the lower, when two 
and a half years old. After a year's interval, it sheds 
another set of four in like manner, and another set of four 

10 after yet another year's interval ; after arriving at the age 
of four years and six months it sheds no more. An 
instance has occurred where a horse shed all his teeth at 
once, and another instance of a horse shedding all his teeth 
with his last set of four ; but such instances are very rare. 1 

15 It consequently happens that a horse when four and a half 
years old is in excellent condition for breeding purposes. 

The older horses, whether of the male or female, are the 
more generatively productive. Horses will cover mares 
from which they have been foaled and mares which 
they have begotten ; 2 and, indeed, a troop of horses is 

20 only considered perfect when such promiscuity of inter- 
course occurs. Scythians use pregnant mares for riding 
when the embryo has turned rather soon in the womb, and 
they assert that thereby the mothers have all the easier 
delivery. Quadrupeds as a rule lie down for parturition, 
and in consequence the young of them all come out of the 
womb sideways. The mare, however, when the time for 

25 parturition arrives, stands erect and in that posture casts its 
foal. 3 

The horse in general lives for eighteen or twenty years ; 
some horses live for twenty-five or even thirty, 4 and if 
a horse be treated with extreme care, it may last on to the 
age of fifty years ; a horse, however, when it reaches thirty 
576 years is regarded as exceptionally old. The mare lives 
usually for twenty-five years, though instances have 
occurred of their attaining the age of forty. 5 The male is 
less long-lived than the female by reason of the sexual 
service he is called on to render ; and horses that are 

1 Varro, /?. /?. ii. 7. 2 ; Colum. vi. 29 ; Geopon. xvi. 

2 Cf. Ov. Met. x. 324. s Plin. viii. 66. 
4 H. A. v. 14. 545 b 18. 

'* Dittm. brackets the preceding sentence, which is in conflict with 
545 b 18; cf. Plin. viii. 65. 

BOOK VI. 22 5?6 l 

reared in a private stable live longer than such as are reared 
in troops. The mare attains hei full length and height at 
five years old, the stallion at six ; in another six years the 5 
animal reaches its full bulk, and goes on improving until it 
is twenty years old. The female, then, reaches maturity 
more rapidly than the male, but in the womb the case is 
reversed, just as is observed in regard to the sexes of the 
human species ; l and the same phenomenon is observed in 
the case of all animals that bear several young. 2 10 

The mare is said to suckle a mule-foal for six months, 
but not to allow its approach for any longer on account of 
the pain it is put to by the hard tugging ?> of the young; an 
ordinary foal it allows to suck for a longer period. 

Horse and mule are at their best after the shedding of 
the teeth. After they have shed them all, it is not easy to 
distinguish their age ; hence they are said to carry their 
mark before the shedding, but not after. However, even 15 
after the shedding their age is pretty well recognized by 
the aid of the canines ; for in the case of horses much 
ridden these teeth are worn away by attrition caused by 
the insertion of the bit ; in the case of horses not ridden 
the teeth are large and detached, and in young horses they 
are sharp and small. 4 

The male of the horse will breed at all seasons and during 2 o 
its whole life ; the mare can take the horse all its life long, 
but is not thus 5 ready to pair at all seasons unless it be 
held in check by a halter or some other compulsion be 
brought to bear. There is no fixed time at which inter- 
course of the two sexes cannot take place ; and accordingly 
intercourse may chance to take place at a time that may 

1 H. A. vii. 3. 583 b 23 ; G. A. iv. 6. 775* 9. 

2 Cf. Asclep. ap. Plut. de Placit. v. 909 B. eVi p.(j> T<OV oppeVwi/, 8ta 
TO BepfjioTOTa flvai, TTJV didpdpaxriv yiveadat lino ZKTTJS <ai 

df KOI eVSo-re'pa). nXrjpovcrdni S' evrbs rf]$ TrfVTrjKoaTrjf rot? 

8ia TO v8dv TOV BtpiJiov. (Dittmeyer reads 6'o-a 

3 TO nyav airao-Qm' SO A. and W. for TO wnnvOni of the vulgate, TO 
anrxrircKTOai of A a C a . 

4 The reading is dubious. For aTTTjpT^eVof Seal. cj. aTrap.^\vv6p.(vns : 
Camus, following PC a , OVK aTrrjpTrjuevos, ' pas encore entierement sortie.' 
For fUKpos PC a have paKpos, Gaza procerior. 

5 Reading 01^ 


25 render difficult the rearing of the future progeny. In a 
stable in Opus there was a stallion that used to serve mares 
when forty years old : l his fore legs had to be lifted up 
for the operation. 

Mares first take the horse in the spring-time. After a 
mare has foaled she does not get impregnated at once 
again, but only after a considerable interval ; in fact, the 
foals will be all the better if the interval extend over four 
or five years. It is, at all events, absolutely necessary to 
577 a allow an interval of one year, and for that period to let her 
Jie fallow. 2 A mare, then, breeds at intervals ; a she-ass 
breeds on and on without intermission. Of mares some are 
absolutely sterile, others are capable of conception but in- 
capable of bringing the foal to full term ; it is said to be 

5 an indication of this condition in a mare, that her foal if 
dissected is found to have other kidney-shaped substances 
round about its kidneys, presenting the appearance of having 
four kidneys.^ 

After parturition the mare at once swallows the after-birth, 
and bites off the growth, 4 called the ' hippomanes', 5 that is 
found on the forehead of the foal. This growth is some- 

10 what smaller than a dried fig ; and in shape is broad and 
round, and in colour black. If any bystander gets posses- 
sion of it before the mare, and the mare gets a smell of it, 
she goes wild and frantic at the smell. 7 And it is for this 
reason that venders of drugs and simples hold the substance 
in high request and include it among their stores. 

If an ass cover a mare after the mare has been covered by 
a horse, the ass will destroy the previously formed embryo. 8 

15 [Horse-trainers do not appoint a horse as leader to a 
troop, as herdsmen appoint a bull as leader to a herd, 
and for this reason that the horse is not steady but quick- 
tempered and skittish.] 9 

I Plin. viii. 66. 2 Varro, A>. A\ ii. 7. n. 

8 On fourfold kidneys in the stag cf. Plin. xi. 81 ; Ael. xi. 40. 

4 ToG TTtoXou is doubtless corrupt; qy. rof< TrwXioi/, cf. H. A. viii. 24. 
6o5 a 6. ' Cf. note on vi. 18. 572 a 21 . 

II MSS. (f)8rj or 6<p6fj. Guil. tr. decoxerit, i.e. <ty'}o-//, or (Dittm.) 

O 77 7-17077. 

7 Plin. I.e. * G.A. ii. 8.748 a 33- 

9 [ ] A. and W. : cf. 19. 574 a 10. 

ROOK VI. 23 577 a 

23 The ass of both sexes is capable of breeding, and sheds 
its first teeth at the age of two and a half years ; 1 it sheds 
its second teeth within six months, its third within another 
six months, and the fourth after the like interval. These 20 
fourth teeth are termed the gnomons or age-indicators. 

A she-ass has been known to conceive when a year old, 
and the foal to be reared. 2 After intercourse with the male 
it will discharge the genital sperm unless it be hindered, 
and for this reason it is usually beaten after such inter- 
course and chased about. 3 It casts its young in the twelfth 
month. It usually bears but one foal, and that is its 25 
natural number ; occasionally however it bears twins. 4 The 
ass if it cover a mare destroys, as has been said, the embryo 
previously begotten by the horse ; but, after the mare has 
been covered by the ass, the horse supervening will not 
spoil the embryo. 5 The she-ass has milk in the tenth 
month of pregnancy. Seven days after casting a foal the 
she-ass submits to the male, and is almost sure to conceive 
if put to the male on this particular day ; the same result, 30 
however, is quite possible later on. The she-ass will refuse 
to cast her foal with any one looking on or in the daylight, 577 b 
and just before foaling she has to be led away into a dark 
place. If the she-ass has had young before the shedding 
of the index-teeth, she will bear all her life through ; 6 but if 
not, then she will neither conceive nor bear for the rest of 
her days. The ass lives for more than thirty years, and 
the she-ass lives longer than the male. 5 

When there is a cross between a horse and a she-ass or a 
jackass and a mare, there is much greater chance of a mis- 
carriage than where the commerce is normal. The period 
for gestation in the case of a cross depends on the male, 
and is just what it would have been if the male had had 
commerce with a female of his own kind. In regard to size, 10 
looks, and vigour, the foal is more apt to resemble the 
mother than the sire. If such hybrid connexions be con- 
tinued without intermittence, the female will soon go 

1 H. A. v. 14. 545 b 20. 2 Cf. 545 b 22. 

1 G.A. ii. 8. 748 a 22. 4 Plin. viii. 68. 

6 G.A. ii. 8. 748* 33 ; Plin. viii. 69. 
6 G.A. ii. 8. 748 b 9 ; Plin. viii. 69. 


sterile ; l and for this reason trainers always allow of inter- 
15 vals between breeding times. 2 A mare will not take the 
ass, nor a she-ass the horse, unless the ass or she-ass shall 
have been suckled by a mare ; and for this reason trainers 
put foals of the she-ass under mares, which foals are tech- 
nically spoken of as ' mare-suckled '. :i These asses, thus 
reared, mount the mares in the open pastures, mastering 
them by force as the stallions do. 

A mule is fitted for commerce with the female after the 34 
20 first shedding of its teeth, and at the age of seven will 
impregnate effectually ; 4 and where connexion has taken 
place with a mare, a * hinny ' has been known to be produced. 
After the seventh year it has no further intercourse with 
the female. 5 A female mule has been known to be im- 
pregnated, but without the impregnation being followed up 
by parturition. In Syrophoenicia she-mules submit to the 
mule and bear young ; 7 but the breed, though it resembles 
25 the ordinary one, is different and specific. The hinny or 
stunted mule is foaled by a mare when she has gone sick 
during gestation, 8 and corresponds to the dwarf in the 
human species and to the after-pig or scut in swine ; and, 
as is the case with dwarfs, the sexual organ of the hinny is 
abnormally large. 

The mule lives for a number of years. There are on record 

cases of mules living to the age of eighty, as did one in 

30 Athens at the time of the building of the temple ; this mule 

1 Colurn. vi. 37. 10. 

2 The translation is confirmed by Colum. /. c. l Ouae cum ex asino 
conceptum edidit, partum sequent! anno vacua nutrit : id enim utilius 
est quam quod quidam faciunt, ut et foetam nihilominus admisso equo 
impleant '. 

3 Plin. viii. 69 ; Varro, R. R. ii. 8 ; Colum. vi. 37. 8. 

4 Cf. G.A. ii. 8. 747 a 24 TO TG>V f)fuova)V yevos o\ov ayovov eVri. But 
747 b 25 yevvq #' 6 apprjv fnraeTTjs &>v povos, o>s (fracriv' dXX* TJ QqXfta ayovos 

5 Seal, interprets these words of the ginnus, *sed is rursus non 
item coit.' 

6 Cf. Colum. vi. 37 for an account of mules bearing young in 

7 Vide infra, c. 36. 

8 Schn. cj. orav voa-rja-T] ev rrf vore'pa TO KVTJIUI I cf. G. A. ii. 7- 74& 35- 
Pice., similarly, orav vo&fjo-r) TO <rv\\Tj(p6fv tv TJJ 

BOOK VI. 24 577 b 

on account of its age was let go free, but continued to 
assist in dragging burdens, and would go side by side with 
the other draught-beasts and stimulate them to their work ; 
and in consequence a public decree was passed forbidding 
any baker driving the creature away from his bread-tray. 1 578* 
The she-mule grows old more slowly than the mule. Some 
assert that the she-mule menstruates by the act of voiding 
her urine, 2 and that the mule owes the prematurity of his 
decay to his habit of smelling at the urine. So much for 
the modes of generation in connexion with these animals. 5 

35 Breeders and trainers can distinguish between young. -and 
old quadrupeds. 3 If, when drawn back from the jaw, the 
skin at once goes back to its place, the animal is young ; if 
it remains long wrinkled up, the animal is old. 

26 The camel carries its young for ten 4 months, and bears 10 
but one at a time and never more; the young camel is 
removed from the mother when a year old. The animal 
lives for a long period, more than fifty years. 5 It bears in 
spring-time, and gives milk until the time of the next con- 
ception. Its flesh and milk are exceptionally palatable. 7 
The milk is drunk mixed with water in the proportion of 15 
either two to one or three to one. 

27 The elephant of either sex is fitted for breeding before 
reaching the age of twenty. The female carries her young, 
according to some accounts, for two and a half years ; 
according to others, for three years ; 8 and the discrepancy 
in the assigned periods is due to the fact that there are 30 
never human eyewitnesses to the commerce between the 
sexes. 9 The female settles down on its rear to cast its 
young, and obviously suffers greatly during the process. 

1 Ael. iv. 49; Plut. de Sol. Anim. 970 A.; Plin. viii. 69; Hippiatr. 

p. 4. 

2 G.A. ii. 8. 748 a 24. 3 Hippiatr. p. 55. 

4 Supra, v. 14, dvdtKa, which is correct. 

5 Cf. viii. 9. 596* 9. 6 Cf. v. 14. 546 b 2. 

7 Plin. xi. 96, xxviii. 33 ; Galen, vi. 486 K. ; Diod. ii. 54. 

8 But cf. v. 14. 546 b ii ; G.A. iv. 10. 777 b 15 ; de Mirab. 177. 847 b 5 ; 
Ael. iv. 31 ; Strabo xv. i. 43 ; Plin. viii. 10. 

9 H.A. v. 2. 540* 20 ; Ael. viii. 17. 


The young one, immediately after birth, sucks the mother, 
not with its trunk but with the mouth ; l and can walk about 
and see distinctly the moment it is born. 

25 The wild sow submits to the boar at the beginning of 28 
winter, and in the spring-time retreats for parturition to a 
lair in some district inaccessible to intrusion, hemmed in 
with sheer cliffs and chasms and overshadowed by trees. 
The boar usually remains by the sow for thirty days. The 
number of the litter and the period of gestation is the same 
30 as in the case of the domesticated congener. The sound of 
the grunt also is similar ; only that the sow grunts con- 
tinually, and the boar but seldom. Of the wild boars such 
as are castrated grow to the largest size and become fiercest : 
578 b to which circumstance Homer alludes when he says : 

'He reared against him a wild castrated boar: it was 
not like a food-devouring brute, but like a forest-clad 
promontory.' 2 

Wild boars become castrated owing to an itch befalling 
them in early life in the region of the testicles, and the 
5 castration is superinduced by their rubbing themselves 
against the trunks of trees. 

The hind, as has been stated, submits to the stag as a 29 
rule only under compulsion, 3 as she is unable to endure the 
male often owing to the rigidity of the penis. 4 However, 
they do occasionally submit to the stag as the ewe submits 
10 to the ram ; and when they are in heat the hinds avoid one 
another. 5 The stag is not constant to one particular hind, 
but after a while quits one and mates with others. 6 The 
breeding time is after the rising of Arcturus, during the 
months of Boedromion and Maimacterion. 7 The period of 
gestation lasts for eight months. Conception comes on a 

H.A. v. 14; Ael. iv. 31. 

2 This interpretation of x^ovvrjv is highly dubious, and the quotation 
is a travesty of //. ix. 539 and Off. ix. 190. 

3 //. A. v. 2. 540* 5. w 

1 8m TT]V roC aldoiov ovvroviav.) loc. cit. 

5 Plin. viii. 50 ' a conceptu separant se '. Schn. suggests 

Plin. x. 83. 
7 That is, in October ; cf. Plin. viii. 50. 


BOOK VI. 29 5?8 l 

few days after intercourse ; and a number of hinds can be 
impregnated by a single male. The hind, as a rule, bears 15 
but one fawn, although instances have been known of her 
casting two. Out of dread of wild beasts she casts her 
young by the side of the high-road. 1 The young fawn 
grows with rapidity. Menstruation occurs at no other time 
with the hind ; it takes place only after parturition, and 
the substance is phlegm-like. 20 

The hind leads the fawn to her lair ; this is her place of 
refuge, a cave with a single inlet, inside which she shelters 
herself against attack. 2 

Fabulous stories are told concerning the longevity of the 
animal, but the stories have never been verified, and the 
brevity of the period of gestation and the rapidity of growth 2 5 
in the fawn would not lead one to attribute extreme longevity 
to this creature. 

In the mountain called Elaphoeis 3 or Deer Mountain, 
which is in Arginussa in Asia Minor the place, by the way, 
where Alcibiades was assassinated 4 all the hinds have the 5 
ear split, so that, if they stray to a distance, they can be 
recognized by this mark ; and the embryo actually has the 
mark while yet in the womb of the mother. 3o 

The hind has four teats like the cow. After the hinds 
have become pregnant, the males all segregate one by one, 
and in consequence of the violence of their sexual passions 
they keep each one to himself, dig a hole in the ground, 579 8 
and bellow from time to time ; 6 in all these particulars they 
resemble the goat, and their foreheads from getting wetted 
become black, 7 as is also the case with the goat. In this 

1 H.A. ix. 5. 6n a 15. 

2 The rendering is doubtful. For elude Pice, suggests oiSf, Dittm. 
tBlftei. MSS. have eiriTtfonevois and fTrmdcuevovs. 

3 Plin. viii. 83, xi. 50; Ael. vi. 13 rrept yovv TOV 'JL\\r)<nTOvT6v eon 
\6(pos [qy. 'E\a<p6eis], KT\. 

4 In Phrygia, Plut. V. Alcib. xxxix, C. Nepos, Alcib. x. 

5 TO (trtpov) ovs, Schn. ; cf. Ael. /. c. 

5 Qy. ' smell rank ', /3po>/io?. The word is not Attic. 

7 The statement is unverified and the reading dubious. The under- 
parts of the stag are known to grow darker in the breeding season, and 
it is perhaps trpoa-una rather than paiveo-Oai that is corrupt [qy. nroo&'a]. 
Plin., however, accepts the statement of the text, viii. 50 Tune rostra 
eorum nigrescunt, donee aliqui abluant imbres '. 

AR. H.A. U 


way they pass the time until the rain falls, after which time 
they turn to pasture. The animal acts in this way owing to 
5 its sexual wantonness and also to its obesity ; for in summer- 
time it becomes so exceptionally fat as to be unable to run : 
in fact at this period they can be overtaken by the hunters 
that pursue them on foot in the second or third run ; and, 
by the way, in consequence of the heat of the weather and 
their getting out of breath they always make for water in 
their runs. 1 In the rutting season, the flesh of the deer is 

10 unsavoury and rank, like the flesh of the he-goat. In winter- 
time the deer becomes thin and weak, but towards the 
approach of the spring he is at his best for running. When 
on the run the deer keeps pausing from time to time, and 
waits until his pursuer draws upon him, whereupon he starts 

15 off again. This habit appears due to some internal pain : 
at all events, the gut is so slender and weak that, if you 
strike the animal ever so softly, it is apt to break 
asunder, though the hide of the animal remains sound and 
uninjured. 2 

Bears, 3 as has been previously stated, do not copulate 30 
with the male mounting the back of the female, but with 
the female lying down under the male. The she-bear goes 

20 with young for thirty days. 4 She brings forth sometimes 
one cub, sometimes two cubs, and at most five. Of all 
animals the newly born cub of the she-bear is the smallest 
in proportion to the size of the mother ; that is to say, it is 
larger than a mouse but smaller than a weasel. It is also 
smooth and blind, and its legs and most of its organs are 
as yet inarticulate. 5 Pairing takes place in the month of 

25 Elaphebolion, 6 and parturition about the time for retiring 
into winter quarters ; 7 about this time the bear and the 
she-bear are at the fattest. After the she-bear has reared 

1 Cf. Xen. Cyn. ix. 2 Plin. viii. 50 ; Opp. Cyn. iv. 439. 

1 H.A. v. 2. 539 b 33. 

4 Plin. viii. 54. 

1 Cf. Qv.Met. xv. 379; Plin. viii. 36; Ael. ii. 19 ; Horap. ii. 79, &c. 

1 February-March. 

Dittm., after Petavius, reads nrotftrm TOV (JLTJVUS TOV (lloaf iSecovoy Kai 
<J)<t>\(vci nexpi TOV HTJVOS ToC) 'EAa^/SoXioivos : or suggests alternatively, 
after Plin. viii. 54, TOV (\(tp.a)vo$ ap^ofitvov, KOI <f)a>\(vd /*.T.) 

BOOK VI. 30 579 a 

her young, she comes out of her winter lair in the third 
month, when it is already spring. 1 The female porcupine, 
by the way, hibernates and goes with young the same 
number of days as the she-bear, and in all respects as to 
parturition resembles this animal. When a she-bear is with 
young, it is a very hard task to catch her. 30 

31 It has already been stated that the lion and lioness 
copulate rearwards, 2 and that these animals are opisthuretic. 
They do not copulate nor bring forth at all seasons indis- 
criminately, but once in the year only. The lioness brings 
forth in the spring, generally two cubs at a time, and six at 579 b 
the very most ; but sometimes only one. The story about 

the lioness discharging her womb in the act of parturition 3 
is a pure fable, and was merely invented to account for the 
scarcity of the animal ; for the animal is, as is well known, 5 
a rare animal, and is not found in many countries. In fact, 
in the whole of Europe it is only found in the strip between 
the rivers Achelous and Nessus. 4 The cubs of the lioness 
when newly born are exceedingly small, and can scarcely 
walk when two months old. 5 The Syrian lion bears cubs 
five times : five cubs at the first litter, then four, then three, 10 
then two, and lastly one ; after this the lioness ceases to 
bear for the rest of her days. 6 The lioness has no mane, 
but this appendage is peculiar to the lion. The lion sheds 
only the four so-called canines, 7 two in the upper jaw and 
two in the lower ; and it sheds them when it is six months 

32 The hyena 8 in colour resembles the wolf, 9 but is more 15 

1 Dittm. cj. rpirtp wvi ano rporreoj/, cf. ix. 16. 6oo b 2, i.e. 'in spring, 
three months after the winter solstice'. Cf. however Ael. vi. 3 

(JL(V aTTOTlKTft KOI <f)<i)\(Vfl TKOV(Ta, . . . Olid' &V JTplv f) 7T\rjpO>drjVCU 

jvar ayayoi nor av ra Ppefprj '. hence Schneider would correct 
for paiv(i or ejc^kuVfrai, 579* 3 

2 H.A. v. 2. 539 b 22, ii. I. 5oo b 15. 

3 Herod, iii. 108 ; Ael. iv. 34. 

4 H.A. viii. 28; cf. Xen. Cyn. xi ; Herod, vii. 126; Pausan. vi. 5; 
Plin. viii. 17 (16). 8 Plin. I.e. ; Ael. iv. 34. 

6 G.A. iii. I. 750* 32 ; Plin. /.<:.; Opp. Cyn. iii. 56. 

7 Plin. xi. 63. Plin. viii. 44. 
9 Guil. tr. ' quasi alba ', reading 

U 2 


shaggy, and is furnished with a mane running all along the 
spine. What is recounted concerning its genital organs, to 
the effect that every hyena is furnished with the organ both of 
the male and the female, is untrue. 1 The fact is that the sexual 
organ of the male hyena resembles the same organ in the 
wolf and in the dog ; the part resembling the female genital 

20 organ lies underneath the tail, and does to some extent 
resemble the female organ, but it is unprovided with duct or 
passage, and the passage for the residuum comes underneath 
it. The female hyena has the part that resembles the 
organ of the male, and, as in the case of the male, has it 
underneath her tail, unprovided with duct or passage ; and 

25 after it the passage for the residuum, and underneath this 
the true female genital organ. The female hyena has a 
womb, like all other female animals of the same kind. It 
is an exceedingly rare circumstance to meet with a female 
hyena. At least a hunter said that out of eleven hyenas he 
had caught, only one was a female. 

30 Hares copulate in a rearward posture, as has been 33 
stated, 2 for the animal is opisthuretic. They breed and 
bear at all seasons, superfoetate during pregnancy, 3 and 
bear young every month. They do not give birth to 
their young ones all together at one time, but bring them 
58o a forth at intervals over as many days as the circumstances 
of each case may require. The female is supplied with 
milk before parturition ; and after bearing submits imme- 
diately to the male, and is capable of conception while 
suckling her young. The milk in consistency resembles 
sow's milk. The young are born blind, as is the case with 
5 the greater part of the fissipeds or toed animals. 4 

The fox mounts 5 the vixen in copulation, and the vixen 34 
bears young like the she-bear ; 6 in fact, her young ones 

G.A. iii. 6. 757* 2 ; Diod. xxxii ; Ael. i. 25 ; Ov. Met. xv. 409. 
! H.A. v. 2. 539 b 22, ii. i. 5oo b 15. 
1 G.A. iv. 5. 774 a 31 ; Herod, iii. 108. 

G.A. iv. 6. 774 b 10. 

Vulgo avaftaivovaa ; Sylb. and Schn. a 
6 Plin. x. 83. 

BOOK VI. 34 58o a 

are even more inarticulately formed. Before parturition 
she retires to sequestered places, so that it is a great rarity 
for a vixen to be caught while pregnant. After parturition 
she warms her young and gets them into shape by licking 
them. 1 She bears four at most at a birth. 10 

35 The wolf resembles the dog in regard to the time of 
conception and parturition, the number of the litter, and 
the blindness of the new-born young. The sexes couple 
at one special period, and the female brings forth at the 
beginning of the summer. There is an account given of the 15 
parturition of the she-wolf that borders on the fabulous, to 
the effect that she confines her lying-in to within twelve par- 
ticular days of the year. 2 And they give the reason for this 
in the form of a myth, viz. that when they transported Leto 
in so many days from the land of the Hyperboreans to the 
island of Delos, she assumed the form of a she-wolf to escape 
the anger of Here. Whether the account be correct or not 20 
has not yet been verified ; I give it merely as it is currently 
told. There is no more of truth in the current statement 
that the she-wolf bears once and only once in her lifetime. 

The cat and the ichneumon bear as many young as 
the dog, and live on the same food ; they live about six 
years. The cubs of the panther are born blind like those 
of the wolf, and the female bears four at the most at one 25 
birth. The particulars of conception are the same for 
the thos, or civet, as for the dog ; the cubs of the animal 
are born blind, and the female bears two, or three, or four 
at a birth. It is long in the body and low in stature; 3 
but notwithstanding the shortness of its legs it is excep- 3 
tionally fleet of foot, owing to the suppleness of its frame 
and its capacity for leaping. 

36 There is found in Syria a so-called mule. 4 It is not the s8o b 

1 The same is told of the she-bear, H.A. viii. 17 ; Plin. x. 83. 

2 Ael. iv. 4; Antig. Mirab. 61 ; Schol. Apoll. Rh. ii. 123. 

3 Gaza has 'corpore longior et cauda porrectior, sed proceritate 
brevior', and PD a have paKporepos. Cf. Plin. viii. 52 'thoes luporum 
genus est procerius longitudine', c. The present description applies 
much better to the civet or genet, with which A. and W. identify 6<*>s, 
than to the jackal, with which it is more commonly identified. 

4 Equus onager or allied species. Cf. H. A. i. 6. 491* 2, iv. 24. 


same as the cross between the horse and ass, but resembles 
it just as a wild ass resembles the domesticated congener, 
and derives its name from the resemblance. Like the wild 
5 ass, this wild mule is remarkable for its speed. The 
animals of this species interbreed with one another ; and 
a proof of this statement may be gathered from the fact 
that a certain number of them were brought into Phrygia 
in the time of Pharnaces, the father of Pharnabazus, and 
the animal is there still. The number originally intro- 
duced was nine, and there are three there at the present 

10 The phenomena of generation in regard to the mouse 3; 
are the most astonishing both for the number of the young 
and for the rapidity of recurrence in the births. On one 
occasion a she-mouse in a state of pregnancy was shut up 
by accident in a jar containing millet-seed, and after a 
little while the lid of the jar was removed and upwards of 
one hundred and twenty mice were found inside it. 

15 The rate of propagation of field mice in country places, 
and the destruction that they cause, are beyond all telling. 
In many places their number is so incalculable that but 
very little of the corn-crop is left to the farmer ; and so 
rapid is their mode of proceeding that sometimes a small 
farmer will one day observe that it is time for reaping, and 
on the following morning, when he takes his reapers afield, 

20 he finds his entire crop devoured. 1 Their disappearance 
is unaccountable: in a few days not a mouse will there be 
to be seen. And yet in the time before these few days 
men fail to keep down their numbers by fumigating 2 and 
unearthing them, or by regularly hunting them and turning 
in swine upon them ; for pigs, by the way, turn up the 

25 mouse-holes by rooting with their snouts. Foxes also hunt 

577 b 23 ; cf. also de Mirab. 70. 835 b I ; //. ii. 852 ; Herod, iii. 151, 153, 
vii. 57 ; Plin. viii. 69 ; Mago ap. Varro, R.R. ii. I ; Colum. vii. 37, &c. 

1 Plagues of field-mice or voles, Arvicola guntheri, still occur in 
Thessaly, e.g. in 1866 and 1892: see Report on a Plague of Field- 
Voles in Scotland, 1893 (Cd. 943). A similar occurrence is alluded to 
in I Sam. v. 6, vi. II. 

2 Cf. Pallad. i. 35. 10 * talpas fugat impletis fumo nucis [qy. picis] 
incensae cuniculis ' ; see also Gcopon. xiii. 7. 

BOOK VI. 37 580' 

them, and the wild ferrets in particular destroy them, but 
they make no way against the prolific qualities of the animal 
and the rapidity of its breeding. .When they are super- 
abundant, nothing succeeds in thinning them down except 
the rain ; but after heavy rains they disappear rapidly. 

In a certain district of Persia when a female mouse is 30 
dissected the female embryos appear to be pregnant. 1 Some 
people assert, and positively assert, that a female mouse by 
licking salt 2 can become pregnant without the intervention s8i a 
of the male. 

Mice in Egypt are covered with bristles like the hedge- 
hog. 3 There is also a different breed of mice that walk on 
their two hind-legs; their front legs are small and their 
hind-legs long; 4 the breed is exceedingly numerous. 
There are many other breeds of mice than are here 
referred to. 5 

1 Plin. x. 85 ; Ael. xvii. 17 ; Antig. Mirab. 113 T^S 8e 
THTIV ava(TxioiJLtv<i>v ra>v 8r)\( i<av TCOV pvwv, TO. efiftpya fjfir; KVOVTO. 

( Vides, lector, Aristotelem modestius locutum, qui ofoi/Kvoi/raet 
addiderit,' Beckmann /;/ loc. 

2 A. and W. cj. aXA^Xas Aei'xaxrti/ : but cf. Plin. x. 85 ; Ael. ix. 3. 

3 The African genus Acanthomys or ' spiny mice '. 

4 Dipus aegvptiacus, the jerboa ; cf. Herod, iv. 192 ; H.A. viii. 28 ; 
Theoph. ap. Ael. xv. 26; Arist. de Mirab. 27 ; Plin. viii. 55, x. 85. 
Herod. I.e. pva>v fie yeVea rpia avrodi fvri oi ptv Binodfs KaXe'oirai, of 
8t ^"eyepies . . . of 8e t^ti/e'f?. Pliny appears to confuse the two species 
(/. 6-.), ' Aegyptiis muribus durus pilus sicut herinaceis : iidem bipedes 
ambulant, ceu alpini quoque.' 


58i a l As to Man's growth, first within his mother's womb and i 

10 afterward to old age, the course of nature, in so far as man 
is specially concerned, is after the following manner. And, 
by the way, the difference of male and female and of their 
respective organs has been dealt with heretofore. 2 When 
twice seven years old, 3 in the most of cases, the male 
begins to engender seed ; and at the same time hair 

15 appears upon the pubes, 4 in like manner, so Alcmaeon of 
Croton remarks, as plants first blossom and then seed. 
About the same time, the voice begins to alter, 5 getting 
harsher and more uneven, neither shrill as formerly nor 
deep as afterward, nor yet of any even tone, 'but like an 

20 instrument whose strings are frayed and out of tune; and 
it is called, by way of by-word, the bleat of the billy-goat. 6 
Now this breaking of the voice is the more apparent in 
those who are making trial of their sexual powers ; for in 
those who are prone to lustfulness the voice turns into the 
voice of a man, but not so in the continent. For if a lad 
strive diligently to hinder his voice from breaking, as some 

3 5 do of those who devote themselves to music, the voice lasts 

1 This book is of doubtful authenticity. Nearly one half of its 
contents may be closely paralleled with passages in the third and 
fourth books of the de Gen. ; and much also appears to be drawn 
directly from the writings of the Hippocratic School. For the latter 
parallels see Littre' (viii, p. 4 seq.) ; Kuhlewein, Philologus, xlii, p. 127 ; 
Fr. Poschenrieder, ' Die naturw. Schr. des A. in ihrem Verh. zu den 
Biichern der Hippocr.-Sammlung.' Bamberg, 1887, p. 33. 

2 ff.A.ui. I. 

3 H.A. vi. 17. 57 a 3 KUOUCTI navres [ot t^dves] tv \povois'Ois 
els TOV TWV ej3&op.dd(L>v dptdfjiov. Cf. Pollt. vii. l6. I335 b 33 fjvntp T&V 
noirjTuv rives eipfjKaaiv 01 fj.Tpovvres rats e/38o/ia(ri rrjv T]\iKiav, Cf. the 
fragment of Solon (Gnomici gr., 4, ed. Boissonade) on the ten weeks 
of the life of man. Cf. also Hippocr. de Septemmadis, viii, p. 634 L 
4 Sic omnium mundi septinarium habent ordinem ', &c. 

4 H.A. v. 14. 544 b 25; Censorin. d. d. nat. 14; G. A. i. 20. 728 b 
27 favdct f) TTJS rjftis rpi'x oo(Ti ?. 

J H. A. v. 14. 544 b 23 ; G.A. iv. 8. 776 b 15 ; v. 7. 787 b 31. 
6 hirquitallire. Censorin. 14; cf. Fest. ap. Paul. Diac., p. loi 


BOOK VII. I 5 81 

a long while unbroken and may even persist with little 
change. And the breasts swell and likewise the private 
parts, altering in size and shape. (And by the way, at this 
time of life those who try by friction to provoke emission 
of seed l are apt to experience pain as well as voluptuous 30 
sensations.) At the same age in the female, the breasts 
swell and the so-called catamenia commence to flow ; and s8i b 
this fluid resembles fresh blood. There is another discharge, 
a white one, by the way, which occurs in girls even at 
a very early age, more especially if their diet be largely of 
a fluid nature ; and this malady causes arrest of growth and 
loss of flesh. 2 In the majority of cases the catamenia are 5 
noticed by the time the breasts have grown to the height 
of two fingers' breadth. 3 In girls, too, about this time the 
voice changes to a deeper note ; for while in general the 
woman's voice is higher than the man's, so also the voices 
of girls are pitched in a higher key than the elder women's, 
just as the boy's are higher than the men's; and the girls' 10 
voices are shriller than the boys', and a maid's flute is 
tuned sharper than a lad's. 4 

Girls of this age have much need of surveillance. For 
then in particular they feel a natural impulse to make 
usage of the sexual faculties that are developing in them ; 
so that unless they guard against any further impulse beyond 
that inevitable one which their bodily development of itself 
supplies, even in the case of those who abstain altogether 15 
from passionate indulgence, they contract habits which 
are apt to continue into later life. 5 For girls who give way 
to wantonness grow more and more wanton ; and the same 
is true of boys, unless they be safeguarded from one 
temptation and another ; for the passages become dilated 
and set up a local flux or running, 6 and besides this the 20 
recollection of pleasure associated with former indulgence 
creates a longing for its repetition. 

Some men are congenitally impotent owing to structural 
defect ; and in like manner women also may suffer from 

1 Ar. Vesp. 739. 2 G.A. ii. 4. 738* 25. 

3 G.A. i. 20. 728 b 31. * Athen. I76 f . 

5 Polit. vii. 16. 1334'' 26. 6 Theophr. de Odore 50, de Sudore 19. 


congenital incapacity. Both men and women are liable to 
constitutional change, growing healthier or more sickly, or 
altering in the way of leanness, stoutness, and vigour; thus, 
after puberty some lads who were thin before grow stout 
and healthy, and the converse also happens ; and the same 
is equally true of girls. For when in boy or girl the body 

30 is loaded with superfluous matter, then,. when such super- 
fluities are got rid of in the spermatic or catamenial dis- 
charge, their bodies improve in health and condition owing 
582* to the removal of what had acted as an impediment to 
health and proper nutrition ; but in such as are of opposite 
habit their bodies become emaciated and out of health, 
for then the spermatic discharge in the one case and the 
catamenial flow in the other take place at the cost of 
natural healthy conditions. 

5 Furthermore, in the case of maidens the condition of 
the breasts is diverse in different individuals, for they are 
sometimes quite big and sometimes little ; and as a general 
rule their size depends on whether or no the body was 
burthened in childhood with superfluous material. For 
when the signs of womanhood are nigh but not come, the 

10 more there be of moisture the more will it cause the breasts 
to swell, even to the bursting point ; and the result is that 
the breasts remain during after-life of the bulk that they 
then acquired. And among men, the breasts grow more 
conspicuous and more like to those of women, both in 
young men and old, when the individual temperament is 

15 moist and sleek and the reverse of sinewy, and all the more 
among the dark-complexioned than the fair. 

At the outset and till the age of one and twenty the 
spermatic discharge is devoid of fecundity ; l afterwards it 
becomes fertile, but young men and women produce under- 
sized and imperfect progeny, as is the case also with the 
common run of animals. 2 Young women conceive readily, 

20 but, having conceived, their labour in childbed is apt to be 

The frame fails of reaching its full development and 

1 H. A. v. 14. 544 b 15. 

2 Of the mare, H. A. vi. 22. 575 b 23. 

BOOK VII. I 582 

ages quickly in men of intemperate lusts and in women 
who become mothers of many children ; for it appeal's to 
be the case that growth ceases when the woman has given 
birth to three children. Women of a lascivious disposition 25 
grow more sedate and virtuous after they have borne 
several children. 

After the age of twenty- one women are fully ripe for 
child-bearing, but men go on increasing in vigour. When 
the spermatic fluid is of a thin consistency it is infertile ; 
when granular it is fertile and likely to produce male 30 
children, but when thin and unclotted it is apt to produce 
female offspring. And it is about this time of life that in 
men the beard makes its appearance. 

The onset of the catamenia in women takes place towards 
the end of the month ; 1 and on this account the wiseacres 
assert that the moon is feminine, because the discharge in 582 b 
women and the waning of the moon happen at one and the 
same time, and after the wane and the discharge both one 
and the other grow whole again. [In some women the 
catamenia occur regularly but sparsely every month, and 
more abundantly every third month.] 2 With those in 
whom the ailment lasts but a little while, two days or 5 
three, recovery is easy ; but where the duration is longer, 
the ailment is more troublesome. For women are ailing 
during these days ; and sometimes the discharge is sudden 
and sometimes gradual, but in all cases alike there is bodily 
distress until the attack be over. In many cases at the 
commencement of the attack, when the discharge is about 
to appear, there occur spasms and rumbling noises within 10 
the womb until such time as the discharge manifests itself. 

Under natural conditions it is after recovery from these 

1 G.A. iv. 2. 767* 5, ii. 4. 738* 20, iv. 2. 767** I. Cf. Hippocr. de 
Sept. P. i. p. 451 K, vii. p. 448 L las ('XOVTOS TOV prjvos Idirjv 8vvctfj.iv ev 
TOt<Ti arap-curiv. 

2 The MSS. are maniteaciy corrupt, and appear to mean that in 
some women the ailment occurs every month, but in the majority only 
every third month. The above conjectural rendering is based on 
Plin. vii. 13 'Et hoc tale tantumque omnibus tricenis diebus malum 
in muliere exsistit, et trimestri spatio largius '. But the sense may be, 
as A. and W. suspect, that the ailment may last more days or fewer, 
but usually three. 


symptoms that conception takes place in women, 1 and 
women in whom the signs do not manifest themselves for 
the most part remain childless. But the rule is not without 
exception, 2 for some conceive in spite of the absence of 
these symptoms ; and these are cases in which a secretion 

15 accumulates, not in such a way as actually to issue forth, 3 
but in amount equal to the residuum left in the case of 
child-bearing women 4 after the normal discharge has taken 
place. And some conceive while the signs are on but not 
afterwards, those namely in whom the womb closes up 
immediately after the discharge. In some cases the menses 

30 persist during pregnancy up to the very last ; but the 
result in these cases is that the offspring are poor, and 
either fail to survive or grow up weakly. 

In many cases, owing to excessive desire, arising either 
from youthful impetuosity or from lengthened abstinence, 
prolapsion of the womb takes place and the catamenia 

25 appear repeatedly, thrice 5 in the month, until conception 
occurs; and then the womb withdraws upwards again to 
its proper place. . . . 6 

As we have remarked above, the discharge is wont to be 

1 Hippocr. de Oct. P. i. p. 458 K, vii. p. 458 L 7770-1 yap TrXfiarj/cri 
TQ)v yvvaiKuiv ava.yK.ai6v <TTIV fv yaorpi hap-jSavfiv p.era ra Kara^yia, f)v 
IT; fj \ixris. Galen, de Uter. diss. ii. 902 K eon 5e OVTOS 6 xpovos [oirorov 
17 yvvrj crvX^Tj^fcrdni fjx\\rj] dpxop.fv<i)v TO>V tirifujvi&v r/ Travop.fvwv. ' Bekannt 
ist der Rath, welchen auf Grund des Ausspruches von Hippocrates 
Fernel dem Gemahl der Catharina von Medici ertheilt haben soil ' : 
Venette, De la gen. de rhomme, p. 43. Auch Haller sagt, EL Phys. 
viii. p. 23 ' Res est verissima ; etiam mulierculis nota, quae ea periodo 
coire male metuunt, quoties non est e re earum concipere '. A. and W., 
"in G.A. i. 19. 2 G-.A. i. 19. 727* 18, ii. 4. 739* 13. 

3 Cf. A.'s doctrine of conception by commixture of the seminal 
fluid with the menstrual, G.A. ii. 4. Ibid. 739 a 13 oo-ais 8e yivcrat 
6vpa( TIS Trpoeais r) rcov yvvaiKoov f} TWV a\\u>v &>a>i', ^ la T f"7 fvinrap^fiv 
axpr)<rTov TrepiVrcofta TroXv cV rfj dnoKpiafi rfj rouwTfl, rotrovrov ecrri TO 
fyyiv6pxvovo(rov TO vnoXtiTrop-evov rot? 6vpae rrpoiep-fvois (pois } o crvvLorrjo'ii' 
fj ToC apptvos duvafJiis 17 fv ra) o-Trep/zart TOJ aTroKpivop.fV(f, KT\. 

J yovipois, A. and W., for yava^vais edd., yiyvofj.evais Med. 

5 rpis is omitted by Schneider, stigmatized by Piccolos: cf. G.A. 
iv. 5. 774 a 28. 

6 The meaning of the next sentence is unknown. Gaza tr. 'etsi 
caetera bene se habet uterus ' ; Guil. ' etsi aliquando accidat habens ' ; 
Seal. ' licet non habeat intus foetum '. *av fj-fj a-v^fj c^oucra, D a Aid. ; 
K.av crvn&fj, Bekk. ; KO.V rrore ev o-u/zjS^, Schn. ; Kav cu ffvpfifj, Cas. ; <av rdXXa 
pev ev T) vo-repa f \ovaa, Reg. (rec. man.}, Cam. ; Kav a-v^vr) e^., Pice. ; *av 

cj. A. and W. 

BOOK VII. 2 582' 

more abundant in women than in the females of any other 
animals. 1 In creatures that do not bring forth their young 30 
alive nothing of the sort manifests itself, this particular 
superfluity being converted into bodily substance ; and by 
the way, in such animals the females are sometimes larger 
than the males ; and moreover, the material is used up 
sometimes for scutes and sometimes for scales, and some- 
times for the abundant covering of feathers, whereas in the 
vivipara possessed of limbs it is turned into hair and into 
bodily substance (for man alone among them is smooth- 5 8 3 
skinned), and into urine, for this excretion is in the majority 
of such animals thick and copious. Only in the case of 
women is the superfluity turned into a discharge instead of 
being utilized in these other ways. 

There is something similar to be remarked of men : for 
in proportion to his size man emits more seminal fluid than 5 
any other animal 2 (for which reason man is the smoothest 
of animals), especially such men as are of a moist habit and 
not over corpulent, and fair men in greater degree than 
dark. It is likewise with women ; for in the stout, great 
part of the excretion goes to nourish the body. In the act 10 
of intercourse, women of a fair complexion discharge a 
more plentiful secretion than the dark; 3 and furthermore, 
a watery and pungent diet conduces to this phenomenon. 

3 It is a sign of conception in women when the place is 
dry immediately after intercourse. 4 If the lips of the 15 
orifice be smooth conception is difficult, for the matter slips 
off; and if they be thick it is also difficult. But if on 
digital examination -the lips feel somewhat rough and 
adherent, and if they be likewise thin, then the chances are 
in favour of conception. Accordingly, if conception be 
desired, we must bring the parts into such a condition as 20 
we have just described : but if on the contrary we want to 

1 H.A. iii. 19. 521% vi. 18. 5;2 b ; G.A. i. 20. 728 b . 

2 G.A. i. 19. 717% 20. 728 b , ii. 4. 738 b . 

9 G.A. i. 2O. 728* I earl yap ru>v v(TTepS>v fKKpioit, KOI rat? ptv yiyvfTcii, 
raif 8* oij. yiyvcrat p.ev rais \fVKoxpoois nai Qr]\vKais &>$ eVi TO TroXu ' 
ov ylverat 8e rats' p.(\aivais /cat dppfi/a>7rot?. 

4 Hippocr. de Morb. Mul., passim. 


avoid conception then we must bring about a contrary dis- 
position. Wherefore, since if the parts be smooth concep- 
tion is prevented, some anoint that part of the womb on 
which the seed falls with oil of cedar, or with ointment of 
lead or with frankincense, commingled with olive oil. 1 If 
the seed remain within for seven days then it is certain 
that conception has taken place; 2 for it is during that period 

2 5 that what is known as effluxion takes place. 

In most cases the menstrual discharge recurs for some 
time after conception has taken place, its duration being 
mostly thirty days in the case of a female and about forty 
days in the case of a male child. After parturition also it 
is common for the discharge to be withheld for an equal 

3 number of days, but not in all cases with equal exactitude. 
After conception, and when the above-mentioned days are 
past, the discharge no longer takes its natural course but 
finds its way to the breasts and turns to milk. The first 
appearance of milk in the breasts is scant in quantity and 
so to speak cobwebby or interspersed with little threads. 
And when conception has taken place, there is apt to be 
a sort of feeling in the region of the flanks, which in some 

b cases quickly swell up a little, especially in thin persons, 
and also in the groin. 

In the case of male children the first movement usually 
occurs on the right-hand side of the womb 3 and about the 
fortieth day, but if the child be a female then on the left- 

5 hand side and about the ninetieth day. However, we must 
by no means assume this to be an accurate statement of 
fact, for there are many exceptions, in which the movement 
is manifested on the right-hand side though a female child 
be coming, and on the left-hand side though the infant be 
a male. And in short, these and all suchlike phenomena 
are usually subject to differences that may be summed up 
as differences of degree. 

About this period the embryo begins to resolve into 

1 Cf. Hippocr. de Sterilit. Mul. iii. p. 38 K, viii. p. 456 L ; also 
Aetii Sermon. 13, dt. Schneider, iii. p. 535. 

Hippocr. de Sept. /'. vii. p. 446 L, i. p. 451 K. 
3 Hippocr. Aphor. v. 48 (iv. p. 550 L, iii. p. 745 K) ; Plin. vii. 3. 

BOOK VII. 3 583* 

distinct parts, it having hitherto consisted of a fleshlike 10 
substance without distinction of parts. 

What is called effluxion is a destruction of the embryo 
within the first week, while abortion occurs up to the 
fortieth day ; and the greater number of such embryos as 
perish do so within the space of these forty days. 1 

In the case of a male embryo aborted at the fortieth day, 
if it be placed in cold water it holds together in a sort of 
membrane, but if it be placed in any other fluid it dissolves 15 
and disappears. If the membrane be pulled to bits the 
embryo is revealed, as big as one of the large kind of ants ; 
and all the limbs are plain to see, including the penis, and 
the eyes also, which as in other animals are of great size. 
But the female embryo, if it suffer abortion during the first 20 
three months, is as a rule found to be undifferentiated ; if 
however it reach the fourth month it comes to be sub- 
divided and quickly attains further differentiation. In short, 
while within the womb, 2 the female infant accomplishes 
the whole development of its parts more slowly than the 
male, and more frequently than the man-child takes ten 25 
months to come to perfection. 3 But after birth, the females 
pass more quickly than the males through youth and 
maturity and age ; and this is especially true of those that 
bear many children, as indeed I have already said. 

4 When the womb has conceived the seed, straightway in 
the majority of cases it closes up until seven months are 30 
fulfilled ; but in the eight month it opens, and the embryo, 
if it be fertile, descends in the eighth month. 4 But such 
embryos as are not fertile but are devoid of breath at eight 
months old, their mothers do not bring into the world by 
parturition at eight months, 5 neither does the embryo 
descend within the womb at that period nor does the womb 
open. And it is a sign that the embryo is not capable of 584' 

1 Hippocr. de Sept. P. i. pp. 447-8 K, vii. p. 442 L. 

2 Reading with A. and W. eVro> for recoy. 

1 Plin. vii. 3. [ Censorin. 7. 

5 Note Piccolos' emendation, dXX 1 aTioTT^irviy^vn oKTdp.r)va eV 

ov fK(f)epovcrti> uKTUfj.rjvai nl 


life if it be formed without the above-named circumstances 
taking place. 

After conception women are prone to a feeling of heavi- 
ness in all parts of their bodies, 1 and for instance they 
experience a sensation of darkness in front of the eyes and 
suffer also from headache. These symptoms appear sooner 
5 or later, sometimes as early as the tenth day, according as 
the patient be more or less burthened with superfluous 
humours. Nausea also and sickness affect the most of 
women, and especially such as those that we have just now 
mentioned, after the menstrual discharge has ceased and 
before it is yet turned in the direction of the breasts. 

Moreover, some women suffer most at the beginning of 
10 their pregnancy and some at a later period when the 
embryo has had time to grow ; and in some women it is 
a common occurrence to suffer from strangury towards the 
end of their time. As a general rule women who are preg- 
nant of a male child escape comparatively easily and retain 
a comparatively healthy look, 2 but it is otherwise with those 
whose infant is a female ; for these latter look as a rule 
i 5 paler and suffer more pain, and in many cases they are 
subject to swellings of the legs and eruptions on the body. 
Nevertheless the rule is subject to exceptions. 

Women in pregnancy are a prey to all sorts of longings 

and to rapid changes of mood, and some folks call this 

the * ivy- sickness ' ; 3 and with the mothers of female 

20 infants the longings are more acute, and they are less 

contented when they have got what they desired. 

In a certain few cases the patient feels unusually well 
during pregnancy. The worst time of all is just when the 
child's hair is beginning to grow. 

In pregnant women their own natural hair is inclined to 

grow thin and fall out, but on the other hand hair tends 

35 to grow on parts of the body where it was not wont to be. 

As a general rule, a man-child is more prone to movement 

1 Plin. vii. 5. 

2 Plin. ibid. ; Hippocr. Aphor. v. 42 (iii. p. 774 K, iv. p. 546 L). 
8 ' Moschopulos quoniam edera (ctrra) au/zTrAeVfrm del rois 

in mulieribus TO KITTCLV esse putavit inconsiderate TO 
,' Dalec. in Plin. /. c. 

BOOK VII. 4 584 

within its mother's womb than a female child, and it is 
usually born sooner. And labour in the case of female 
children is apt to be protracted and sluggish, while in the 
case of male children it is acute and by a long way more 
difficult. Women who have connexion with their husbands 30 
shortly before childbirth are delivered all the more quickly. 1 
Occasionally women seem to be in the pains of labour 
though labour has not in fact commenced, what seemed like 
the commencement of labour being really the result of the 
foetus turning its head. 

Now all other animals bring the time of pregnancy to an 
end in a uniform way ; in other words, one single term of 
pregnancy is defined for each of them. 2 But in the case of 35 
mankind alone of all animals the times are diverse ; for 
pregnancy may be of seven months' duration, or of eight 
months or of nine, and still more commonly of ten [lunar] 
months, 3 while some few women go even into the eleventh 
month. 4 

Children that come into the world before seven months 
can under no circumstances survive. 5 The seven-months' 
children are the earliest that are capable of life, and most 
of them are weakly for which reason, by the way, it is 
customary to swaddle them in wool, and many of them 
are born with some of the orifices of the body imperforate, 5 
for instance the ears or the nostrils. 6 But as they get bigger 
they become more perfectly developed, and many of them 
grow up. 

Tn Egypt, and in some other places where the women are 
fruitful and are wont to bear and bring forth many children 

L Apollon. Hist.fictit. ras eyicvovs TWV yvi'aiKwv crvvf^f n\r)(Ttaovcras 
rots avbpaaiv ei/KOTTOJS KCU aKa.K.ona6r)Tu>s TIKTIV. 

2 G. A. iv. 3. 772 b ; Plin. vii. 4. 

3 Sapient, vii. i, 2 'In ventre matris figuratus sum caro, decem 
mensium tempore'; Verg. Eel. iv. 61. 

4 Aul. Cell. iii. 16 ' Quamvis Decemviri in legibus duodecim tabu- 
larum, in decem mensibus gigni hominem non in undecimo scrip- 
sissent, Divum Hadrianum decrevisse in undecimo quoque mense 
partum edi posse'; Varro, ibi <;//., ' Ouod si quis undecimo mense, 
KUT' 'ApicTTOTtA^, natus sit etc.' 

5 Hippocr. de Curnc, i. p. 442 L, viii. p. 612 L OKTO^VOV de yf^o^vov 
ovftfv #101 TTcoTrore. Cf. de Sept. P. i. p. 447 K, vii. p. 442 L; de Oct. P. 
i. p. 455 K, vii. p. 452 L; Galen. H. Phil. xix. 332 K; Rose, Arist. 
fr. p. 219. 6 G.A. iv. 6. 774 b . 

AR. H.A. 



without difficulty, and where the children when born are 
capable of living l even if they be born subject to deformity, 

10 in these places the eight-months' children live and are 
brought up, but in Greece it is only a few of them that 
survive while most perish. 2 And this being the general 
experience, when such a child does happen to survive the 
mother is apt to think that it was not an eight-months' 
child after all, but that she had conceived at an earlier 
period without being aware of it. 

15 Women suffer most pain about the fourth and the eighth 
months, and if the foetus perishes in the fourth or in the 
eighth month the mother also succumbs as a general rule ; 
so that not only do the eight-months' children not live, but 
when they die their mothers are in great danger of their 
own lives. In like manner children that are apparently 

20 born at a later term than eleven months 3 are held to be in 
doubtful case ; inasmuch as with them also the beginning 
of conception may have escaped the notice of the mother. 
What I mean to say is that often the womb gets filled 
with wind, and then when at a later period connexion and 
conception take place, they think that the former circum- 
stance was the beginning of conception from the similarity 

25 of the symptoms that they experienced. 4 

Such then are the differences between mankind and 
other animals in regard to the many various modes 5 of 
completion of the term of pregnancy. 6 Furthermore, some 
animals produce one and some produce many at a birth, 
but the human species does sometimes the one and some- 
times the other. As a general rule and among most 

30 nations the women bear one child at a birth ; but frequently 
and in many lands they bear twins, as for instance in Egypt 
especially. 7 Sometimes women bring forth three and even 

1 Omit Dittmeyer's rd and ovv. 

2 According to the mediaeval astrologers the eighth month was 
under the rule of Saturn, and for this reason dangerous. 

3 dew p.r)vS)v A. and W., after Scotus, Alb. M., and D. 

* Hipp, de Nat. Puer. i. p. 417 K, vii. p. 532 L dXX' oo-a 87 
8e*a ^.r]vu)v e^etv, fjdr] yap TroXXaKt? fJKQV(ra, Kflvat 
' KT\. 

cj. for TuKtov. Pice, inserts \"P IV 

7 Antig. H.M. 119; Phlegon 28 ; Gellius x. 2; Plm.-vii. 3; Colum. 
. R. iii. 8 ; Seneca, Q. N. xiii. 25. 

BOOK VII. 4 584" 

four children, and especially in certain parts of the world, 
as has already been stated. The largest number ever 
brought forth is five, and ?uch an occurrence has been 
witnessed on several occasions. There was once upon 
a time a certain woman who had twenty children at 35 
four births; each time she had five, and most of them 
grew up. 

Now among other animals, if a pair of twins happen to be 
male and female they have as good a chance of surviving 
as though both had been males or both females; 1 but 
among mankind very few twins survive if one happen to be 585* 
a boy and the other a girl. 

Of all animals the woman and the mare are most 
inclined to receive the commerce of the male during preg- 
nancy; while all other animals when they are pregnant 
avoid the male, save those in which the phenomenon of 
superfoetation occurs, such as the hare. 2 Unlike that 5 
animal, the mare after once conceiving cannot be rendered 
pregnant again, but brings forth one foal only, at least as 
a general rule ; in the human species cases of superfoetation 
are rare, but they do happen now and then. 

An embryo conceived some considerable time after a pre- 
vious conception does not come to perfection, but gives 
rise to pain and causes the destruction of the earlier 
embryo ; and, by the way, a case has been known to occur 10 
where owing to this destructive influence no less than 
twelve embryos conceived by superfoetation have been 
discharged. 3 But if the second conception take place at 
a short interval, then the mother bears that which was 
later conceived, and brings forth the two children like 
actual twins, as happened, according to the legend, in the 
case of Iphicles and Hercules. 4 The following also is 
a striking example : a certain woman, having committed 15 

1 Cf. John Hunter on Free Martins, Phil. Tr. vol. Ixix, p. 274. 

2 H.A. vi. 33. 579 b 32; G.A. iv. 5. 773 a 3 2 - 

3 A case of ' vesicular degeneration of the chorion ', in which disease 
little bladders escape that may be mistaken for ova. 

* Of whom the one was the son of Amphitryon and the other of 
Jupiter. Cf. Plin. vii. 9. 

X 2 


adultery, brought forth the one child resembling her husband 
and the other resembling the adulterous lover. 

The case has also occurred where a woman, being 
pregnant of twins, has subsequently conceived a third 
child ; and in course of time she brought forth the twins 
perfect and at full term, but the third a five-months' child ; 
and this last died there and then. And in another case it 
happened that the woman was first delivered of a seven- 
20 months' child, and then of two which were of full term ; 
and of these the first died and the other two survived. 

Some also have been known to conceive while about to 
miscarry, and they have lost the one child and been 
delivered of the other. 

If women while going with child cohabit after the eighth 
month the child is in most cases born covered over with 
35 a slimy fluid. Often also the child is found to be replete 
with food of which the mother had partaken. 

When women have partaken of salt in over-abundance 
their children are apt to be born destitute of nails. 1 

Milk that is produced earlier than the seventh month 5 
30 is unfit for use ; * but as soon as the child is fit to live 
the milk is fit to use. The first of the milk is saltish, 
as it is likewise with sheep. Most women are sensibly 
affected by wine during pregnancy ; for if they partake of 
it they grow relaxed and debilitated. 

The beginning of child-bearing in women and of the 
capacity to procreate in men, and the cessation of these 
35 functions in both cases, coincide in the one case with the 
emission of seed and in the other with the discharge of 
the catamenia : with this qualification that there is a lack 
of fertility at the commencement of these symptoms, and 
again towards their close when the emissions become scanty 
585** and weak. The age at which the sexual powers begin 
has been related already." As for their end, the menstrual 
discharge ceases in most women about their fortieth year ; 
but with those in whom it goes on longer it lasts even to 

1 Antig. Mirab. 119; Plin. vii. 6. 

8 G. A. iv. 8. 776* 23 ; Plin. xi. 5, 96 3 H.A. v i. 

BOOK VII. 5 585' 

the fiftieth year, and women of that age have been known 
to bear children. But beyond that age there is no case 5 
on record. 

6 Men in most cases continue to be sexually competent 
until they are sixty years old, and if that limit be over- 
passed then until seventy years ; and men have been 
actually known to procreate children at seventy years of 
age. With many men and many women it so happens 
that they are unable to produce children to one another, I Q 
while they are able to do so in union with other indi- 
viduals. 1 The same thing happens with regard to the produc- 
tion of male and female offspring ; for sometimes men and 
women in union with one another produce male children 
or female, as the case may be, but children of the opposite 
sex when otherwise mated. And they are apt to change 
in this respect with advancing age : for sometimes a hus- 
band and wife while they are young produce female 
children and in later life male children ; and in other cases 15 
the very contrary occurs. And just the same thing is 
true in regard to the generative faculty : for some while 
young are childless, but have children when they grow 
older ; and some have children to begin with, and later on 
no more. 

There are certain women who conceive with difficulty, 
but if they do conceive, bring the child to maturity ; 20 
while others again conceive readily, but are unable to 
bring the child to birth. Furthermore, some men and 
some women produce female offspring and some male, as 
for instance in the story of Hercules, who among all his 
two and seventy children is said to have begotten but one 
girl. 2 Those women who are unable to conceive, save with 
the help of medical treatment or some other adventitious 25 
circumstance, are as a general rule apt to bear female 
children rather than male. 

It is a common thing with men to be at first sexually 

1 G.A. iv. 2. 767*23. 

2 Macaria : Pausan. i. 326. Cf. Eurip. Heracl. 501; Schol. ad Ar. 
Lys. 1141. 


competent and afterwards impotent, and then again to 
revert to their former powers. 

From deformed parents come deformed children, lame 

30 from lame and blind from blind, 1 and, speaking generally, 
children often inherit anything that is peculiar in their 
parents and are born with similar marks, such as pimples 
or scars. Such things have been known to be handed 
down through three generations ; 2 for instance, a certain 
man had a mark on his arm which his son did not possess, 
but his grandson had it in the same spot though not very 
distinct. 3 

35 Such cases, however, are few ; for the children of cripples 
are mostly sound, and there is no hard and fast rule regarding 
them. While children mostly resemble their parents or 
586 a their ancestors, it sometimes happens that no such resem- 
blance is to be traced. But parents may pass on resem- 
blance after several generations, as in the case of the 
woman in Elis, 4 who committed adultery with a negro ; in 
this case it was not the woman's own daughter but the 
daughter's child that was a blackamoor. 

As a rule the daughters have a tendency to take after 

5 the mother, and the boys after the father ; but sometimes 

it is the other way, the boys taking after the mother and 

the girls after the father. And they may resemble both 

parents in particular features. 5 

There have been known cases of twins that had no 
resemblance to one another, but they are alike as a general 
rule. There was once upon a time a woman who had 

i intercourse with her husband a week after giving birth to 
a child, and she conceived and bore a second child as like 
the first as any twin. Some women have a tendency to 
produce children that take after themselves, and others 
children that take after the husband ; c and this latter case 

1 G. A. i. 17. 72I b I/, 18. 724 a 3 CK KoAo/3o>J> . . . K0\o/3a. 

2 G.A. i, 18. 722*8. 

' Reading with A. and W. JUVTOI for /ue'Xav, after G. A. i. 17. 72 i b 33 
(Trt&rjfJiTjvev TO) Tfnvto (TvyK.xv^t>ov p.i>TOi not ov dir)pdp<i>>ov TO ypdfifJLa. 

4 Antig. Mirab. 122; G.A. i. 18. 722*9. 

5 For a\\a fieprj cuarfpew Piccolos reads n\X' erf pa fifprj cuarfptp. 

6 Arist. Polit. ii. 3. 1262* 21. 

BOOK VII. 6 586 a 

is like that of the celebrated mare in Pharsalus, that got 
the name of the Honest Wife. 

7 In the emission of sperm there is a preliminary discharge 15 
of air, 1 and the outflow is manifestly caused by a blast of 
air ; for nothing is cast to a distance save by pneumatic 
pressure. After the seed reaches the womb and remains 
there for a while, a membrane forms around it ; for when it 
happens to escape before it is distinctly formed, it looks 
like an egg enveloped in its membrane after removal of the 20 
eggshell ; and the membrane is full of veins. 

All animals whatsoever, whether they fly or swim or 
walk upon dry land, whether they bring forth their young 
alive or in the egg, develop in the same way : save only 
that some have the navel attached to the womb, namely the 
viviparous animals, and some have it attached to the egg, and 
some to both parts alike, as in a certain sort of fishes. And 
in some cases membranous envelopes surround the egg, and 2 5 
in other cases the chorion surrounds it. And first of all the 
animal develops within the innermost envelope, and then 
another membrane appears around the former one, which 
latter is for the most part attached to the womb, but is in 
part separated from it and contains fluid. In between is 
a watery or sanguineous fluid, which the women folk call 
the forewaters. 2 30 

8 All animals, or all such as have a navel, grow by the navel. 3 
And the navel is attached to the cotyledon in all such as 
possess cotyledons, and to the womb itself by a vein in all 
such as have the womb smooth. 4 And as regards their 
shape within the womb, the four-footed animals all lie 
stretched out, and the footless animals lie on their sides, as 

for instance fishes ; but two-legged animals lie in a bent 586 b 
position, as for instance birds ; 5 and human embryos lie 
bent, with nose between the knees and eyes upon the 
knees, and the ears free at the sides. 

1 Probl. xxx. I. 953 b 33. 

2 This account is manifestly much inferior to that in Bk. vi. 3 and 10. 
Cf. also G.A. iii. 9; Hippocr. de Nat. Puer. i. pp. 386-7, 415-16 K, 
vii. pp. 490, 531 L. 

1 G. A. ii. 7. 745 b 22. ' H. A. iii. I. 5ii a 30. 

5 H. A. vi. 3. 56i b 3o; Plin. x. 84. 


All animals alike have the head upwards to begin with ; 
but as they grow and approach the term of egress from the 
5 womb they turn downwards, and birth in the natural course 
of things takes place in all animals head foremost; 1 but in 
abnormal cases it may take place in a bent position, or feet 

The young of quadrupeds when they are near their full 
time contain excrements, both liquid and in the form of 
solid lumps, the latter in the lower part of the bowel and 

10 the urine in the bladder. 

In those animals that have cotyledons in the womb the 
cotyledons grow less as the embryo grows bigger, 2 and at 
length they disappear altogether. The navel-string is 
a sheath wrapped about blood-vessels which have their 
origin in the womb, from the cotyledons in those animals 
which possess them and from a blood-vessel in those which 

15 do not. In the larger animals, such as the embryos of 
oxen, the vessels are four in number, and in smaller 
animals two ; in the very little ones, such as fowls, one 
vessel only. 3 

Of the four vessels that run into the embryo, two pass 
through the liver where the so-called gates or 'portae' 4 
are, running in the direction of the great vein, and the 

20 other two run in the direction of the aorta towards the 
point where it divides and becomes two vessels instead of 
one. Around each pair of blood-vessels are membranes, 
and surrounding these membranes is the navel-string itself, 
after the manner of a sheath. 5 And as the embryo grows, 
the veins themselves tend more and more to dwindle in 
size. And also as the embryo matures it comes down into 

25 the hollow of the womb and is observed to move here, and 
sometimes rolls over in the vicinity of the groin. 

When women are in labour, their pains determine to- 9 
wards many divers- parts of the body, and in most cases 

G.A. iv. 9. 777 a j28; Plin. x. 113. 
2 Contra, Harvey, de Gen. p. 397. 
1 See the much better account in H. A. vi 3. 

4 Cf. Plato, Tim. p. 390; Hippocr. de Morb. Vulg. iii. p. 456 K, 
v. p. 123 L ; de Anat. viii. p. 538 L. 
G. A. ii. 4. 74o a 31, 7. 745* 26. 

ROOK VII. 9 586' 

to one or other of the thighs. Those are the quickest to 
be delivered who experience severe pains in the region of 30 
the belly ; and parturition is difficult in those who begin 
by suffering pain in the loins, and speedy when the pain 
is abdominal. If the child about to be born be a male, 
the preliminary flood is watery and pale in colour, but 
if a girl it is tinged with blood, though still watery. In 
some cases of labour these latter phenomena do not occur, 
either one way or the other. 

In other animals parturition is unaccompanied by pain, 
and the dam is plainly seen to suffer but moderate incon- 587* 
venience. In women, however, the pains are more severe, 
and this is especially the case in persons of sedentary habits, 
and in those who are weak-chested and short of breath. 
Labour is apt to be especially difficult if during the process 
the woman while exerting force with her breath fails to hold 
it in. 1 5 

First of all, when the embryo starts to move 2 and the 
membranes burst, there issues forth the watery flood ; 3 
then afterwards comes the embryo, while the womb everts 
and the afterbirth comes out from within. 

lo The cutting of the navel-string, which is the nurse's duty, 
is a matter calling for no little care and skill. For not only 
in cases of difficult labour must she be able to render assist- 10 
ance with skilful hand, but she must also have her wits 
about her in all contingencies, and especially in the opera- 
tion of tying the cord. For if the afterbirth have come 
away, the navel is ligatured off from the afterbirth with a 
woollen thread and is then cut above the ligature ; and at 
the place where it has been tied it heals up, and the remain- 15 
ing portion drops off. (If the ligature come loose the child 
dies from loss of blood.) 4 But if the afterbirth has not yet 
come away, but remains after the child itself is extruded, it 
is cut away within 5 after the ligaturing of the cord.'' 

1 Plin. vii. 5. 2 Ktvuvpevov, Pice., for yivopevov, codd. et edd. 

3 v8p<a^f is identical with npo^opos and Ix^pfs. 

1 fav 8 Xu$^, irp\v T) TrrjyvvrjTai TO afyza, drrodv^aKei, Schn. vers. Guil. 
6 Reading with Dittm.eo> ovros auroO rovTraiSiov, e0"&> drroTfp.vT(ii . . . 
A. and W. read OVK evdvs 7rore/ij/rai. 
6 A. and W. reject the traditional reading on the ground that it 


It often happens that the child appears to have been 
born dead when it is merely weak, and when, before the 
20 umbilical cord has been ligatured, the blood has run out into 
the cord and its surroundings. But experienced midwives 
have been known to squeeze back the blood into the child's 
body from the cord, and immediately the child that a 
moment before was bloodless came back to life again. 

It is the natural rule, as we have mentioned above, for 

2 5 all animals to come into the world head foremost, and 

children, moreover, have their hands stretched out by their 

sides. And the child gives a cry and puts its hands up to its 

mouth as soon as it issues forth. 

Moreover the child voids excrement sometimes at once, 
sometimes a little later, but in all cases during the first day ; 
and this excrement is unduly copious in comparison with 
30 the size of the child ; it is what the midwives call the 
meconium or 'poppy-juice'. In colour it resembles blood, 
extremely dark and pitch-like, but later on it becomes 
milky, for the child takes at once to the breast. Before 
birth the child makes no sound, even though in difficult 
labour it put forth its head while the rest of the body 
remains within. 

b In cases where flooding takes place rather before its 
time, it is apt to be followed by difficult parturition. But if 
discharge take place after birth in small quantity, and in 
cases where it only takes place at the beginning and does 
not continue till the fortieth day, then in such cases 
women make a better recovery and are the sooner ready 
5 to conceive again. 

Until the child is forty days old it neither laughs nor 
weeps during waking hours, but of nights it sometimes does 
both ; l and for the most part it does not even notice being 

prescribes identical treatment whether the placenta come away or not. 
4 Bei zuriickbleibender Placenta furchtete man (wiewol grundlos) eine 
Blutung der Mutter, und schnitt daher die Nabelschnur erst einige 
Zeit nach dem Austritte des Kindes.' They accordingly reconstruct 

the text : eav dt avvf^f\6r] TO vorfpov eo> ovros avrov TOII naidiov, OVK 
fvBfdts aTTOTffii'frai anodfOfi/ros TOV 6fji<pa\ov. 

1 Hippocr: de Sept. P. i. p. 454 K, vii. p. 450 L ei> re yap TOIS 

vnvouTi foixnv tvOfvs CTTTJV ytvaivrai, ycX&vra (paiixrat ra natdia Kal 
K\aiovra, cyprjyopora TC aiirop-ara fidews y\d T KOI K\aift rrpovdev r) 

BOOK VII. 10 58? 1 

tickled, but passes most of its time in sleep. As it keeps 
on growing it gets more and more wakeful ; and moreover 
it shows signs of dreaming, though it is long afterwards 10 
before it remembers what it dreams. 

In other animals there is no contrasting difference 
between one bone and another, but all are properly 
formed ; but in children the front part of the head l is soft 
and late of ossifying. And by the way, some animals are 
born with teeth, but children begin to cut their teeth in the 
seventh month ; 2 and the front teeth are the first to come 15 
through, sometimes the upper and sometimes the lower 
ones. And the warmer the nurses' milk so much the quicker 
are the children's teeth to come. 

II After parturition and the cleansing flood the milk comes 
in plenty, and in some women it flows not only from the 20 
nipples but at divers parts of the breasts, and in some cases 
even from the armpits. And for some time afterwards there 
continue to be certain indurated parts of the breast called 
strangalides, or ' knots ', which occur when it so happens 
that the moisture is not concocted, 3 or when it finds no outlet 
but accumulates within. 4 For the whole breast is so spongy 
that if a woman in drinking happen to swallow a hair, she 25 
gets a pain in her breast, which ailment is called ' trichia ' ; 5 
and the pain lasts till the hair either find its own way out 
or be sucked out with the milk. 6 Women continue to have 
milk until their next conception ; and then the milk stops 
coming and goes dry, alike in the human species and in the 

f)p.fpm ytvoiaro. Cf. Censor, xi ; G.A. v. i. 779* n; 
Antig. 123. 

1 Or anterior fontanelle, which A. describes as a distinct bone 
H. A. i. 7. 491* 31 ; G.A. ii. 6. 744* 24, v. 8. 788 b . 

2 G.A. ii. 6. 745 b io; Plin. vii. 15, xi. 63; Hippocr. de S. P. i. 
p. 452 K, vii. p. 448 L ; Macrob. de S. Sc. i ; Auson. in Monosyll. 
* Indicat in pueris septennia priraa novus dens '. 

3 eKntpfpOr] A. and W., (KrretpOrj cet. 
1 Pice. (TxXTjpaiOfjj 7r\r]p(i)6f} cet. 

6 Hippocr. Muliebr. ii. p. 852 K oKorav 6 /iao? rprjxvs ytV^rat, 'ubi 
Foes ex Erot. Gloss. rpt^idor^Tat scribi maluit. Similiter renum vitium 
Tpixiao-iv interpretatur Galenus cum per urinam velut capilli albi 
excernuntur' (Schn.). Littrd (viii. p. 366) reads 
fiera TOV -ydXaKToy ^ CK^Xaa-%, Schn. 


30 quadrupedal vivipara. So long as there is a flow of milk 
the menstrual purgations do not take place, at least as a 
general rule, though the discharge has been known to occur 
during the period of suckling. For, speaking generally, a 
determination of moisture does not take place at one and 
the same time in several directions ; as for instance the 
menstrual purgations tend to be scanty in persons suffering 
from haemorrhoids. 1 And in some women the like happens 
owing to their suffering from varices, 2 when the fluids issue 
from the pelvic region before entering into the womb. And 
588 a patients who during suppression of the menses happen to 
vomit blood are no whit the worse. 3 

Children are very commonly subject to convulsions, 4 more 12 
especially such of them as are more than ordinarily well- 
nourished on rich or unusually plentiful milk from a stout 
5 nurse. Wine is bad for infants, in that it tends to excite 
this malady, and red wine is worse than white, especially 
when taken undiluted ; 5 and most things that tend to induce 
flatulency 6 are also bad, and constipation too is prejudicial. 
The majority of deaths in infancy occur before the child is 
a week old, hence it is customary to name the child at that 
age, 7 from a belief that it has now a better chance of 
10 survival. This malady is worst at the full of the moon ; 8 
and by the way, it is a dangerous symptom when the 
spasms begin in the child's back. 9 

1 H. A. iii. 19. $2i a 29 ; G. A. i. 19. 727* 12. 

2 Reading with Pice, dia TO urx (lv '!'? ^ l " r ^ v iv\i-<*>v codd., Bk. ; 
iiW Scalig., Schn. Cf. ProbL iv. 20. 878'' 35 SKI ri at liai TOVS t^oi/Tar 
KooXuovoH ytvvav. 

3 Guil. tr. OI/JLO au/iTrecn/, ffj.coa<rai ovd(i> /3Xu7rroiTai : cf. Hippocr. 
Aph. v. 32 (iii. p. 743 K, iv. p. 542 L) ywatKi alfia e'fieouori/, TO>I> Kara^rjvioiv 
payfVTttV, \vais (yii'(Tai). 

4 On infantile convulsions see Hippocr. .passim, e.g. ii. p. 187, 
v. p. 607, vi. p. 83 L, c. 

' Cf. de Somn. et Vig, 3. 457 a 14. 

c A troublesome word, perhaps implying lentils, peas, or such-like 
vegetables that grow in pods : cf. H. A. iii. 21. $22 b 33, viii. 7. 595^ 6. 

7 Suid. s. "j. SfKaTfvdv ; Harpocrat. s.w. ap<pi8popia, ejSSo/nevo/ici/ou. 
Lat. dies lustricuss. nominalis ; cf. Festus ap. P. Diac. p. 120 ; Macrob. 
Saturn, i. 16 ; Suet. Nero 6. 

8 Plin. vii. 5. 

9 A symptom of ^tetanus neonatorum\ a specific ailment arising by 
infection through an ill-dressed cord. 


I WE have now discussed the physical characteristics of 588' 
animals and their methods of generation. Their habits 
and their modes of living vary according to their character 
and their food. 

1 In the great majority of animals there are traces of 
psychical qualities or attitudes,- which qualities are 
more markedly differentiated in the case of human beings, ao 
For just as we pointed out resemblances in the physical 
organs, 3 so in a number of animals we observe gentleness or 
fierceness, mildness or cross temper, courage or timidity, fear 
or confidence, high spirit or low cunning, and, with regard 
to intelligence, something equivalent to sagacity. Some of 

1 Here A. deals with o-tW^cia, the ' principle of continuity ', funda- 
mental in Biology and Psychology. Various analyses of the soul are 
dialectically possible (cf. Eth. Nic. 1 . 13. i io2 a 28, &c.), but the scientific 
account is found in the de Anima. There we arrive at a tripartite 
division (cf. de An. ii. 3. 4i4 a 12) into fyeTrriKoi/, aiV^nKdr, 8iai>or)Ttn6v t 
in accord with the ascending series of plant (de An. ii. 3. 4i4 a 33; 
G. A. ii. 4. 741* i), animal (de An. ii. 2. 4i3 b I ; G. A. ii. 4. 74i a 2, 3. 
736* 30 ; P. A. iv. 5. 678 b 2 ; de V. et M. 4. 469* 4), and man (de An. 
4i4 b 1 8). These p.6pm rrjs ^v^/jr are not locally separate, nor mutually 
exclusive : 17 yap (puais ptTafinivct o-vvexvs OTTO ru>v d^i'^cof els TCI feoa, diet 
TU>V a>vTatv p.f>> OVK. otTcoj> 5e C^'a)!/, OVTCOS mtrrf SoKt'tv ndp-nav yuKpov 8ia- 
(pepfiv SaTfpov BdTfpov TOJ crvveyyvs dXXi^Xoiy (P. A. iv. 5. 68l a 12); and 
each lower grade of ^i^i? i s implicitly included within the higher, o>? 
cv rerpn-ycoi/o) rpiyavov (de An. ii. 3. 4l4 b 31). Thus, TO dpf-rrrtKOv is 
p npuTT) ^-vxn (de An.\\. 4. 4i6 b 18 ; -deResp.%. 474 a 31), the inseparable 
concomitant of life itself (de An. iii. 12. 434*22); and, while the 
higher of the three physical stages retain the psychological qualities 
of the lower, so also do the lower exhibit adumbrations of the psychical 
qualities of the higher. The KII^O-CIS of animals are normally deter- 
mined by eiriffvfjiia or dup.6s ; but we have sometimes in animals traces 
of npoaipfTiKai eti?, the forerunners of that -rrpoaipfo-is, or fiovXtvTiKr] 
opf|if, which appears in man as the efficient cause of goodness or 
badness (Eth. Nic. iii. 5. 1113*10). Again, TO Sini/orjTiKoi* in a fully 
developed form is characteristic of man alone, but the actions of 
animals seem to exhibit it in a rudimentary form, just as even animals 
that are dreXf; must be supposed to have <pavTa<ria, however imperfectly 
developed (de An. iii. n. 433 b 31) 

'-' ^v\ns Tporroi, a Platonic phrase, Rep. iv. 445 C, c., equivalent, or 
nearly so, to efts. 

3 eVi TUV p.epwv : Gaza, ' quemadmodum, cum de Partibus docerem, 
exposui' ; Scotus and Alb. M. read eVi T&V /xeXio-acoi/ ; A. and W. are 
inclined to transfer the clause to the following sentence, naQdnep yup 
tVt TOO*/ KT\. Dittm. refers to //. A. i. i. 488 b 12. 


25 these qualities in man, as compared with the corresponding 
qualities in animals, differ only quantitatively : that is to 
say, a man has more or less of this quality, and an animal 
has more or less of some other ; other qualities in man 
are represented by analogous and not identical qualities: 
for instance, just as in man we find knowledge, wisdom, 

30 and sagacity, 1 so in certain animals there exists some 
other natural potentiality akin to these. 2 The truth of 
this statement will be the more clearly apprehended if we 
have regard to the phenomena of childhood : for in children 
may be observed the traces and seeds of what will one day 
588 b be settled psychological habits, though psychologically a 
child hardly differs for the time being from an animal ; so 
that one is quite justified in saying that, as regards man 
and animals, certain psychical qualities are identical with 
one another, whilst others resemble, and others are analogous 
to, each other. 

* . 

Nature proceeds little by little from things lifeless to 
5 animal life in such a way that it is impossible to determine 
the exact line of demarcation, nor on which side thereof an 
intermediate form should lie. 3 Thus, next after lifeless 
things in the upward scale comes the plant, and of plants 
one will differ from another as to its amount of apparent 
vitality ; and, in a word, the whole genus of plants, whilst 
it is devoid of life as compared with an animal, is endowed 
10 with life as compared with other corporeal entities. 4 
Indeed, as we just remarked, there is observed in plants 
a continuous scale of ascent towards the animal. 5 So, in 
the sea, there are certain objects concerning which one 
would be at a loss to determine whether they be animal 
or vegetable. 6 For instance, certain of these objects are 

KCL\ (70(^1(1 KQl (TVVfffLS. Cf. Etk. NtC. \. IJ. 1103* 5, 

<ro<f>ia, o-vveois, and (ppovrjo-is are grouped as dpfral Stavoffmuu. Te'^i^ is 
strictly a Swapis, cf. Met. viii. 2. io46 b 3, &c., and the latter word carries 
with it a notion of development or of capacity to develop, dpxnl yap 
fjLCTapXrjTiKai fiffiv eV aXXo> r? 17 aXXo ; cf. de Caelo, iii. 2. 3Oi b 17. On the 
dwdfjifts cf. de An. ii. 3. 414* 29. 

2 Cf. H.A. i. i. 488 b II. 3 Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 68i a 12. 

4 Plat. Phaedr. 245 E ; Arist. de An. i. 2. 4O3 b 25, ii. 2. 4i3 a 25 ; cf. 
Meteor, iv. 12. 390*, &c. 

5 Cf. de An. ii. 3. 4I4 b 33 wore Kaff CKCHTTOV fqtTjre'oi/, m e/cdorou 
olov ris (frvTov KO.I m dvdpvrrov f) drjpiov. 6 H. A. iv. 6. S3 1 9> 

BOOK VIII. I 5*8 b 

fairly rooted, 1 and in several cases perish if detached ; 
thus the pinna 2 is rooted to a particular spot, and the 15 
solen (or razor-shell) cannot survive withdrawal from its 
burrow. 3 Indeed, broadly speaking, the entire genus of 
testaceans have a resemblance to vegetables, if they be 
contrasted with such animals as are capable of progression. 

In regard to sensibility, some animals give no indication 
whatsoever of it, whilst others indicate it but indistinctly. 
Further, the substance of some of these intermediate 
creatures is fleshlike, as is the case with the so-called 
tethya (or ascidians) and the acalephae (or sea-anemones) ; 20 
but the sponge is in every respect like a vegetable. And 
so throughout the entire animal scale there is a graduated 
differentiation in amount of vitality and in capacity for 

A similar statement holds good with regard to habits of 
life. Thus of plants that spring from seed the one function 
seems to be the reproduction of their own particular species, 25 
and the sphere of action with certain animals is similarly 
limited. The faculty of reproduction, then, is common to 
all alike. 4 If sensibility be superadded, 5 then their lives 
will differ from one another in respect to sexual inter- 
course through the varying amount of pleasure derived 
therefrom, and also in regard to modes of parturition and 30 
ways of rearing their young. Some animals, like plants, 
simply procreate their own species at definite seasons ; 
other animals busy themselves also in procuring food for 
their young, and after they are reared quit them and have 
no further dealings with them ; other animals are more in- 589* 
telligent and endowed with memory, and they live with their 
offspring for a longer period and on a more social footing. 

1 H.A.'i. I. 4&7 b 8, v. 16. 548 b 5, &c. 

2 H. A. iv. 4. 528* 33, whence Sylb. TrpoffTrfQvKcurtv, for ireQvKaviv 
codd. Gaza, adhaerent. 

' Note that it is by an iron rod or spike that the solen is withdrawn ; 
cf. iv. 8. 53 5 a 15. 

4 H. A. v. i. 539 a 15 ; Phys. i. 7. I9o b I, &c. 

6 Reading npoa-oixr^s with Bekker ; Dittm. jrpoiovorjs. Cf. dfc luv. et 
Sen. 6. 467 b 23 ra yap <pvra (fj /xe'f, owe *\fi <5' aladtjmv, TO> ' ai<r0dve(T0ai 
TO (vov TTpos TO M a>o> diopitoptv: also de An. ii. 3. 415* 2. Hence 
Linnaeus, ' vegetabilia crescunt et vivunt,' &c. 


The life of animals, then, may be divided into two acts 
procreation and feeding ; for on these two acts all their 
5 interests and life concentrate. Their food depends chiefly 
on the substance of which they are severally constituted ; 
for the source of their growth in all cases will be this 
substance. And whatsoever is in conformity with nature 
is pleasant, and all animals pursue pleasure in keeping with 
their nature. 

10 Animals are also differentiated locally : that is to say, 
some live upon dry land, while others live in the water. And 
this differentiation may be interpreted in two 1 different 
ways. Thus, some animals are termed terrestrial as in- 
haling air, and others aquatic as taking in water ; and there 

IP are others which do not actually take in these elements, 2 
but nevertheless are constitutionally adapted to the 
cooling influence, so far as is needful to them, of one 
element or the other, and hence are called terrestrial 
or aquatic though they neither breathe air nor take in 
water. Again, 3 other animals are so called from their 
finding their food and fixing their habitat on land or in 
water: for many animals, although they inhale air and 
breed on land, yet derive their food from the water, and 

20 live in water for the greater part of their lives ; and these 

1 &xo>r, MSS., Bekk., Pice. ; rpt^eor, Scalig. after Gaza, A. and W., 
Dittm. ; cf. 59o a 13. I retain Si^oo?, thinking that A. started with two 
main dichotomies, one founded on respiration, the other upon habita- 
tion and diet. The first and fundamental distinction is, among blooded 
animals, between those possessed of a lung and those possessed of 
gills, those namely which take in air or water for respiration, or (as A. 
understood it) for KaT(tyrj-is, the cooling of the blood (de Resp. 10. 475^ 
1 8). Here a cognate but subsidiary distinction emerges, because 
bloodless animals can perform this function in a way sufficient for 
their needs (IKUI/OK) through the cooling influence of the surrounding 
medium and without 'taking in' either water or air (cf. de Resp. 9. 
474 b 26 ; 10. 475 b 5, 15; 12. 476 b ). The second great distinction is 
that some animals live and feed on land, and some in water ; and this 
is manifestly quite a different dichotomy to the first. A. is hampered 
throughout this discussion by his habitual reluctance to coin a new 
nomenclature or to abandon a popular classification embodied in 
current speech ; he clings to the terms nt.(,ov and f'w8poi> after they are 
shown to be unfit to connote the sought-for distinctions. 

2 For ov Sf^oftcj'a Pice. cj. ovx o^ioia. 

3 Read ra 6<f TO> with Schn., A. and VV., and Dittm. For other 
variants in this difficult passage see Schn., Dittm., and Piccolos. 

BOOK VIII. 2 589* 

are the only animals to which as living in and on two 
elements the term ' amphibious ' is applicable. There is 
no animal taking in water that is terrestrial or aerial or 
that derives its food from the land, whereas of the great 
number of land animals inhaling air many get their food 
from the water ; moreover some are so peculiarly organized 
that if they be shut off altogether from the water they 2 5 
cannot possibly live, as for instance, the so called sea- 
turtle, the crocodile, the hippopotamus, the seal, and some 
of the smaller creatures, such as the fresh-water tortoise 
and the frog : now all these animals choke or drown if 
they do not from time to time breathe atmospheric air : 
they breed and rear their young on dry land, or near the 30 
land, 1 but they pass their lives in water. 

But the dolphin 2 is equipped in the most remarkable 
way of all animals: the dolphin and other similar aquatic 
animals, including the other cetaceans which resemble it; 3 
that is to say, the whale, and all the other creatures that 58g b 
are furnished with a blow-hole. One can hardly allow that 
such an animal is terrestrial and terrestrial only, or aquatic 
and aquatic only, if by terrestrial we mean an animal that 
inhales air, and if by aquatic we mean an animal that 
takes in water. For the fact is the dolphin performs both 
these processes : he takes in water and discharges it by his 5 
blow-hole, and he also inhales air into his lungs; 4 for, by 
the way, the creature is furnished with this organ and 
respires thereby, and accordingly, when caught in the nets, 
he is quickly suffocated for lack of air. He can also live 
for a considerable while out of the water, but all this while 
he keeps up a dull moaning sound corresponding to the 
noise made by air-breathing animals in general ; 5 further- 10 
more, when sleeping, the animal keeps his nose above 
water, and he does so that he may breathe the air. Now 

P. omits rd 8e rrpos TOJ ^py. 

2 Cf. de Resp. 12.476^13. 

3 5$9 a 33 omit KCU after tort. Dittm. rejects as follows : [*ai] ra>i> 
(vuftpwv, [KOI TU>I> a\\w KijrcoScop, ocra TOIITOV c\ti rov rpo-nov\. The Krjrtoftr) 
sometimes include large sharks and especially tunnies (cf. Rohde, 
Thynnorum captura^ &c., p. n), and are accordingly more strictly 
defined here. 

4 P. A. iv. 13. 697* 15. 6 //. A. iv. 9. 535 b 32. 

AR. H.A. Y 


it would be unreasonable to assign one and the same 
class of animals to both categories, terrestrial and aquatic, 
seeing that these categories are more or less exclusive 
of one another ; we must accordingly supplement our 
definition of the term ' aquatic ' or * marine '. For the 
fact is, some aquatic animals take in water and discharge 
it again, for the same reason that leads air-breathing animals 

15 to inhale air : in other words, with the object of cooling 
the blood. Others take in water as incidental to their 
mode of feeding ; for as they get their food in the water 
they cannot but take in water along with their food, and if 
they take in water they must be provided with some organ 
for discharging it. 1 Those blooded animals, then, that use 
water for a purpose analogous to respiration are provided 
with gills ; and such as take in water when catching their 

20 prey, with the blow-hole. Similar remarks are applicable 
to molluscs and crustaceans ; for again it is by way of 
procuring food that these creatures take in water. 

Aquatic in different ways, the differences depending 
on bodily relation to external temperature and on habit 
of life, are such animals on the one hand as take in air 

35 but live in water, and such on the other hand as take in 
water 2 and are furnished with gills but go upon dry land 
and get their living there. :j At present only one animal 
of the latter kind is known, the so-called cordylus or 
water-newt ; this creature is furnished not with lungs but 
with gills, but for all that it is a quadruped and fitted for 
walking on dry land. 4 

In the case of all these animals their nature appears in 

30 some kind of a way to have got warped, just as some male 
animals get to resemble the female, and some female 
animals the male. 5 The fact is that animals, if they be 

1 de Resp. 12. 476 b 23. 

2 Guil. has 'suscipiunt quidem aerem humidum et habent branchias', 

i.e. ocra Several /ztV at pa vypov. 

3 Whether genuine or interpolated, this passage is of the nature 
of an afterthought, modifying and correcting the statement of 589* 23. 

1 nop8v\os is in all probability some species of triton or newt, which, 
like 7\ alpestris or Salamandra atra, retains its larval gills till it is 
well grown. Cf. P. A. iv. 13. 6c-5 b 25 ; de Resp. 10. 476* 6. 

6 G.A. i. 2. 7i6 b 3. 

BOOK VIII. 2 59 b 

subjected to a modification in minute organs, are liable to 
immense modifications in their general configuration. This 
phenomenon may be observed in the case of gelded 
animals : only a minute organ of the animal is mutilated, 590* 
and the creature passes from the male to the female form. 
We may infer, then, that if in the primary conformation of 
the embryo an infinitesimally minute but absolutely essential 
organ sustain a change of magnitude one way or the other, 
the animal will in one case turn to male and in the other to 
female ; and also that, if the said organ be obliterated 
altogether, the animal will be of neither one sex nor the 
other. And so by the occurrence of modification in minute 
organs it comes to pass that one animal is terrestrial and 5 
another aquatic, in both senses of these terms. 1 And, 
again, some animals are amphibious whilst other animals 
are not amphibious, owing to the circumstance that in 
their conformation while in the embryonic condition there 
got intermixed into them some portion of the matter of 
which their subsequent food is constituted ; for, as was 
said above,- what is in conformity with nature is to every 10 
single animal pleasant and agreeable. 

Animals then have been categorized into terrestrial and 
aquatic in three ways, according to their assumption of 
air or of water, the temperament of their bodies, 3 or the 
character of their food ; and the mode of life of an animal 15 
corresponds to the category in which it is found. That is 
to say, in some cases the animal depends for its terrestrial 
or aquatic nature on temperament and diet combined, as 
well as upon its method of respiration ; and sometimes on 
temperament and habits alone. 

1 With Dittm. we exclude as a gloss the succeeding words 810 
yiyvr6ai TU p.(v 7ra ra 5 

1 5*9* 9- 

3 Kpaa-ts in this chapter means the interaction or interrelation 

between the organism and the surrounding medium by which the 
former is cooled (cf. 589 a 14, 22 ; 17 Kp. TOV Trepiecrrcoroy ae'por, G. A. iv. 
2- 767* 30 ; and the discussion of Kard-^v^is in de Resp. 10. 475 b ). 
It so comes to mean, on the one hand, the temperament of the organism, 
in Galen's sense (cf. Probl. xx. i. 954 b 8), and, on the other, external 
temperature (e.g. PI. Phaedo, Hl b j, or climate (H. A. viii. 28. 6o6 b 3 ; 
1. xiv. TTtpi Kpda-fts). 

v o. 


Oftestaceans, 1 some, that are incapable of motion, subsist 
on fresh water, for, as the sea water dissolves into its 
20 constituents, the fresh water from its greater thinness 
percolates through the grosser parts; 2 in fact, they live on 
fresh water just as they were originally engendered from 
the same. Now that fresh water is contained in the sea 
and can be strained off from it can be proved in a 
thoroughly practical way. Take a thin vessel of moulded 
25 wax, attach a cord to it, and let it down quite empty into 
the sea : in twenty-four hours it will be found to contain 
a quantity of water, and the water will be fresh and 
drinkable. :i 

Sea-anemones feed on such small fishes as come in their 
way. The mouth of this creature is in the middle of its 
body ; and this fact may be clearly observed in the case 
30 of the larger varieties. Like the oyster it has a duct for 
the outlet of the residuum ; and this duct is at the top 
of the animal. 4 In other words, the sea-anemone cor- 
responds to the inner fleshy part of the oyster, and the 
stone to which the one creature clings corresponds to 
the shell which encases the other. 

The limpet detaches itself from the rock and goes about 

in quest of food. Of shell-fish that are mobile, some are 

59 b carnivorous and live on little fishes, as for instance, the 

KT\. The long discursive account which 
follows of the diet of animals seems to hark back to the end of Chap. I, 
the essay on aquatic and terrestrial life reading like a parenthetic 

2 Cf. H.A.v. 16.548*27; P. A. iv. 7. 683 b 29. Aelian, ix. 64, attributes 
the doctrine to Democritus. Theophr. C. PI. ii. 5. 2 describes a strain- 
ing or selective absorption of sea water by the roots of trees. As to 
5ia TO>I> nvKvuv cf. P. A. iv. 3. 677 b 25, where it is said that only oily 
matters percolate through the omentum, because of its close texture, 
8ia TrvKVOTrjTO. rov iifuvos, 

3 Cf. Meteor, ii-3. 358 b 35; Ael. ix. 64 ; Plin. xxxi. 37. It is curious 
that the statemerft in the text is so often repeated ; I have been at the 
pains to perform the experiment, but in vain. Dr. Ogle suggests 
Kepdfiivov for KTjpivov ; but the latter, though highly suspicious, is 
supported by the parallel passages : Aelian says explicitly a 

CK Kijpov TroiJjcray. 

4 In the much better account, supra, iv. 6. 53 i b 8, we read 

8f iravT(\a>s ov8(v 0atVcra( e^oucra, dXX* 6/zoi'a Kara TOVTO rot? (frvTois eariv. 
Cf. P. A. iv. 5. 68i b 7. The statement in the text reads like a confusion 
with the ascidian, rrjBvov t cf. H. A. iv. 6. 531* 15. 

BOOK VIII. 2 59 o b 

purple murex and there can be no doubt that the purple 
murex is carnivorous, as it is caught by a bait of fish ; 
others are carnivorous, but feed also on marine vegetation. 

The sea-turtles feed on shell-fish for, by the way, their 
mouths are extraordinarily hard ; (whatever object it seizes, 5 
stone or other, it crunches into bits, but when it leaves the 
water for dry land it browses on grass). 1 These creatures 
suffer greatly, and oftentimes die when they lie on the 
surface of the water exposed to a scorching sun ; for, when 
once they have risen to the surface, they find a difficulty 
in sinking again. 

Crustaceans feed in like manner. They are omnivorous ; 10 
that is to say, they live on stones, slime, sea-weed, and 
excrement as for instance the rock-crab and are also 
carnivorous. The crawfish or spiny-lobster can get the 
better of fishes even of the larger species, though in some 
of them it occasionally finds more than its match. Thus, 
this animal is so overmastered and cowed by the octopus 
that it dies of terror if it become aware of an octopus 15 
in the same net with itself. 2 The crawfish can master the 
conger-eel, 3 for owing to the rough spines of the crawfish 
the eel cannot slip away and elude its hold. The conger- 
eel, however, devours the octopus, for owing to the slip- 
periness of its antagonist the octopus can make nothing 
of it, The crawfish feeds on little fish, capturing them 20 
beside its hole or dwelling-place ; for, by the way, it is 
found out at sea on rough and stony bottoms, and in such 
places it makes its den. Whatever it catches, it puts into 
its mouth with its pincer-like claws, 4 like the common 25 
crab. Its nature is to walk straight forward when it has 

1 There is probably an interpolation here, as the construction indi- 
cates, on the part of some scribe negligent of the difference between 
the turtle and tortoise. 

2 Very singularly, Hora polio, ii. 106, gives an opposite account : 
avdpunov TU>V 6fj.o<pv\<i)v KparrjaavTa (3ov\6fj.(voi aqpflvaif Kapafiov *nt 
TTO\imo$a u>ypa(f)oii(nv' OVTOS yap rois no\vnodas Kparet, /cat ra 7rpa>reta 
fopd. Cuvier (Mem. i. 4) says that the octopus is detested by Medi- 
terranean fishermen because of the havoc it works upon the choicest 
lobsters and crabs : cf. Johnston, Introd. Conch, p. 315. 

3 Ael. i. 32, ix. 25, x. 38 ; Plin. ix. 88 ; Opp. Hal. ii. 389-418 ; Phile 
xxx ; Plut. SoL An. 27 ; Antig. Mirab. 99. 

4 H. A. iv. 2. 526* 13. 


nothing to fear, with its feelers hanging sideways ; if it be 
frightened, it makes its escape backwards, darting off to 
a great distance. These animals fight one another with 
their claws, just as rams fight with their horns, raising 
them and striking their opponents ; 1 they are often also 

30 seen crowded together in herds. So much for the mode of 
life of the crustacean. 

Molluscs 2 are all carnivorous ; and of molluscs the 
calamary and the sepia are more than a match for fishes 
59i a even of the large species. The octopus for the most part 
gathers shell-fish, extracts the flesh, and feeds on that ; 
in fact, fishermen recognize their holes by the number of 
shells lying about. 3 Some say that the octopus devours 
its own species, 4 but this statement is incorrect ; it is 
doubtless founded on the fact that the creature is often 

5 found with its tentacles removed, which tentacles have 
really been eaten off by the conger. 5 

Fishes, all without exception, feed on spawn in the 
spawning season ; but in other respects the food varies 
with the varying species. Some fishes are exclusively 
carnivorous, as the cartilaginous genus, the conger, the 

10 channa or Serranus, the tunny, the bass, the synodon or 
Dentex, the amia, the sea-perch, and the muraena. The 
red mullet is carnivorous, but feeds also on sea-weed, on 
shell-fish, and on mud. The grey mullet feeds on mud, 
the dascyllus G on mud and offal, the scarus or parrot-fish 

15 and the melanurus 7 on sea- weed, the saupe on offal and 
sea-weed ; 8 the saupe feeds also on zostera, 9 and is the 

1 Ael. ix. 25. 

2 This sentence we have transposed from 1. 21 to this place in 
accordance with a suggestion of Scaliger that has the approval of 
Schneider and of A. and W. 

1 H. A. ix. 37. 622 a 5 ; Plin. ix. 48. 

4 But Johnston has actually found in the stomachs of Loligo vulgaris 
the beaks of small individuals of its own species. Introd. to Conchology, 

P- 3M. 

' Hes. Op. 522 ; Alcae. fr. ; Rhodig. xiii. 32 ; Opp. Hal. ii. 250 ; 

Ael. i. 27, xiv. 26 ; Plut. Sol. An. 9. 27 ; Antig. Mirab. 25 ; Plin. ix. 46 ; 
Horap. ii. 113, &c. Or by nvpaiva, Ael. i. 32. ana% Xey. 

T Oblata melanura, mod. Gk. pfXavovpt. Cf. Arist.ap. Ath. vii.3i3 d ; 
Ael. i. 41, xii. 17 ; Opp. Hal. i. 98, iii. 443, c. 

8 Cf. Opp. Hal. iii. 414. 

9 MSS. have npuviov, ppdo-iov ; Niphus and Karsch cj. npaaov. The 

BOOK VIII. 2 59i a 

only fish that is captured with a gourd. 1 All fishes devour 
their own species, with the single exception of the cestreus 
or mullet ; and the conger is especially ravenous in this 
respect. The cephalus 2 and the mullet in general are the 
only fish that eat no flesh ; 3 this may be inferred from 
the facts that when caught they are never found with flesh 20 
in their intestines, and that the bait used to catch them 
is not flesh but barley-cake. 4 Every fish of the mullet- 
kind lives on sea-weed and sand. The cephalus, called by 
some the ' chelon ', keeps near in to the shore, the peraeas 5 
keeps out at a distance from it, and feeds on a mucous 
substance exuding from itself, and consequently is always 
in a starved condition. 6 The cephalus lives in mud, and is 25 
in consequence heavy and slimy ; it never feeds on any 
other fish. As it lives in mud, it has every now and then 

former means horehound (Marrufaum), and is accordingly inadmissible ; 
wpdffov, besides its usual signification of garlic (Alltum), means also a 
marine plant, probably our Zostera : cf. Theophr. H. P. iv. 6 TOV yap 
(frvKOvs TO fjitv e<m 7rXaTv<f)v\\ov Ttuviotl&cs xpa>/ia nowftff *X OV ) o ^"7 * a * 
irpdaov KaXovcri rtvfs, ot 3f ((ixrTrjpa. 

1 (fypfiitTai Ko\oKvv6jj. This might well mean ' with the bait of a 
gherkin ' ; but Apostolides (p. 46) describes a peculiar mode of fishing 
for 6p<p6s, Epinephilus gigas, by means of a gourd (KoXoKvvtir)). This 
fish, on being hooked, retreats into its hole and holds on by dilating 
its spiny gill-covers ; accordingly the practice is to attach the line in 
a peculiar way to a floating gourd, and to haul in the exhausted fish 
a couple of days later. Curiously enough, Ap. states that the saupe 
(Box salpe\ which is a worthless fish (Ovid, Hal. 122 ; Plin. ix. 32), is 
generally used to bait the line. T think it very possible that the 
present passage is faulty, and that 17 6p<p6s has dropped out. 

2 All the fishes next described, K$aAo?, Kforptvs, and xcXoii', appear to 
be mullets or fish closely allied thereto. Cievolo and chelone are mod. 
Ital. for Mugil cephalus and chelo. 

3 Cf. Athen. vii. 307 ; Plut. Sol. Anim. ix. ' Mugil capita is the only 
fish of which I am able to express my belief that it usually selects for 
its food nothing that has life,' Couch. 

4 fuiffl. This was doubtless a poisoned cake or ' paste ', the 
lateragna of the Neapolitan fishermen, who prepare it with the 
roots of Cyclamen hederaefolium or C. neapolitanum> and use it 
especially for grey mullets, Cievoli: cf. Opp. Hal. iv. 647-93 P% av 
6" f)v KvKXa^iivov ((prjuicrav irjTijpfs, \ fj.tas fv ira\dp,T)<ri 8vo> <pvpT)<raro 
fiafa?; cf. also lii. 482 et seq. The plant is perhaps identical with 
\b&Aristolochia rotunda of Plin. xxv. 54 'Piscatores Campaniae radicem 
earn quae rotunda est venenum terrae vocant, coramque nobis contusam 
mixta calce in mare sparsere ; advolantpisces cupiditate mira, statim- 
que exanimati fluitant '. On poisons for fish see also H. A. viii. 20. 
6o2 b 31. 

5 cfcpalof Athen., rrapS/ar Plut. Sol. Anim. ix. 965 E. 

6 Cf. proverb, Kurrpfvs j/jjori?, and frr. ap. Athen. vii. 307. 


to make a leap upwards out of the mud so as to wash the 
slime from off its body. There is no creature known to 
prey upon the spawn of the cephalus, so that the species 
is exceedingly numerous ; when, however, the fish is full- 
so grown it is preyed upon by a number of fishes, and 
59i b especially by the acharnas l or bass. Of all fishes the 
mullet 2 is the most voracious and insatiable, and in con- 
sequence its belly is kept at full stretch ; whenever it is not 
starving, it may be considered as out of condition. When 
it is frightened, it hides its head in mud, under the notion 
that it is hiding its whole body. 3 The synodon is car- 
5 nivorous and feeds on molluscs. Very often the synodon 
and the channa cast up their stomachs 4 while chasing 
smaller fishes ; for, be it remembered, fishes have their 
stomachs close to the mouth, and are not furnished with 
a gullet. 5 

Some fishes then, as has been stated, are carnivorous, 
and carnivorous only, as the dolphin, the synodon, the gilt- 
10 head, the selachians, and the molluscs. 6 Other fishes feed 
habitually on mud or sea-weed or sea-moss or the so-called 
stalk-weed or growing plants ; as for instance, the phycis, 
the goby, and the rock-fish ; and, by the way, the only 
meat that the phycis will touch is that of prawns. Very 
15 often, however, as has been stated, they devour one another, 
and especially do the larger ones devour the smaller. The 
proof of their being carnivorous is the fact that they can 
be caught with flesh for a bait. The mackerel, the tunny, 
and the bass are for the most part carnivorous, but they do 
occasionally feed on sea-weed. The sargue feeds on the 
leavings of the trigle or red mullet. The red mullet bur- 

1 Cf. Hesych. a\dpva^' Aa#pa, quam interpretationem forte duxit 
ex loco Aristotelis, unde Athen. vii. 307 excerpsit haec [Schn.]:- 
</2>crii/ ot Kforpeis 1 , KO.V d(patpe6o)cn ras KfpKovs' airecr6itT(U 8e 6 p.ev K. VTTO 
\d3pnKos. The statement is quoted by Athen. vii. 307 from Arist. eV ro> 

TT(p\ c0(i)l> T]6ii)V KOI /3lO)I'. 

2 Kea-Tpfv?, as A. and W. point out, is probably incorrect here. 

3 Athen. vii. 308; Plin. ix. 26. 

4 As Cuvier and others have noted, it is the swim-bladder and not 
the stomach that is apt to be everted as described. 

5 Arist. ap. Galen, ii. 173 K; //. A. ii. 17. 5O7 a 26. 

6 For fjLaXaKia Dittm. boldly conjectures neXdyia ; but cf. 591* I. 

BOOK VIII. 2 59i b 

rows in the mud, and when it sets the mud in motion and 20 
quits its haunt, the sargue settles down into the place 
and feeds on what is left behind, and prevents any smaller 
fish from settling in the immediate vicinity. 1 

Of all fishes the so-called scarus, or parrot-wrasse, is the 
only one known to chew the cud like a quadruped. 2 

As a general rule the larger fishes catch the smaller ones 
in their mouths whilst swimming straight after them in the 
ordinary position ; but the selachians, 3 the dolphin, and 25 
all the cetacea 4 must first turn over on their backs, as 
their mouths are placed down below ; this allows a fair 
chance of escape to the smaller fishes, and, indeed, if it 
were not so, there would be very few of the little fishes 
left, for the speed and voracity of the dolphin is something 
marvellous. 5 

Of eels G a few here and there feed on mud and on chance 
morsels of food thrown to them ; the greater part of them 592** 
subsist on fresh water. Eel-breeders are particularly careful 
to have the water kept perfectly clear, by its perpetually 
flowing on to flat slabs of stone 7 and then flowing off again ; 
sometimes they coat the eel-tanks with plaster. The fact 
is that the eel will soon choke if the water is not clear, 5 
as his gills are peculiarly small. On this account, when 
fishing for eels, they disturb the water. 8 In the river 
Strymon eel-fishing takes place at the rising of the Pleiads, 
because at this period the water is troubled and the mud 
raised up by contrary winds ; 10 unless the water be in this 
condition, it is as well to leave the eels alone. When dead 
the eel, unlike the majority of fishes, neither floats on nor 10 
rises to the surface ; and this is owing to the smallness 

1 Plin. ix. 30. 

2 H. A. ii. 17. 5o8 b , ix. 50; P. A. iii. 14. 675* 3; Plin. ix. 29; Ov. 
Hal. 119, &c. ; cf. Mpv, H.A. ix. 50. 632 h 10. 

1 P. A. iv. 13. 696^ II. 

4 A. and W. stigmatize the words relating to the dolphin and other 

5 //. A, ix. 48. 63i a 20 ; Plin. ix. 7. 

6 Arist. ap. Athen. vii. 298. 

7 Cf. Schol. ad Arat. Dios. 993, and many other reff. in Schneider's 

5 Ar. Eg. 864. 9 For UTTO Tr^fu/iarcoj/ Pice. cj. vnoKivf'irai rrv. 

10 Or ' by southerly winds blowing against the current '. 


of the stomach. A few eels are supplied with fat, but the 
greater part have no fat whatsoever. When removed from 
the water they can live for five or six days ; l for a longer 
period if north winds prevail, for a shorter if south winds. 2 

15 If they are removed in summer from the pools to the 
tanks they will die ; but not so if removed in the winter. 
They are not capable of holding out against any abrupt 
change ; consequently they often die in large numbers when 
men engaged in transporting 3 them from one place to 
another dip them into water particularly cold. They will 
also die of suffocation if they be kept in a scanty supply of 

20 water. This same remark will hold good for fishes in 
general ; for they are suffocated if they be long confined 
in a short supply of water, with the water kept unchanged 
just as animals that respire are suffocated if they be shut 
up with a scanty supply of air. The eel in some cases 
lives for seven or eight years. The river-eel feeds on his 

25 own species, on grass, or on roots, or on any chance food 
found in the mud. 4 Their usual feeding-time is at night, 
and during the day-time they retreat into deep water. 
And so much for the food of fishes. 

Of birds, such as have crooked talons are carnivorous 3 
without exception, and cannot swallow corn or bread-food 
even if it be put into their bills in tit-bits ; as for instance, 

b the eagle of every variety, the kite, the two species of 
hawks, to wit, the dove-hawk and the sparrow-hawk and, 
by the way, these two hawks differ greatly in size from one 
another and the buzzard. The buzzard is of the same 
size as the kite, and is visible at all seasons of the year. 5 

5 There is also the phene (or lammergeier) and the vulture. 
The phene is larger than the common eagle and is ashen 
in colour. Of the vulture there are two varieties : one small 
and whitish, the other comparatively large and rather more 
ashen-coloured than white. 6 Further, of birds that fly by 

1 Plin. ix. 38. 

2 In other words, 'longer in cold weather than in warm.' 

3 Dittm. reads <$>6eipovcriv for <f)pov<Tii> MSS. 

4 [ ] A. and W. B Plin. x. 9. 

6 The former being the Egyptian vulture, Neophron percnofiterus , 
the latter including Vultur fulvus and Gyps cinerens. 

BOOK VIII. 3 592 b 

night, some have crooked talons, such as the night-raven, 
the owl, and the eagle-owl. The eagle-owl resembles the 
common owl in shape, but it is quite as large as the eagle. TO 
Again, there is the eleus, the Aegolian owl, and the little 
horned owl. Of these birds, the eleus is somewhat larger 
than the barn-door cock, and the Aegolian owl is of about 
the same size as the eleus, and both these birds hunt the 
jay ; the little horned owl is smaller than the common owl. 
All these three birds are alike in appearance, and all three 
are carnivorous. 

Again, of birds that have not crooked talons some are 15 
carnivorous, such as the swallow. Others feed on grubs, 
such as the chaffinch, the sparrow, the ' batis ', the green 
linnet, and the titmouse. Of the titmouse there are three 
varieties. The largest is the finch-titmouse for it is about 
the size of a finch ; the second has a long tail, and from its 
habitat is called the hill-titmouse ; the third resembles the 20 
other two in appearance, but is less in size than either of 
them. 1 Then come the becca-fico, 2 the black-cap, the bull- 
finch, the robin, the epilais, the midget-bird, and the 
golden-crested wren. { This wren is little larger than a 
locust, has a crest of bright red gold, 3 and is in every way 
a beautiful and graceful little bird. Then the anthus, a -25 
bird about the size of a finch ; and the mountain-finch, 
which resembles a finch and is of much the same size, but 
its neck is blue, 4 and it is named from its habitat ; and 
lastly the wren and the rook. The above-enumerated 
birds and the like of them feed either wholly or for the 
most part on grubs, but the following and the like feed on 
thistles ; to wit, the linnet, the thraupis, and the goldfinch. 
All these birds feed on thistles, but never on grubs or any 593 a 
living thing whatever ; they live and roost also on the 
plants from which they derive their food. 

1 To wit, the great tit or ox-eye, the long-tailed or the penduline tit, 
and lastly the tomtit, coletit, and other allied species. 

2 On avKa\is and pcXayKopu^or cf. H. A. ix. 49 B. 632 b . These and 
many of the other birds here mentioned are not to be identified. 

3 QOIVIKOVS is defined by Arist. de Sensu, 3. 440* 10, as being like the 
sun seen through a mist, 8C a^Xi'o? KO\ 

4 The blue-throat, Cyanecula suerica. 


There arc other birds whose favourite food consists of 
insects found beneath the bark of trees ; as for instance, 
5 the great and the small pie, which are nicknamed the wood- 
peckers. These two birds resemble one another in plumage 
and in note, only that the note of the larger bird is the 
louder of the two ; they both frequent the trunks of trees 
in quest of food. There is also the greenpie, a bird about 
the size of a turtle-dove, green-coloured all over, that pecks 
at the bark of trees with extraordinary vigour, lives generally 

TO on the branch of a tree, has a loud note, and is mostly found 
in the Peloponnese. There is another bird called the 'grub- 
picker' (or tree-creeper) ; about as small as the penduline 
titmouse, with speckled plumage of an ashen colour, and 
with a poor note ; it is a variety of the woodpecker. 1 
There are other birds that live on fruit and herbage, 

15 such as the wild pigeon or ring-dove, the common pigeon, 
the rock-dove, and the turtle-dove. The ring-dove and the 
common pigeon are visible at all seasons; the turtle-dove 
only in the summer, for in winter it lurks in some hole or 
other and is never seen. 2 The rock-dove is chiefly visible 
in the autumn, and is caught at that season ; it is larger 

20 than the common pigeon but smaller than the wild one ; 3 
it is generally caught while drinking. 4 These pigeons bring 
their young ones with them when they visit this country. 
All our other birds come to us in the early summer and 
build their nests here, and the greater part of them rear 
their young on animal food, 5 with the sole exception of the 
pigeon and its varieties. 

The whole genus of birds may be pretty well divided 

25 into such as procure their food on dry land, such as frequent 
rivers and lakes, and such as live on or by the sea. 

Of water-birds such as are web-footed live actually on 
the water, while such as are split-footed live by the edge of 

1 On the woodpecker cf. H. A. ix. 9. 614*. 

2 H. A. viii. 1 6. 6oo a 20 ; but cf. ix. 7. 6i3 b 2 &idyovcn . . . TOV Qepovs eV 

TO? X l t JL PL ls > T V * Ytt/MBVOS ev TOtS 

H. A. v. 13. 544 b 2. 

4 That is to say, ' by means, of a water-trap,' still in common use in 

' CyW is so translated by Scaliger, Schneider, and others ; but the 
Greek may be questioned. 

BOOK VIII. 3 593 a 

it and, by the way, water-birds that are not carnivorous 
live on water-plants, (but most of them live on fish), 1 like 
the heron 2 and the spoonbill that frequent the banks of 593 
lakes and rivers ; and the spoonbill, by the way, is less 
than the common heron, and has a long flat bill. There are 
furthermore the stork and the seamew ; and the seamew, 
by the way, is ashen-coloured. There is also the schoenilus, 
the cinclus, and the white-rump. Of these smaller birds 5 
the last mentioned is the largest, being about the size of 
the common thrush ; all three may be described as ' wag- 
tails '. Then there is the scalidris, with plumage ashen- 
grey, but speckled. Moreover, the family of the halcyons 
or kingfishers live by the waterside. Of kingfishers there 
are two varieties; 3 one that sits on reeds and sings; the 10 
other, the larger of the two, is without a note. Both these 
varieties are blue on the back. There is also the trochilus 
(or sandpiper). The halcyon also, including a variety 
termed the cerylus, is found near the seaside. The crow 
also feeds on such animal life as is cast up on the beach, 
for the bird is omnivorous. There are also the white gull, 
the cepphus, the aethyia, and the charadrius. 15 

Of web-footed birds, the larger species live on the banks 
of rivers and lakes ; as the swan, the duck, the coot, the 
grebe, and the teal a bird resembling the duck but less in 
size and the water-raven or cormorant. This bird is the 
size of a stork, only that its legs are shorter ; it is web- 
footed and is a good swimmer ; its plumage is black. It 20 
roosts on trees, 4 and is the only one of all such birds as 
these that is found to build its nest in a tree. Further there 
is the large goose, the little gregarious goose, the vulpanser, 
the horned grebe, 5 and the penelops. The sea-eagle lives 
in the neighbourhood of the sea and seeks its quarry in 

A great number of birds are omnivorous. Birds of prey 25 
feed on any animal or bird, other than a bird of prey, that 
they may catch. These birds never touch one of their own 

1 Cj. Dittm. 2 //. A. ix. 18. 6i6 b 33. 

1 Plin. x. 47. 4 Cf. Milton, P. L. iv. 196. 

5 A conjectural translation of m. 


genus, whereas fishes often devour members actually of 
their own species. 

Birds, as a rule, are very spare drinkers. In fact birds 

594 a of prey never drink at all, excepting a very few, and these 

drink very rarely ; and this last observation is peculiarly 

applicable to the kestrel. 1 The kite has been seen to drink, 

but he certainly drinks very seldom. 

Animals that are coated with tessellates such as the 4 
lizard and the other quadrupeds, and the serpents are 

5 omnivorous : at all events they are carnivorous and 
graminivorous ; and serpents, by the way, are of all 
animals the greatest gluttons. 

Tessellated animals are spare drinkers, as are also all 
such animals as have a spongy lung, 2 and such a lung, 
scantily supplied with blood, is found in all oviparous 
animals. 3 Serpents, by the by, have an insatiate appetite 

10 for wine ; 4 consequently, at times men hunt for snakes by 
pouring wine into saucers and putting them into the inter- 
stices of walls, and the creatures are caught when 
inebriated. Serpents are carnivorous, and whenever they 
catch an animal they extract all its juices and eject the 
creature whole. And, by the way, this is done by all 
other creatures of similar habits, as for instance the spider; 
only that the spider sucks out the juices of its prey outside, 

15 and the serpent does so in its belly. The serpent takes 
any food presented to him, eats birds and animals, and 
swallows eggs entire. 5 But after taking his prey he 
stretches himself until he stands straight out to the very 
tip, and then he contracts and squeezes himself into little 
compass, so that the swallowed mass may pass down his 

20 outstretched body ; 7 and this action on his part is due to 
the tenuity and length of his gullet. Spiders and snakes 

1 G. A. iii. i. 75o a 7. 

2 P. A.m. 6. 669* 25 ; de Resp. 10. 47 5 b 24. 

3 So Schneider and Dittm. MSS. have c^ouo-i Se ao/i<6i> ra oXt'ycu/xa 
iravra Kal TO. (ooroKa. 

4 Plin. x. 93. 6 Plin. x. 92. 
' Cf. Ael. vi. 1 8 eV aKpa r^s ovpas eorwy. 

7 This sentence is obscure and difficult, and has been variously 
translated, some making it the serpent and some the egg that is stood 
up eVt TO aKpov. I suspect that some Egyptian story of the cobra 
underlies the statement. 

BOOK VIII. 4 594 a 

can both go without food for a long time ; and this remark 
may be verified by observation of specimens kept alive in 
the shops of the apothecaries. 

5 Of viviparous quadrupeds such as are fierce and jag- 25 
toothed are without exception carnivorous ; though, by 
the way, it is stated of the wolf, but of no other animal, 
that in extremity of hunger it will eat a certain kind of 
earth. 1 These carnivorous animals never eat grass except 
when they are sick, just as dogs bring on a vomit by eating 
grass and thereby purge themselves. 

The solitary wolf is more apt to attack man than the 30 
wolf that goes with a pack. 2 

The animal called ' glanus ' by some and ' hyaena ' by 
others is as large as a wolf, with a mane like a horse, 594 b 
only that the hair is stiffer and longer and extends over 
the entire length of the chine. It will lie in wait for a man 
and chase him, 3 and will inveigle a dog within its reach by 
making a noise that resembles the retching noise of a man 
vomiting. 4 It is exceedingly fond of putrefied flesh, and 
will burrow in a graveyard to gratify this propensity. 

The bear is omnivorous. It eats fruit, and is enabled by 5 
the suppleness of its body to climb a tree ; it also eats 
vegetables, and it will break up a hive to get at the honey ; 
it eats crabs and ants also, and is in a general way car- 
nivorous. It is so powerful that it will attack not only the 
deer but the wild boar, if it can take it unawares, and also 10 
the bull. After coming to close quarters with the bull it 
falls on its back in front of the animal, and, when the bull 
proceeds to butt, the bear seizes hold of the bull's horns 
with its front paws, fastens its teeth into his shoulder, and 
drags him down to the ground. 5 For a short time together 15 
it can walk erect on its hind legs. All the flesh it eats it 
first allows to become carrion. 

1 Plin. x. 93. 2 For p.a\\ov avrvv Pice. cj. /zaXAoi/ XvTTwvrfS. 

3 Plin. viii. 44 ; Ael. vii. 22. 

4 Schn. quotes Political Magazine > 1786, p. 65 : 'This howl is very 
peculiar. Its beginning resembles a man moaning, and its latter part 
as if he were making a violent effort to vomit.' Uittm., however, 
believes the sentence to be wholly corrupt, and suggests such words as 
in 594 b l6 TO fit Kpsti navru KdT(r6ifi npo(rr)irov<Ta npu>rov. 

h Plin. viii. 54 ; Ael. \\. 9. 

6 A. and W. suggest that this clause may have become detached from 


The lion, like all other savage and jag-toothed animals, 
is carnivorous. It devours its food greedily and fiercely, 
and often swallows its prey entire without rending 
it at all ; it will then go fasting for two or three days 

20 together, being rendered capable of this abstinence by its 
previous surfeit. 1 It is a spare drinker. It discharges the 
solid residuum in small quantities, about every other day or 
at irregular intervals, and the substance of it is hard and dry 
like the excrement of a dog. The wind discharged from 
off its stomach is pungent, and its urine emits a strong 
odour, a phenomenon which, in the case of dogs, accounts 

25 for their habit of sniffing at trees;- for, by the way, the lion, 
like the dog, lifts its leg to void its urine. It infects the 
food it eats with a strong smell by breathing on it, 3 and 
when the animal is cut open an overpowering vapour 
exhales from its inside. 

Some wild quadrupeds feed in lakes and rivers ; the seal 

30 is the only one that gets its living on the sea. To the 
former class of animals belong the so-called castor, the 
satyrium, 4 the otter, and the so-called latax, or beaver. 
The beaver is flatter than the otter and has strong teeth ; 
595 a it often at night-time emerges from the water and goes 
nibbling at the bark of the aspens that fringe the river- 
sides. The otter will bite a man, and it is said that when- 
ever it bites it will never let go until it hears a bone crack. 
The hair of the beaver is rough, intermediate in appearance 
5 between the hair of the seal and the hair of the deer. 

Jag-toothed animals drink by lapping, as do also some 6 
animals with teeth differently formed, as the mouse. Animals 
whose upper and lower teeth meet evenly 5 drink by suction, 

the account of vaiva. On the other hand, npoo-rjnovo-a may be corrupt 
(cf. v. I. npoo-finovaa), perhaps for TrpoXei'^ouo-a. J Ael. iv. 34. 

2 We must either assume the omission of wa-rrfp after SioVep, or else 
suppose that the whole clause ScoTrep . . . Su>8po>i/ is parenthetical and 
loosely dependent on the suggestion of 007*17. 

3 Hence the story in Ael. v. 39 of how the lion, impregnating with 
his foul breath his reserves of food, secures them from molestation. 

' MSS. have TO traOfpiov K.OI TO crarvptov, TO o~adpiov KCU TO irairtipiov. 
Sundevall ascribes both names, together with nag-rap and \dra|, to the 

5 GvvodovTa I ana Aey. 

BOOK VIII. 6 595 a 

as the horse and the ox ; the bear neither laps nor sucks, 
but gulps down his drink. Birds, as a rule, drink by 10 
suction, but the long-necked birds stop and elevate their 
heads at intervals ; the purple coot is the only one (of the 
long-necked birds) that swallows water by gulps. 1 

Horned animals, domesticated or wild, and all such as 
are not jag-toothed, are all frugivorous and graminivorous, 
save under great stress of hunger. 2 The pig" is an ex- J5 
ception ; it cares little for grass or fruit, but of all animals 
it is the fondest of roots, owing to the fact that its snout is 
peculiarly adapted for digging them out of the ground ; 4 
it is also of all animals the most easily pleased in the 
matter of food. It takes on fat more rapidly in proportion 
to its size than any other animal ; in fact, a pig can be 20 
fattened for the market in sixty days. Pig-dealers can tell 
the amount of flesh taken on, by having first weighed the 
animal while it was being starved. Before the fattening pro- 
cess begins, the creature must be starved for three days ; r> 
and, by the way, animals in general will take on fat if sub- 
jected previously to a course of starvation ; after the three 
days of starvation, pig-breeders feed the animal lavishly. 
Breeders in Thrace, when fattening pigs, give them a drink on 35 
the first day ; then they miss one, and then two days, then 
three and four, until the interval extends over seven days. 
The pigs' meat used for fattening is composed of barley, 
millet, figs, acorns, wild pears, and cucumbers. 6 These 
animals and other animals that have warm bellies 7 are 3 
fattened by repose. [Pigs also fatten the better by being 
allowed to wallow in mud. 8 They like to feed in batches 
of the same age. A pig will give battle even to a wolf.] 9 595 

1 Athen. ix. p. 398 ; Plin. x. 63. 2 Plin. x. 93. 

3 Some MSS. have KWOS. The passage is apparently faulty, and 
Pice, reconstructs (oo-a 8e Kap\ap6bovrn^) fa> rrjs KWOS, rnCra 6' 17 KIOTO 
TTOT)(f)ciya Kal KapTTOfpaya. 

4 Plin. xi. 60, xii. 91. Cf. Alex. Aphr. ProbL i. 141. 

5 Plin. viii. 77. 

r ' Cf. Horn. Od. x. 242 ; H. A. viii. 21. 6c3 b 27 ; Varro, R. R. iv. 2. 

7 Some MSS. have KotXinv 6tpp.i]v ayaOijV. Pice. cj. (oya#;)) 17 arpcfita 
niaiveiv (irtaivct) 5e ras t>f. 

8 Apparently somewhat corrupt : cf. Ael. v. 45 naxwea-dm 8( rfjv vvv 

\ovofj.fvi]v juaAitrra, a\\' tv TO> /3op/3opco 8uiTpi(3ov<rav re KOI 
KT\. 9 [ ] A. and W., Dittm. 

AR. H.A. 


If a pig be weighed when living, you may calculate that 
after death its flesh will weigh five-sixths of that weight, 
and the hair, the blood, and the rest will weigh the other 
sixth. When suckling their young, swine like all other 
animals get attenuated. So much for these animals. 

5 Cattle l feed on corn and grass, and fatten on vegetables 7 
that lend to cause flatulency, 2 such as bitter vetch or 
bruised beans or bean-stalks. The older ones also will 
fatten if they be fed up after an incision has been made 
into their hide, and air blown thereinto. 3 Cattle will fatten 
also on barley in its natural state or on barley finely 

10 winnowed, or on sweet food, such as figs, or pulp from the 
wine-press, 4 or on elm-leaves. But nothing is so fattening 
as the heat of the sun and wallowing in \yarm waters. If the 
horns of young cattle be smeared with hot wax, you may 
mould them to any shape you please, 5 and cattle are less 
subject to disease of the hoof if you smear the horny parts 6 ' 

15 with wax, pitch, or olive oil. Herded cattle suffer more when 
they are forced to change their pasture-ground by frost than 
when snow is the cause of change. Cattle grow all the more 
in size when they are kept from sexual commerce over a 
number of years ; and it is with a view to growth in size 
that in Epirus the so-called Pyrrhic kine 7 are not allowed 
intercourse with the bull until they are nine years 8 old; 

1 Plin. xviii. 30. 

2 QVO-TITIKO'IS, for which some MSS. and Aldus read (pva-iKolf, seems 
to me not above suspicion. (frao-rjXois would be a simple and appropriate 
word. (frvcrrjriKos, however, is frequent in similar passages, always 
with reference to beans or such-like leguminous plants. Either the 
word itself or some other of which it is a corruption must, I think, 
have meant podded vegetables, and has nothing to do with flatulency. 

3 This also is stigmatized by A. and W. ; but cf. Plin. viii. 70. 

4 d<rra(((ri KCU oiVot?, MSS. and edd., lit. ' raisins and wine '. I con- 
jecture a. TOV olvov, in the sense of are/z$i>Xa, Lat. vtnacea t the ' marc ', 
or crushed grapes from the wine-press ; cf. Varro, R. R. ii. 2, iii. 1 1 ; 
Colum. vi. 3, &c. 

6 Plin. xi. 45. Schn. quotes Itiner. Olafseni, i. p. 27 (vers. germ.}, in 
witness of a similar practice in Iceland. 

6 KfpaTo. : lit. ' horns ' ; but cf. Cato, R. R. 72 ' Boves ne pedes 
subterant, pice liquida cornua infima unguito '. Cf. Colum. vi. 15; 
Verg. G. iii. 88, &c. ; Schn. and Pice, read Keptmn. 

7 H. A. iii. 21. 522 b 24 ; Ael. iii. 33 ; Plin. viii. 70 ; Colum. vi. i ; 
Varro, R. R. ii. 5. 

8 Plin. /. c. ' non ante quadrimatum ', reading (as Dittm. shows) fi' for &\ 

BOOK VIII. 7 595 b 

from which circumstance they are nicknamed the ' unbulled ' 
kine. Of these Pyrrhic cattle, by the way, they say that 
there are only about four hundred in the world, that they 20 
are the private property of the Epirote royal family, that 
they cannot thrive out of Epirus, and that people elsewhere 
have tried to rear them, but without success. 

8 Horses, mules, and asses feed on corn and grass, but are 
fattened chiefly by drink. Just in proportion as beasts of 
burden drink water, so will they more or less enjoy their 
food, and a place will give good or bad feeding according 25 
as the water is good or bad. Green corn, while ripening, 1 
will give a smooth coat ; but such corn is injurious if the 
spikes are too stiff and sharp. 2 The first crop of clover 
is unwholesome, and so is clover over which ill-scented 
water runs ; for the clover is sure to get the taint of the 
water. 3 Cattle like clear water for drinking ; 4 but the horse 30 
in this respect resembles the camel, for the camel likes 
turbid and thick water, and will never drink from a stream 
until he has trampled it into a turbid condition. 5 And, by 596 a 
the way, the camel can go without water for as much as 
four days,- but after that when he drinks, he drinks in 
immense quantities. 6 

9 The elephant 7 at the most can eat nine Macedonian 
medimni of fodder 8 at one meal ; but so large an amount is 
unwholesome. As a general rule it can take six or seven 5 
medimni of fodder, five medimni of wheat, and five mareis 
of wine six cotylae going to the maris? An elephant 
has been known to drink right off fourteen Macedonian 
metretae of water, and another eight metretae later in 
the day. 

1 eyicvos is probably corrupt ; I should conjecture ey*cupof, or possibly 
cyKapnos, though these words do not occur elsewhere in A. Kpdo-ns is 
Sylburg's emendation for Kpavis. Cf. upturns s. ypdaris, 

Hesych. ; ypaariciv trnrovs, Geopon. xvi. I. II. 

2 So Colum. vi. 3, with regard to prickly shrubs. 

3 A. and W. read rf/?iAvos: MSS. T^S TTOOS. Pice. rl 

4 Cf. Colum. vi. 22. 

5 Aelian xvii. 7 applies this statement to the elephant. 

6 Plin. viii. 26. 7 Cit. Ael. xvii. 7. 

8 Dittm., after Camus and Schn., inserts (Kpi#o>v), from Ael. /. c. 

9 Cit. Pollux, x. 47. 

Z 2 


Camels 1 live for about thirty 2 years; in some ex- 

10 ceptional cases they live much longer, and instances have 

been known of their living to the age of a hundred. The 

elephant is said by some to live for about two hundred 

years ; by others, for three hundred. 

Sheep and goats are graminivorous, but sheep- browse 10 
assiduously and steadily, whereas goats shift their ground 
rapidly, and browse only on the tips of the herbage. 

J 5 Sheep are much improved in condition by drinking, and 
accordingly they give the flocks salt 3 every five days in 
summer, to the extent of one medimnus tc the hundred 
sheep, and this is found to render a flock healthier 
and fatter. In fact they mix salt * with the greater part 
of their food ; a large amount of salt is mixed into their 

20 bran (for the reason that they drink more when thirsty), 
and in autumn they get cucumbers with a sprinkling of salt 
on them ; this admixture of salt in their food tends also 
to increase the quantity of milk in the ewes. If sheep 
be kept on the move at midday they will drink more 
copiously towards evening ; and if the ewes be fed with 
salted food as the lambing season draws near they will 
get larger udders. Sheep are fattened by twigs of the 

25 olive or of the oleaster, by vetch, and bran of every kind ; 
and these articles of food fatten all the more if they be 
first sprinkled with brine. Sheep will take on flesh all the 
better if they be first put for three days through a process 
of starving. In autumn, water from the north is more 
wholesome for sheep than water from the south. 5 Pasture 
grounds are all the better if they have a westerly aspect. 
Sheep will lose flesh if they be kept overmuch on the 

3 move or be subjected to any hardship. In winter time 

1 H. A. vi. 26. 578 a 12 ; Plin. viii. 26 ; Ael. iv. 55. 

2 Probably Tffvrr^nvra : cf. citt. 

Eust. ad II. p. 919 ; Colum. A". R. vi. 4. 

4 Schn. suggests 8t\(dovTs, 'to entice them.' 

'' uficop. It is neither certain nor yet likely that rain is meant, though 
A. and \V. take it so. Schn. suggests, with much probability, roi> p.fv 
Ofpovs TO /3opeioi', ToC d( p,(Tonu>pov TO VOTIOV apfivov. Scotus translates 
according to such a reading *et in aestate valens est aqua septentrio- 
nalis frigida, et in autumno aqua meridionalis tepida '. 

BOOK VIII. 10 596 a 

shepherds can easily distinguish the vigorous sheep from 
the weakly, from the fact that the vigorous sheep are 
covered with hoar-frost while the weakly ones are quite 
free of it ; the fact being that the weakly ones feeling 5g6 b 
oppressed with the burden shake themselves and so get 
rid of it. The flesh of all quadrupeds deteriorates in 
marshy pastures, and is the better on high grounds. Sheep 
that have flat tails l can stand the winter better - than 
long-tailed sheep, and short-fleeced sheep than the shaggy- 5 
fleeced; 3 and sheep with crisp wool 4 stand the rigour of 
winter very poorly. Sheep are healthier than goats, but 
goats are stronger than sheep. 5 [The fleeces and the wool 
of sheep that have been killed by wolves, as also the 
clothes made from them, are exceptionally infested with 

II Of insects, such as have teeth are omnivorous ; such as 10 
have a tongue feed on liquids only, extracting 7 with that 
organ juices from all quarters. And of these latter some 
may be called omnivorous, inasmuch as they feed on 
every kind of juice, as for instance, the common fly ; others 
are blood-suckers, such as the gadfly and the horse-f y, 
others again live on the juices of fruits and plants. The 
bee is the only insect that invariably eschews whatever is 15 
rotten ; 8 it will touch no article of food unless it have 
a sweet-tasting juice, and it is particularly fond of drinking 

1 //. A. viii. 28. 6o6 a 13. 

2 Reading ei/^ei^epcorepot, with the MSS., Bekk., &c. Dittm. em. 
Sucrxei/zepcoTfpoi, following Scaliger and Casaubon. 

3 On the various sorts of wool cf. Plin. viii. 73, Colum. vii. 4, c. 
As Schn. points out, the oles KoXepai are such as the celebrated ' Apulae, 
breves villo ', commonly called the Tarentine race, but originally 
Phrygian (Plin. xxix. 9 ; Strab. vi. 9. 284, &c.). 

^ For ou\ai some MSS. have alyes, and Pice, reads ouXm vcmcp <a\ 
niyes. Dittm. is inclined to read dvcr\fip.poi de KOI al atyes, vyiaivurepat 
(yap oXco?} p.(v al oies <rX. 

5 H. A. ix. 3. 6lo b 33. 

6 Plin. xi. 39; Plut. Symp. ii. 9 ; Ael. i. 38 ; Geopon. xv. I. 5 ; Phile. 
Widespread as this story is, it may well have sprung from some simple 
error or misreading, some such word as eXiKopuarpvxos having been 
mistaken for 

7 Schn. prefers (<xviJii<tv<riv, as in viii. 4. 594* 15. 

8 H. A. iv. 8. a 2. 


water if it be found bubbling up clear from a spring 

So much for the food of animals of the leading genera. 

20 The habits of animals are all connected with either 12 
breeding and the rearing of young, or with the procuring 
a due supply of food ; and these habits are modified so as to 
suit cold and heat and the variations of the seasons. For all 
animals have an instinctive perception of the changes of tem- 

35 perature, and, just as men seek shelter in houses in winter, or 
as men of great possessions 1 spend their summer in cool 
places and their winter in sunny ones, so also all animals 
that can do so shift their habitat at various seasons. 

Some creatures can make provision against change with- 

30 out stirring from their ordinary haunts ; others migrate, 
quitting Pontus and the cold countries after the autumnal 
597 a equinox to avoid the approaching winter, and after the 
spring equinox migrating from warm lands to cool lands 
to avoid the coming heat. In some cases they migrate 
from places near at hand, in others they may be said 
to come from the ends of the world, as in the case of the 
crane ; 2 for these birds migrate from the steppes of Scythia 
5 to the marshlands south of Egypt where the Nile has its 
source. 3 And it is here, by the way, that they are said to 
fight with the pygmies ; 4 and the story is not fabulous, 
but there is in reality a race of dwarfish men, and the 
horses are little in proportion, and the men live in caves 
underground. Pelicans also migrate, and fly from the 

10 Strymon to the Ister, and breed on the banks of this river. 
They depart in flocks, and the birds in front wait for 
those in the rear, owing to the fact that when the flock 
is passing over the intervening mountain range, the birds 
in the rear lose sight of their companions in the van. 
Fishes also in a similar manner shift their habitat now out of 

1 Not improbably referring to the Persian king's migrations between 
Susa and Ecbatana, as Aelian (iii. 13), in his description of the crane, 
explicitly does. 

: Herod, ii. 22 ; Aef. ii. I, iii. 13 ; Plin. x. 30, &c. 

3 Cf. Meteor, i. 13. 350** 14, and Ideler's note. 

4 //. iii. 6, &c. See, for other reff., Cl. of Greek Birds, p. 43. 

BOOK VIII. 12 597 a 

the Euxine 1 and now into it. In winter they move from the 15 
outer sea in towards land in quest of heat ; in summer they 
shift from shallow waters to the deep sea to escape the heat. 2 

Weakly birds in winter and in frosty weather come down 
to the plains for warmth, and in summer migrate to the 
hills for coolness. The more weakly an animal is the ao 
greater hurry will it be in to migrate on account of extremes 
of temperature, either hot or cold ; thus the mackerel 
migrates in advance of the tunnies, and the quail in 
advance of the cranes. The former migrates in the month 
of Boedromion, and the latter in the month of Maemacte- 
rion. 3 All creatures are fatter in migrating from cold to 25 
heat than in migrating from heat to cold ; thus the quail 
is fatter when he emigrates in autumn than when he 
arrives in spring. The migration from cold countries is 
contemporaneous with the close of the hot season. Animals 
are in better trim for breeding purposes in spring-time, 4 
when they change from hot to cool lands. 

Of birds, the crane, as has been said, migrates from one 30 
end of the world to the other ; they fly against the wind. 
The story told about the stone is untrue : to wit, that the 597 
bird, so the story goes, carries in its inside a stone by 
way of ballast, and that the stone when vomited up is a 
touchstone for gold. 5 

The cushat and the rock-dove migrate, and never winter 
in our country, as is the case also with the turtle-dove 6 ; 
the common pigeon, however, stays behind. The quail 5 
also migrates ; only, by the way, a few quails and turtle- 
doves may stay behind here and there in sunny districts. 
Cushats and turtle-doves flock together, both when they 
arrive and when the season for migration comes round 
again. When quails come to land, 7 if it be fair weather or 
if a north wind is blowing, they will pair off and manage 10 
pretty comfortably; but if a southerly wind prevail they 

Perhaps 'from the open sea'. 2 Ael. ix. 57. 

1 Boedromion, 22 August-22 September ; Maemacterion, -22 October. 

Here Dittm. rejects rat'. 5 Ael. ii. I, iii. 13, &c. 

1 Some MSS. insert KOI al ^eXiSorff. Pice. cj. rat at rpvyoves 8* tos at ^fX. 
7 A doubtful rendering. Gesner and Camus suggest Trerwi/rat. Schn. 
tr. 'cum incubuerint [alarum remigio'] ; A. and W. ' wenn die Wach- 
teln einfallen ' ; Gaza, ' cum ceciderint.' 


are greatly distressed owing to the difficulties in the way of 
flight, 1 for a southerly wind is wet and violent. For this 
reason bird-catchers are never on the alert for these birds 
during fine weather, but only during the prevalence of 
southerly winds, 2 when the bird from the violence of the 
wind is unable to fly. 3 And, by the way, it is owing to 
the distress occasioned by the bulkiness of its body that 
the bird always screams while flying : for the labour is 

15 severe. When the quails come from abroad 4 they have 
no leaders, but when they migrate hence, the glottis flits 
along with them, as does also the landrail, and the eared 
owl, and the corncrake. 5 The corncrake calls them in the 
night, and when the bird-catchers hear the croak of the 
bird in the night-time they know that the quails are on 

20 the move. The landrail is like a marsh bird, and the 
glottis has a tongue that can project far out of its beak. 
The eared owl is like an ordinary owl, only that it has 
feathers about its ears ; by some it is called the night- 
raven. It is a great rogue of a bird, and is a capital mimic ; 
a bird-catcher will dance before it and, while the bird is 
mimicking his gestures, the accomplice comes behind and 

25 catches it. 6 The common owl is caught by a similar trick. 
As a general rule all birds with crooked talons are short- 
necked, flat-tongued, and disposed to mimicry. The Indian 
bird, the parrot, 7 which is said to have a man's tongue, 
answers to this description ; and, by the way, after drinking 
wine, the parrot becomes more saucy than ever. 

Of birds, the following are migratory the crane, the 

30 swan, the pelican, and the lesser goose. 

Of fishes, some, as has been observed, migrate from the 13 
outer seas in towards shore, and from the shore towards 
598* the outer seas, to avoid the extremes of cold and heat. 

1 Plin. x. 33 ; Solin. *i. 2 Cf. Numbers xi. 31. 

1 ( Propter sui corporis pondus,' Gaza. Dittm. reads fvftias 6' ov' 
(/<aKa>p 5e) nfTovTai 8ta TO Qdpos. Pice. pa8i<as 5* ov irfTOVTOi, The 
whole passage is of doubtful value. 

4 (KeWcv. Sundevall cj. cWo-e. 

5 oprvyo/z^rpa and Ki>xpap.os are not improbably, like landrail and 
corncrake, one and the same bird. 

6 Plin. x. 33 ; Athen. ix. p. 390; Plut. Sol. Anim. 3. 

7 Plin. x. 58 ; Ctes. ap. Phot., &c. 

BOOK VIII. 13 598 J 

Fish living near to the shore are better eating than 
deep-sea fish. The fact is they have more abundant and 
better feeding, for wherever the sun's heat can reach vege- 
tation is more abundant, better in quality, and more delicate, 
as is seen in any ordinary garden. Further, the black 1 
shore-weed grows near to shore ; the other shore-weed 5 
is like wild weed. 2 Besides, the parts of the sea near to 
shore are subjected to a more equable temperature ; and 
consequently the flesh of shallow-water fishes is firm and 
consistent, whereas the flesh of deep-water fishes is flaccid 
and watery. 

The following fishes are found near into shore the 
synodon, 3 the black bream, 4 the merou, 5 the gilthead, the 10 
mullet, the red mullet, the wrasse, the weaver, 6 the calli- 
onymus, the goby, 7 and rock-fishes of all kinds. The 
following are deep-sea fishes the trygon, the cartilaginous 
fishes, the white conger, the serranus, the erythrinus, and 
the glaucus. The braize, 8 the sea-scorpion, the black 

, Med. et vers. Guil. 

2 Reading 0/1016? eVn rot? aypiois. The sentence is obscure, and 
probably altogether corrupt : I conjecture 6 8c dd\\os 0/1016? m rdis 
uynvpais. Dittm. cj. rots /i/ioi?. 

3 fftvvduv, s. crvv6do)v. Some ichthyological writers have conjectured 
Kvv68a>v t and take the name to be descriptive of Dentex vitlgaris; cf. 
(fvvaypis, ii. 13. 5O5 a 16. 

4 Kav6apos. Cantharus lineatus, the black sea-bream, is in Mod. Gk. 
duaddpi, d(TK.ddapos ', Prov. It. canturii, scantaro, &c. The scarcer species 
ScatJiarus graecus is confused with it. The former 'enters harbours 
and is frequently taken by anglers from rocks and pier-heads' 

6p<pvs. Probably the merou, or great sea-perch, Serranus (Epi- 
nephdus] gigas\ Mod. Gk. op(/>o>r, p6<pos (Bory de St. Vincent, Aposto- 
lides) : it spawns in shallow waters. 

6 dpaKwv. Trachinus draco] Mod. Gk. Sp-iKaiva, rpd\iva\ Prov. It. 
dragena, tragena, &c. ; Lat. araneus', Genoese pesce ragno, c. The 
name iveever is said to be ivyvern, i.e. dragon. 

7 Ko>/3i6?. Various species of Gobius are still called Kupius or yo>/3t6?. 
G. niger is the commonest, and is caught in abundance in the lagoons 
of Missolonghi.(Apostolides). Cf. Juv. xi. 57. 

8 (pdypos. Cf. Arist. ap. Athen. vii. 327. Identified with Pagrus 
1'itlgaris, the braize or becker ; Mod. Gk. (pdypos, rrdypos, (pdyovpos 
(Rond.), (pdyyapi (Bory de St. V.) ; It. fiagra, Pagar, &.c. According to 
Heldreich and Erhard, <payypi or (pdyxpiov is Dentex macrophthahnus, 
the braize being called (pvdp6\^apov or \vdpiviov (i. e. fpvfynvov) : the 
latter names are given to various red-coloured fishes, e.g. Pagellus 
erythrinus. Apostolides gives as the modern name of Pagrus Tulgans 

, a Turkish equivalent of fpv 


conger, 1 the muraena, and the piper or sea-cuckoo are 

15 found alike in shallow and deep waters. These fishes, 
however, vary for various localities ; for instance, the goby 
and all rock-fish are fat off the coast of Crete. Again, the 
tunny is out of season in summer, when it is being preyed 
on by its own peculiar louse-parasite, 2 but after the rising 
of Arcturus, when the parasite has left it, it comes into 

20 season again. A number of fish also are found in sea- 
estuaries ; such as the saupe, the gilthead, the red mullet, 
and, in point of fact, the greater part of the gregarious 
fishes. The bonito also is found in such waters, 3 as, for 
instance, off the coast of Alopeconnesus; and most 4 species 
of fishes are found in Lake Bistonis. 5 The coly-mackerel 6 as 
a rule does not enter the Euxine, but passes the summer in 

2 5 the Propontis, where it spawns, and winters in the Aegean. 7 
The tunny proper, the pelamys, and the bonito penetrate 
into the Euxine in summer and pass the summer there ; 
as do also the greater part of such fish as swim in shoals 
with the currents, or congregate in shoals together. And 
most fish congregate in shoals, and shoal-fishes in all cases 
have leaders. 

30 Fish penetrate into the Euxine for two reasons, and firstly 
for food. For the feeding is more abundant and better in 
quality owing to the amount of fresh river-water that dis^ 
charges into the sea, 8 and moreover, the large fishes of this 
5 9 8 b inland sea are smaller than the large fishes of the outer sea 
In point of fact, there is no large fish in the Euxine except- 
ing the dolphin and the porpoise, 9 and the dolphin is a 

1 This may be a dark variety of the common conger, distinguished 
as C. niger by Risso ; but there are also many other species of eels 
in the Mediterranean. 

2 H. A. v. 31. 557* 27, viii. 19. 602* 25. 

3 Dittm. cj. 5' *'(*") *ai a/nun. 4 Some'MSS. omit TrXeurra. 
5 Near Abdera, in Thrace, Ael. xv. 25. 

c According to Apostolides Scomber colias is in Mod. Gk. KO\IOS, 
Sc. scomber ovco/u/fyi. The mackerels are the commonest fishes of the 
Black Sea. See note to v. 9. 543* 2. 

7 AtyictAw, cod. Ven. ; also Ael. x. 6. Apostolides quotes a Mod. 
Gk. proverb : ' Everything in its season, and the *o\ios in the month of 

8 Plin. ix. 19; Ael. ix. 64. 

9 Plin. ix. 15; Ael. ix. 59; Plut. Sql. Anim. 981 D. The parallel 
passages all give <o>K/7 in place of 

BOOK VIII. 13 598 b 

small variety ; but as soon as you get into the outer sea 
the big fishes are on the big scale. Furthermore, fish 
penetrate into this sea for the purpose of breeding ; for 
there are recesses there favourable for spawning, and the 
fresh and exceptionally sweet water has an invigorating 5 
effect upon the spawn. After spawning, when the young 
fishes have attained some size, the parent fish swim out 
of the Euxine immediately after the rising of the Pleiads. 
If winter comes in with a southerly wind, they swim out 
with more or less of deliberation ; but, if a north wind be 
blowing, they swim out with greater rapidity, from the fact 
that the breeze is favourable to their own course. And, 
by the way, the young fish are caught about this time 
in the neighbourhood of Byzantium very small in size, 10 
as might have been expected from the shortness of their 
sojourn in the Euxine. 1 The shoals in general are visible 
both as they quit and enter the Euxine. The trichiae, 2 
however, only can be caught during their entry, but are 
never visible during their exit ; in point of fact, when a 
trichia is caught running outwards in the neighbourhood 
of Byzantium, the fishermen are particularly careful to 
cleanse their nets, as the circumstance is so singular and 
exceptional. The way of accounting for this phenomenon 15 
is that this fish, and this one only, swims northwards into 
the Danube, and then at the point of its bifurcation swims 
down southwards into the Adriatic. 3 And, as a proof that 
this theory is correct, the very opposite phenomenon pre- 
sents itself in the Adriatic ; that is to say, they are not 

1 At the present day 'the fishermen maintain that these [autumn] 
shoals [of young tunnies] are composed of fishes of the same year : the 
uniformity of size is certainly very striking' (Ed. Forbes, op. cit., 
p. 206)]. 

2 rpixia is usually taken to be an anchovy or some similar fish (vi. 15. 
569 b 26), but the present account suggests the great shoals of little athe- 
rines (see note on 0(^77, 569* 31), which migrate into the Black Sea in 
spring, and are equally abundant in the Adriatic. ' Having passed the 
Straits of Constantinople, the shoals turn northwards, keeping close in 
to avoid the current which sweeps down towards the outlet' (Ed. Forbes, 
op.cit. p. 204). 

3 The Argonauts are said to have followed the same route, Apoll. 
Rh. iv. 283 ; but its existence is denied by Strabo, i. p. 153, and Plin. 
iii. 1 8. In Plin. ix. 20 the fishes are, said to reach the Adriatic 
' subterraneis venis '. 


caught in that sea during their entry, but are caught during 
their exit. 

Tunny-fish swim into the Euxine keeping the shore on 
20 their right, and swim out of it with the shore upon their 
left. 1 It is stated that they do so as being naturally weak- 
sighted, and seeing better with the right eye. 2 

During the daytime shoal-fish continue on their way, 
but during the night they rest and feed.^ But if there be 
moonlight, they continue their journey without resting at 
all. Some people accustomed to sea-life assert that shoal- 
25 fish at the period of the winter solstice never move at all, 
but keep perfectly still wherever they may happen to have 
been overtaken by the solstice, and this lasts until the 

The coly-mackerel is caught more frequently on entering 
than on quitting the Euxine. And in the Propontis the 
fish is at its best before the spawning season. Shoal-fish, 
as a rule, are caught in greater quantities as they leave the 
' Euxine, and at that season they are in the best condition. 4 
30 At the time of their entrance they are caught in very 
plump condition close to shore, 5 but those are in compara- 
tively poor condition that are caught farther out to sea. 
599 a Very often, when the coly-mackerel and the mackerel are 
met by a south wind in their exit, there are better catches 
to the southward than in the neighbourhood of Byzantium. 
So much then for the phenomenon of migration of fishes. 

Now the same phenomenon is observed in fishes as in 

s.terrestrial animals in regard to hibernation : in other words, 

during winter fishes take to concealing themselves in out of 

the way places, and quit their places of concealment in the 

1 Plin. ix. 20; Plut. Sol. Anim. 29; Athen. vii. p. 301 ; Ael. ix. 42 ; 
Solin. xii. All through the Mediterranean the routes of the tunny are 
minutely defined and seldom vary. Cf. P. Pavesi, Le migrazioni del 
tonno, Rendic. R. 1st. Lomb. (2), xx. p. 311, Milano, 1887. 

2 Aesch. fr. ap. Ael., Plut., /. citt. TO o-Kaibv O/JL/J.O. 7rapa[Ba\tov Ovvvov 
di^v : cf. also Arist. ap. Athen. vii. 301. MS. Canis. has simply $wm 
OVK ou fi\(7Toi>T(s i Plin. 4 natura non acute videntes.' 

3 Ael. ix. 46. 

4 ' The fishermen profess to know the shoals as they pass back 
again, and can tell how much the fish have gained in weight in the 
course of the summer' (Ed. Forbes). 

6 Guil., Scotus, and Gaza all read roO Aiycuou. 

BOOK VIII. 13 599' 

warmer season. But, by the way, animals go into con- 
cealment by way of refuge against extreme heat, as well as 
against extreme cold. Sometimes an entire genus will 
thus seek concealment ; in other cases some species will 
do so and others will not. For instance, the shell-fish 10 
seek concealment without exception, as is seen in the 
case of those dwelling in the sea, the purple murex, the 
ceryx, and all such like; but though in the case of the 
detached species the phenomenon is obvious for they 
hide themselves, as is seen in the scallop, or they are pro- 
vided with an operculum on the free surface, as in the case 
of land snails in the case of the non-detached the con- 15 
cealment is not so clearly observed. They do not go into 
hiding at one and the same season ; but the snails go 
in winter, the purple murex and the ceryx for about thirty 
days at the rising of the Dog-star, and the scallop at about 
the same period. But for the most part they go into 
concealment when the weather is either extremely cold 
or extremely hot. 

14 Insects almost all go into hiding, with the exception of 20 
such of them as live in human habitations or perish before 
the completion of the year. They l hide in the winter ; 
some of them for several days, others for only the coldest 
days, as the bee. For the bee also goes into hiding : and 
the proof that it does so is that during a certain period 25 
bees never touch the food set before them, and if a bee 
creeps out of the hive, it is quite transparent, 2 with nothing 
whatsoever in its stomach ; and the period of its rest and 
hiding lasts from the setting of the Pleiads until spring- 

Animals take their winter-sleep or summer-sleep by con- 
cealing themselves in warm places, or in places where they 
have been used to lie concealed. 

1 For Tavra Dittm. cj. ra\\n. 

2 dia^nvrjs is dubious : it was suggested by Scaliger and adopted by 
Camus and Schneider from Med., Canis., and Gaza's tr. ' ventre trans- 
lucente'. a(pai'T)s is the common reading, (xfravpn, 'feeble.' would seem 
a more fitting word than either. 


30 Several blooded animals take this sleep, such as the 15 
pholidotes or tessellates, namely, the serpent, the lizard, 
the gecko, and the river- crocodile, all of which go into 
hiding for four months in the depth of winter, and during that 
599 b time eat nothing. Serpents in general burrow underground 
for this purpose ; the viper conceals itself under a stone. 

A great number of fishes also take this sleep, 1 and notably, 
the hippurus and coracinus in winter time ; for, whereas 
fish in general may be caught at all periods of the year 
more or less, there is this singularity observed in these 
fishes, that they are caught within a certain fixed period 

5 of the year, and never by any chance out of it. The 
muraena also hides, and the orphus or sea-perch, and the 
conger. Rock-fish pair off, male and female, for hiding 
(just as for breeding); 2 as is observed in the case of the 
species of wrasse called the thrush and the owzel, 3 and 
in the perch. 

The tunny also takes a sleep in winter in deep waters, 

10 and gets exceedingly fat after the sleep. The fishing 
season for the tunny begins at the rising of the Pleiads and 
lasts, at the longest, down to the setting of Arcturus ; 
during the rest of the year they are hid and enjoying im- 
. munity. About the time of hibernation a few tunnies or 
other hibernating fishes are caught while swimming about, 
in particularly warm localities and in exceptionally fine 

15 weather, or on nights of full moon ; for the fishes are in- 
duced (by the warmth or the light) to emerge for a while 
from their lair in quest of food. 

Most fishes are at their best for the table during the 
summer or winter sleep. 

The primas-tunny conceals itself in the mud ; 4 this may 

1 Plin. ix. 24 ; Ael. ix. 57. 

2 Sxnrcp Kal vfoTTcvovo-iv is a doubtful phrase, and is stigmatized by 
A. and W. 

3 In Mod. Gk. Kt^Xa is Coricus ro stratus > noravfa Crenilabrus fiavo 
(Heldreich). According to Arist. ap. Athen. vii. 3c5 b K.6cro-v(j)os is 
p.e\av6(TTiKTos, which would apply to several other species better than to 
C. pavo. There are about twenty-four species of wrasse in the Mediter- 
ranean, and the name turdo in various forms is applied to most of them. 

4 Hence the supposed derivation of Trr)\ap.vs from 7777X09, Etym. M., 
&c. The Trpi/iafies seem to be simply the young tunnies, at the time of 
their first appearance. 

BOOK VIII. 15 599 b 

be inferred from the fact that during a particular period 
the fish is never caught, and that, when it is caught after 
that period, it is covered with mud and has its fins damaged. 
In the spring 1 these tunnies get in motion and proceed 2 o 
towards the coast, coupling and breeding, and the females 
are now caught full of spawn. At this time they are 
considered as in season, but in autumn and in winter as 
of inferior quality; at this time also the males are full 
of milt. When the spawn is small, the fish is hard to 
catch, but it is easily caught when the spawn gets large, 25 
as the fish is then infested by its parasite. 2 Some fish 
burrow for sleep in the sand and some in mud, just keeping 
their mouths outside. 

Most fishes hide, then, during the winter only, but crus- 
taceans, the rock-fish, the ray, and the cartilaginous species 
hide only during extremely severe weather, and this may 
be inferred from the fact that these fishes are never by any 30 
chance caught when the weather is extremely cold. Some 
fishes, however, hide during the summer, as the glaucus or 
grey-back ; this fish hides in summer for about sixty days. 3 
The hake 4 also and the gilthead hide ; and we infer that 
the hake hides over a lengthened period from the fact 6oo a 
that it is only caught at long intervals. We are led also 
to infer that fishes hide in summer from the circumstance 
that the takes of certain fish are made between the rise and 
setting of certain constellations : of the Dog-star in par- 
ticular, the sea at this period being upturned from the 
lower depths. 5 This phenomenon may be observed to best 
advantage in the Bosporus ; for the mud is there brought 5 
up to the surface and the fish are brought up along with 

1 faptvrjv is due to Gaza. The MSS. and the versions of Guil. and 
Scot, have (IprjfjLcvrjv. The latter reading would refer to the rising of 
the Pleiads, 599 b n. 

2 //. A. v. 31.. 557* 27, viii. 19. 602* 25. Alb. M. tr. 'quoniam tune 
moventur in desiderio coitus.' 

Plin. ix. 25. 

4 We follow tradition in translating ovos ' hake ' ; cf. the Mod. It. 
asinellO) and yaSoy, Dorion, ap. Athen. vii. 3 1 5 b . See also Arist. afi. Athen. 
315. According to H. A. ix. 36 ovos would appear to have a barbel, 
which the. true hake has not, but which is present in Phycis blennioides 
and P. mediterranea^ the fork-beard and Mediterranean hakes. 

5 H. A. viii, 20. 6o2 b 22, Plin. ix. 25 ; cf. ii. 40, xii. 68. 


it. They say also that very often, when the sea-bottom is 
dredged, more fish will be caught by the second haul than 
by the first one. Furthermore, after very heavy rains 
numerous specimens become visible of creatures that at 
other times are never seen at all or seen only at intervals. 


A great number of birds also go into hiding ; they do 16 
not all migrate, as is generally supposed, to warmer 
countries. Thus, certain birds (as the kite and the swallow) 
when they are not far off from places of this kind, in which 
they have their permanent abode, betake themselves thither ; 
others, that are at a distance from such places, decline the 
trouble of migration and simply hide themselves where 

*5 they are. Swallows, for instance, have been often found in 
holes, 1 quite denuded of their feathers, and the kite on its 
first emergence from torpidity has been seen to fly from 
out some such hiding-place. And with regard to this 
phenomenon of periodic torpor there is no distinction 
observed, whether the talons of a bird be crooked or 
straight ; for instance, the stork, the owzel, the turtle-dove, 

20 and the lark, all go into hiding. The case of the turtle- 
dove is the most notorious of all, for we would defy any 
one to assert that he had anywhere seen a turtle-dove 
in winter-time ; at the beginning of the hiding time it is 
exceedingly plump, and during this period it moults, but 
retains its plumpness. Some cushats hide ; others, instead 

25 of hiding, migrate at the same time as the swallow. The 
thrush and the starling hide ; and of birds with crooked 
talons the kite and the owl hide for a few days. 

Of viviparous quadrupeds the porcupine and the bear 2 17 
retire into concealment. The fact that the bear 3 hides 
is well established, but there are doubts as to its motive for 
30 so doing, whether it be by reason of the cold or from some 

1 Schn. suggests ayKfo-i, from Gaza's tr. ' in angustiis convallium*. 
Dittm. cj. ayniois, s. nWpoif, s. (paiXtols. The belief survives in White's 
Selborne, &c. 

2 Cf. H. A. vi. 30. 579 a ; Plin. viii. 53, 54 ; Ael. vi. 3; \\\\.SoL Anhn. 
p. 974, c. 

1 ' the epithet being otiose or spurious. 


BOOK VIII. 17 600 

other cause. About this period the male and the female 
become so fat as to be hardly capable of motion. The 
female brings forth her young at this time, and remains 
in concealment until it is time to bring the cubs out; and 6oo b 
she brings them out in spring, about three months after 
the winter solstice. The bear hides for at least forty days ; 
during fourteen of these days it is said not to move at all, but 
during most of the subsequent days it moves, and from time 5 
to time wakes up. A she-bear in pregnancy has either never 
been caught at all or has been caught very seldom. There 
can be no doubt but that during this period they eat nothing; 
for in the first place they never emerge from their hiding- 
place, and further, when they are caught, their belly and 
intestines are found to be quite empty. It is also said that 
from no food being taken the gut almost closes up, and I0 
that in consequence the animal on first emerging takes 
to eating arum l with the view of opening up and distending 
the gut. 

The dormouse actually hides in a tree, and gets very 
fat at that period ; as does also the white mouse of Pontus. 

[Of animals that hide or go torpid some slough off what T 5 
is called their ' old-age '. 2 This name is applied to the 
outermost skin, and to the casing that envelops the 
developing organism.] 3 

In discussing the case of terrestrial vivipara we stated 
that the reason for the bear's seeking concealment is an 
open question. We now proceed to treat of the tessellates. 
The tessellates for the most part go into hiding, and if 
their skin is soft they slough off their ' old-age ', but not 20 
if the skin is shell-like, as is the shell of the tortoise for, 
by the way, the tortoise and the freshwater tortoise belong 
to the tessellates. Thus, the old-age is sloughed off by 
the gecko, the lizard, and above all, by serpents ; and they 

1 //. A. ix. 6. 6n a 35. On this plant see Plin. xxiv. 92; Galen, Fac. 
Simpl. xi. 839X5 Diosc. ii. 157, &c. 

2 H. A. v. 17. 549 b 26. 

3 The whole passage enclosed within brackets seems to have been 
originally a note appended to explain \opiov, a few lines lower down, 
and to have got interpolated into the text. The last clause, <a\ . . . 

s, is omitted by Scotus. 

AR. H.A. 


slough off the skin in springtime when emerging from their 

25 torpor, and again in the autumn. Vipers also slough off 

their skin both in spring and in autumn, and it is not the 

case, as some aver, that this species of the serpent family is 

exceptional in not sloughing. When the serpent begins to 

slough, the skin peels off at first from the eyes, so that 

any one ignorant of the phenomenon would suppose the 

animal were going blind ; after that it peels off the head, 

and so on, until the creature presents to view only a white 

30 surface all over. 1 The sloughing goes on for a day and 

a night, beginning with the head and ending with the tail. 

During the sloughing of the skin an inner layer comes to 

the surface, 2 for the creature emerges just as the embryo 

6oi a from its afterbirth. 

All insects that slough at all slough in the same way ; 
as the silphe, 3 and the empis or midge, 4 and all the coleo- 
ptera, as for instance the cantharus-beetle. They all slough 
after the period of development ; for just as the afterbirth 
breaks from off the young of the vivipara so the outer husk 
5 breaks off from around the young of the vermipara, in the 
same way both with the bee and the grasshopper. The 
cicada the moment after issuing from the husk 5 goes and 
sits upon an olive tree or a reed ; after the breaking up of 
the husk the creature issues out, leaving a little moisture 
behind, and after a short interval flies up into the air and 
sets a-chirping. 
10 Of marine animals the crawfish and the lobster 6 slough 

For \cvKr) <f>aiverai TTO.VTWV we have presumed to read \evKalv(Tai 
ndvTus (or TrdvToo-t). Several MSS. have Kf\v<pr) for KOI XtvKrj, and the 
Marcian inserts the latter as an alternative reading (Camus, Not. d. 
MSS. v. p. 452). 

2 Several MSS. omit Wo'r and have (frvofif'vov for tuftvofievov. MS. 
Paris, has TOU eWoj dtpparos fj rov CKTOS aTro/SoAq ; Gaza ' et cute altera 
intus subnascente ipsa removetur'. Schn. accordingly would restore 
yiyvfrai fie vno<f)vop,(vov TOU cVror depparos f) rov (KTOS arro/SoXj;. 

3 <ri\<f>T], though not directly identifiable from the Greek, appears to 
be identical with the Lat. blatta (Plin. xi. 28, &c.), and that with the 
cockroach, e. g. Blatta germ ant 'ca. 

4 far is -is properly a gnat or midge, ci.H.A. i. 5.490*21, v. 19. 55i b 27; 
but that interpretation is inapt here, as Sundevall suggests rather one 
of the smaller mayflies (f</>q/iepa, cf. v. 19. 552 b 18) whose cast skins are 
common and conspicuous objects. 

5 H. A. v. 30. 556 b 7. 

6 H. A. v. 17. 549 b 25 ; Artem. On. ii. 14. 

BOOK VIII. 17 6oi a 

sometimes in the spring, and sometimes in autumn after 
parturition. Lobsters have been caught occasionally with 
the parts about the thorax soft, from the shell having there 
peeled off, and the lower parts hard, from the shell having 
not yet peeled off there; for, by the way, they do not 
slough in the same manner as the serpent. The crawfish 15 
hides for about five months. Crabs also slough off their 
old-age ; this is generally allowed with regard to the soft- 
shelled crabs, and it is said to be the case with the testa- 
ceous kind, as for instance with the large ' granny ' crab. 1 
When these animals slough their shell becomes soft all 
over, and as for the crab, it can scarcely crawl. These 
animals also do not cast their skins once and for all, but 20 
over and over again. 

So much for the animals that go into hiding or torpidity, 
for the times at which, and the ways in which, they go ; and 
so much also for the animals that slough off their old-age, 
and for the times at which they undergo the process. 

18 Animals do not all thrive at the same seasons, nor do 
they thrive alike during all extremes of weather. Further, 
animals of diverse species are in a diverse way healthy or 25 
sickly at certain seasons ; and, in point of fact, some 
animals have ailments that are unknown to others. Birds 
thrive in times of drought, both in their general health and 
in regard to parturition, and this is especially the case with 
the cushat ; 2 fishes, however, with a few exceptions, thrive 
best in rainy weather ; on the contrary, rainy seasons 3 
are bad for birds and so by the way is much drinking 30 
and drought is bad for fishes. 4 Birds of prey, as has been 
already stated, may in a general way be said never to 
drink at all, 5 though Hesiod 6 appears to have been ignorant 6oi b 
of the fact, for in his story about the siege of Ninus he 

PE a TCIS fMiias rds re ypavs. 

2 Elsewhere (frdcro-at is not infrequently confused in MSS. with 
Tidavo-ai, and this may have been the case here. 

3 Some MSS. have (n6p.f3pta eXy. 

4 The rest of the chapter is stigmatized by A. & W. 

5 H. A. viii. 3. 594* i. 

6 Some MSS. have Herodotus, and Scotus gives Homer; the 
reference is unknown. 

A a 2 


represents the eagle that presided over the auguries as 
in the act of drinking ; all other birds drink, but drink 
5 sparingly, as is the case also with all other spongy-lunged 
oviparous animals. Sickness in birds may be diagnosed 
from their plumage, which is ruffled when they are sickly 
instead of lying smooth as when they are well. 

The majority of fishes, as has been stated, thrive l best 19 

10 in rainy seasons. Not only have they food in greater 
abundance at this time, but in a general way rain is whole- 
some for them just as it is for vegetation 2 for, by the way, 
kitchen vegetables, though artificially watered, derive 
benefit from rain ; and the same remark applies even to 

15 reeds that grow in marshes, as they hardly grow at all 
without a rainfall. 3 That rain is good for fishes may be 
inferred from the fact that most fishes migrate to the 
Euxine for the summer ; for owing to the number of the 
rivers that discharge into this sea its water is exceptionally 
fresh, and the rivers bring down a large supply of food. 
Besides, a great number of fishes, such as the bonito and 

20 the mullet, 4 swim up the rivers and thrive in the rivers 
and marshes. The sea-gudgeon also fattens in the rivers, 
and, as a rule, countries abounding in lagoons furnish 
unusually excellent fish. While most fishes, then, are 
benefited by rain, they are chiefly benefited by summer 
rain ; or we may state the case thus, that rain is good for 

25 fishes in spring, summer, and autumn, and fine dry weather 
in winter. As a general rule what is good for men is good 
for fishes also. 

Fishes do not thrive in cold places, and those fishes suffer 

30 most in severe winters that have a stone in their head, 5 
as the chromis, the basse, the sciaena, 6 and the braize ; 

MSS. have evcr6vfl t cvdt v(\ ; Bekk. 

Theoph. H. PL \. 2. 3 Plin. ix. 23. 

4 H. A. vi. 14. 569* 7. 5 Plin. ix. 24; Ael. ix. 7. 

6 aKtmva is one of the three allied Sciaenidae, .5V. aquila, Umbrina 
cirrosa, and Corvina niger, to all of which the name ombra, umbrina, 
c., is now applied. The last-named is called in Mod. Gk. &KIOS, 
fTKioeifies, jiuAaKoTri (Heldreich). cn*uor (? O-KIO?) (Erhard) ; Umbrina is 
also called (TKIOV (Rondelet). According to Erhard, Sciaena aquila is 
not found in the Aegean. XP<V"?5 according to Cuvier, Joh. Miiller, and 
others, is one of the same fishes. See notes to iv. 8. 534* 10, v. 10. 543'' 2. 

BOOK VIII. 19 6oi b 

for owing to the stone they get frozen with the cold, 1 and 
are thrown up on shore. 2 

Whilst rain is wholesome for most fishes, it is, on the 
contrary, unwholesome for the mullet, the cephalus, and 6o2 a 
the so-called marinus, for rain superinduces blindness in 
most of these fishes, and all the more rapidly if the rainfall 
be superabundant. The cephalus is peculiarly subject to 
this malady in severe winters ; their eyes grow white, and 5 
when caught they are in poor condition, and eventually the 
disease kills them. It would appear that this disease is 
due to extreme cold even more than to an excessive rain- 
fall ; for instance, in many places and more especially in 
shallows off the coast of Nauplia, in the Argolid, a number 
of fishes have been known to be caught out at sea in 10 
seasons of severe cold. The gilthead also suffers in winter ; 
the acharnas 3 suffers in summer, and loses condition. The 
coracine is exceptional among fishes in deriving benefit 
from drought, and this is due to the fact that heat and 
drought are apt to come together. 

Particular places suit particular fishes ; some are naturally 15 
fishes of the shore, and some of the deep sea, and some are 
at home in one or the other of these regions, and others are 
common to the two and are at home in both. Some fishes 
will thrive in one particular spot, and in that spot only. 
As a general rule it may be said that places abounding in 
weeds are wholesome ; at all events, fishes caught in such 
places are exceptionally fat : that is, such fishes as inhabit 
all sorts of localities as well. The fact is that weed-eating ao 
fishes find abundance of their special food in such localities, 
and carnivorous fish find an unusually large number of 
smaller fish. It matters also whether the \vind be from the 
north or south : the longer fish thrive better when a north 
wind prevails, and in summer at one and the same spot 

1 Ael. /. C. Ka\ xpui>oy TOVTO [TO \ididtov] \l/i>xpoTarov yivfrat, Kal \vrrtl 
alrov iaxvp&s. In Sciaena and its allies the otoliths are exceptionally 
large, Cuv. and Val. v. p. 43 : they were worn at the neck as a cure and 
prevention of colic, Belon, de Aquat. 1553, p. 118. 

2 Or the verb may mean 'degenerate, fall off in condition*. 

3 Cf. viii. 2. 59i b i. 


25 more long fish will be caught than l flat fish with a north 
wind blowing. 

The tunny and the sword-fish are infested with a parasite 
about the rising of the Dog-star ; 2 that is to say, about 
this time both these fishes have a grub beside their fins 
that is nicknamed the 'gadfly'. 3 It resembles the scorpion 
in shape, and is about the size of the spider. So acute 
is the pain it inflicts that the sword-fish 4 will often leap 
30 as high out of the water as a dolphin ; in fact, it sometimes 
leaps over the bulwarks of a vessel and falls back on the 
deck. The tunny delights more than any other fish in 
the heat of the sun. It will burrow for warmth in the sand 
6o2 b in shallow waters near to shore, or will, because it is warm, 
disport itself on the surface of the sea. 

The fry of little fishes escape by being overlooked, for it 

is only the larger ones of the small species that fishes of 

the large species will pursue. The greater part of the 

spawn and the fry of fishes is destroyed by the heat of 

5 the sun, 5 for whatever of them the sun reaches it spoils. 

Fishes are caught in greatest abundance before sunrise 
and after sunset, or, speaking generally, just about sunset 
and sunrise. 6 Fishermen haul up their nets at these 
times, and speak of the hauls then made as the c nick-of- 
time' hauls. The fact is, that at these times fishes are parti- 
10 cularly weaksighted ; at night they are at rest, and as the 
light grows stronger they see comparatively well. 

We know of no pestilential malady attacking fishes, such 
as those which attack man, and horses and oxen among the 
quadrupedal vivipara, and certain species of other genera, 

1 /cat MSS., Bekk. ; fj Aldine, and most commentators. 

2 H. A. v. 31. 557* 27, viii. 15. 599 b 26 ; Plin. ix. 21 ; Opp. Hal. ii. 
506 ; Athen. vii. p. 302. 

3 These parasites are parasitic copepods ; that of the sword-fish is 
Pennellajilosa (L.), and to its elongated form the present description 
seems best to apply. The chief species infesting the tunny is Brachiella 
thynni (Cuv.), but Cecrops Latreillii y Leach, is said also, by Milne 
Edwards, to infest that fish. Cf. Steenstrup and Liitken, K. Danske 
Vid. Selsk. Skr. (5) v. 421, 1861. 

1 Athen. /. c. omits TOV i<ia>. For dpax"?r Athen. reads dpaxw*. 

5 A. & W. cj. 6ia TOVS appivas. The whole sentence is probably 
corrupt : Gaza has translated a very different text, 'cum enim pisces 
desiderio teporis loca foe'turae adeunt, liguriunt quicquid attigerint.' 

6 Plin. ix. 23. 

BOOK VIII. 19 6oa l 

domesticated and wild ; but fishes do seem to suffer from 15 
sickness ; and fishermen infer this from the fact that at 
times fishes in poor condition, and looking as though they 
were sick, and of altered colour, are caught in a large haul 
of well-conditioned fish of their own species. So much for 

20 River-fish and lake-fish also are exempt from diseases of 20 
a pestilential character, but certain species are subject to 
special and peculiar maladies. For instance, the sheat-fish l 
just before the rising of the Dog-star, owing to its swim- 
ming near the surface of the water, is liable to sunstroke, 
and is paralysed by a loud peal of thunder. The carp 
is subject to the same eventualities, but in a lesser degree. 
The sheat-fish is destroyed in great quantities in shallow 25 
waters by the serpent called the dragon. 2 In the balerus 
and tilon 3 a worm is engendered about the rising of the 
Dog-star, that sickens these fish and causes them to rise 
towards the surface, where they are killed by the excessive 
heat. The chalcis is subject to a very violent malady ;* lice 
are engendered underneath their gills in great numbers, 5 
and cause destruction among them ; but no other species 3 
of fish is subject to any such malady. 

If mullein be introduced into water it will kill fish in its 
vicinity. 6 It is used extensively for catching fish in rivers and 
ponds ; 7 by the Phoenicians it is made use of also in the sea. 6o3 a 
There are two other methods employed for catching fish. 

1 Plin. ix. 25. 

2 Plin. /. c. 'silurus Caniculae exortu sideratur'. I am not aware of 
* the dragon ' being a mythical expression for thunder, though it is, in 
Semitic literature, for the earthquake (cf. Isa. xxi.xj), and I suspect that 
vnb dpaKovros should read \>no /3povri)s ; the whole phrase may have been 
something like VTTO 0p. rrj $Aoyt. 

3 This is the curious word that Herodotus tells us belonged to the 
language of the Macedonian lake-dwellers. I suspect that it is a 
synonym of y\dvis, or Silurus, and akin to the S. German Seite, 
a name for the same fish. Cf. Kner, S. Akad. Wien, 1864, p. 336. 

4 Plin. ix. 71. As remarked under iv. 9. 535 b 18, this ftsh is conjectured 
to be the John Dory, Zeusfaber. A parasitic copepod, Chondracanthus 
zei> is very common and conspicuous on the gills of the fish, but is 
scarcely so conspicuous as to confirm the identification. 

5 Reading iroXXot. A. & W. prefer no\\ovs. ' Ael. i. 58. 

7 As spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias] is still used in the Adriatic and 
in Ireland ; if indeed the same plant be not meant here also. 


It is a known fact that in winter fishes emerge from the 
deep parts of rivers and, by the way, at all seasons fresh 
water is tolerably cold. A trench accordingly is dug 

5 leading into a river, and wattled at the river end with reeds 
and stones, an aperture being left in the wattling through 
which the river water flows into the trench ; when the frost 
comes on the fish can be taken out of the trench in weels. 
Another method is adopted in summer and winter alike. 
They run across a stream a dam composed of brushwood 

10 and stones, leaving a small open space, and in this space 
they insert a weel ; they then coop the fish in towards 
this place, and draw them up in the weel as they swim 
through the open space. 1 

Shell-fish, as a rule are benefited by rainy weather. The 
purple murex is an exception ; if it be placed on a shore 
near to where a river discharges, it will die within a day 

^5 after tasting the fresh water, The murex lives for about 
fifty days after capture ; during this period they feed off 
one another, 2 as there grows on the shell a kind of sea- 
weed or sea-moss ; if any food is thrown to them during 
this period, it is said to be done not to keep them alive, 
but to make them weigh more. 

To shell-fish in general drought is unwholesome. 3 During 

20 dry weather they decrease in size and degenerate in quality ; 
and it is during such weather that the red scallop is found 
in more than usual abundance. 4 In the Pyrrhaean Strait 
the clam was exterminated, partly by the dredging-machine 
used in their capture, and partly by long-continued 
droughts. Rainy weather is wholesome to the generality 
of shell-fish owing to the fact that the sea-water then 

25 becomes exceptionally sweet. In the Euxine, owing to the 
coldness of the climate, shell-fish are not found : nor yet 
in rivers, excepting a few bivalves here and there. Uni- 

1 The original of this passage is very obscure, and the translation 
merely tentative. For TrtpicXovrfs TOVS \idovs 1 conjecture TrtpieiXovrt? 
TOW IxOvs. Cf. the account of fish-weirs, ' serragli di grigiuoli,' &c., in 
Faber's Fishes of the Adriatic, p. 123 ; the best fishing is at the time 
oi the first frosts, and is known as fraima or frimas, i. e. hoar-frost 
(infra hiemeni). 2 Plut. Sol. Anim. 980 c. 

Xenocr. de Alim. xix ; Diphil. ap. Athen. p. 90. 

4 Gaza tr. ' et quidem pectines tune magis trahunt rufum colorem '. 

BOOK VIII. 20 6o3 a 

valves, by the way, are very apt to freeze 10 death in 
extremely cold weather. So much for animals that live 
in water. 

21 *To turn to quadrupeds, 2 the pig suffers from threes 
diseases, 3 one of which is called branches, 4 a disease attended 
with swellings about the windpipe 5 and the jaws. 6 It may 
break out in any part of the body ; very often it attacks 6o3 b 
the foot, and occasionally the ear ; the neighbouring parts 
also soon rot, and the decay goes on until it reaches the 
lungs, when the animal succumbs. The disease develops 
with great rapidity, and the moment it sets in the animal 
gives up eating. The swineherds know but one way to 5 
cure it, namely, by complete excision, when they detect 
the first signs of the disease. There are two other diseases, 
which are both alike termed craurus. 7 The one is attended 
with pain and heaviness in the head, and this is the com- 
moner of the two, the other with diarrhoea. The latter 
is incurable, the former is treated by applying wine fomenta- 10 
tions to the snout and rinsing the nostrils with wine. Even 

1 The following chapters on veterinary medicine, and indeed all the 
remainder of this eighth book, bear evidence of an alien hand., 

2 On the diseases of animals known to antiquity, see especially 
the Byzantine compilations known as the Hippiatrica (ed. Gryneus, 
1537, &c.) and Geoponica (ed. int. al. J. H. Niclas, 1781). See also 
A. Baranski, Thiermedicin im Alterthum, \Vien, 1886). 

3 Verg. G. iii. 497; Plin. viii. 77; Colum. vii. 10. 

* Under fipdyxos, two or more diseases appear to be confused. The 
inflammatory swellings about the windpipe and jaws, and the rapid 
and fatal course of the disease, correspond to the symptoms of anthrax. 
But the affection of the feet suggests more especially foot-and-mouth 
disease, or ' epizootic aphtha ', in which the hooves tend to ret or slough 
away. This latter disease in most cases yields to treatment, and to it 
the subsequent and disconnected paragraph on 0pdy\os very probably 

6 Note the use of /3payxm for windpipe, as in tie Spiritu, 5. 483* 22, 
both passages being in all probability spurious. 

6 Verg. I.e. .'et quatit aegros Tussis anhela sues, ac faucibus angit 

7 The two varieties of tpavpos cannot be identified with any approach 
to certainty. The drooping head is an early symptom of almost any 
disease. Diarrhoea is a common, but not invariable symptom, of the 
fatal malady known as swine fever. Suid., s. i>. Sidppota, describes 
Ppdyxi, xpavpa, and Sidppoia as the three diseases of swine. According 
to Varro, R. R. ii. 4, the seller should give a warranty that his pigs are 
' a febri et a foria perfunctas ', i. e. ' free from fever and from diarrhoea '. 


this disease is very hard to cure ; it has been known to kill 
within three or four days. The animal is chiefly subject to 
branchos when it gets extremely fat, and when the heat has 
brought a good supply of figs. 1 The treatment is to feed 

15 on rnashed mulberries, to give repeated warm baths, and 
to lance the under part of the tongue. 

Pigs with flabby flesh are subject to measles 2 about the 
legs, neck, and shoulders, for the pimples develop chiefly 
in these parts. 3 If the pimples are few in number the flesh 
is comparatively sweet, but if they be numerous it gets 

20 watery and flaccid. The symptoms of measles are obvious, 
for the pimples show chiefly on the under side of the 
tongue, and if you pluck the bristles off the chine the skin 
will appear suffused with blood, and further the animal 
will be unable to keep its hind-feet at rest. Pigs never 

25 take this disease while they are mere sucklings. The 
pimples may be got rid of by feeding on a kind of spelt 
called tiphe ; 4 and this spelt, by the way, is very good for 
ordinary food. The best food for rearing and fattening 
pigs is chickpeas and figs, but the one thing essential is 
to vary the food as much as possible, for this animal, like 

30 animals in general, delights in a change of diet ; and it is 
said that one kind of food blows the animal out, that 
another superinduces flesh, and that another puts on fat, 
and that acorns, though liked by the animal, render the 
flesh flaccid. Besides, if a sow eats acorns in great quanti- 

1 The text is doubtful. Bekk. reads STOV TO dtpos evcyicji (v, which 
seems inacceptable : Pice. cj. dKapniav. Cf. Colum. /?. /?. vii. 10 ' Solet 
etiam vitiosi splenis dolor eas infestare, quod accidit quum siccitas 
magna provenit, et, ut Bucolicum loquitur poema, Strata iacent passim 
sua quaeque sub arbore poma '. 

8 The ' measles ' here alluded to are the cysticercus-cysts of the 
tape-worm. It is the case that the cysts or pimples are to be detected 
chiefly on, or rather under, the tongue, but I am not aware that there 
are symptoms of cutaneous suffusion. Indeed the statement as to this 
latter symptom is very possibly misplaced ; the symptom is mentioned 
by Pliny as a general sign of ill-health, or of the presence of angina 
or struma (Plin. viii. 77 ' index suis invalidae cruor in radice setae dorso 
evulsae, caput obliquum [s. obstipum] in incessu'). 

1 Ruf. Ephes. in Oribas. Collect, iv. 2. Cf. also Ar. Eg. 374 and 

4 Theophr. H. P. viii. i. i ; Plin. xviii. 19. Probably a sort of coarse 
wheat, Triticum monococcitm, L. Some MSS. have annals. 

BOOK VIII. 21 6o4 a 

ties, it will miscarry, as is also the case with the ewe ; and, 
indeed, the miscarriage is more certain in the case of the 
ewe than in the case of the sow. The pig is the only 
animal known to be subject to measles. 

22 Dogs suffer from three diseases ; rabies, quinsy, and sore 
feet. Rabies drives the animal mad, and any animal what- 5 
ever, excepting man, will take the disease if bitten by a 
dog so afflicted ; the disease is fatal to the dog itself, and 
to any animal it may bite, man excepted. 1 Quinsy 2 also is 
fatal to dogs ; and only a few dogs recover from disease of 
the feet. The camel, like the dog, is subject to rabies. 10 
The elephant, which is reputed to enjoy immunity from all 
other illnesses, is occasionally subject to flatulency. 3 

23 Cattle in herds are liable to two diseases, foot-sickness 
and craurus. 4 In the former their feet suffer from eruptions, 
but the animal recovers from the disease without even the 15 
loss of the hoof. It is found of service to smear the horny 
parts with warm pitch. 5 In craurus, the breath comes warm 
at short intervals ; in fact, craurus in cattle answers to fever 
in man. The symptoms of the disease are drooping of the 
ears and disinclination for food. The animal soon succumbs, 20 
and when the carcase is opened the lungs are found to 
be rotten. 

24 Horses out at pasture are free from all diseases excepting 
disease of the feet. From this disease they sometimes lose 

1 ir\r)t> avQpwTov is absent from most MSS., and is rejected by 
Piccolos ; but it is found in the version of Antigonus, cii. Pollux 
v. 53 modifies the statement, nav TO virb \VTTTJ exoptvov KWOS dijx^ev 
avatpclraC avdpairos d( p.6vos OVK avev KIV&VVW rrfpiyiyvfrai. On the 
signs of rabies see Paul. Aegin. v. 3, Glycas Ann. p. 63. On lytta, the 
1 worm ' in a dog's tongue removed (even to this day) to prevent rabies, 
see Plin. xxix. 5, Grat. Cyneg. 386, &c. 

2 This nvvdyxrj may very possibly be * distemper'. 
8 Cf. 26. 6o5 a 23. 

4 TToSaypa is very possibly the foot-and-mouth disease. icpavpos 
corresponds here to various febrile diseases, of which the drooping ears, 
loss of appetite, and laboured breathing are preliminary, rather than 
diagnostic symptoms ; the diseased lungs, however, suggest contagious 
pleuro-pneumonia, a malady which is usually fatal. 

8 Cf. 7- 595 b i5- 


25 their hooves : but after losing them they grow them soon 
again, for as one hoof is decaying it is being replaced by 
another. Symptoms of the malady are a sinking in and 
wrinkling of the lip in the middle under the nostrils, 
and in the case of the male, a twitching of the right 
testicle. 1 

Stall-reared horses are subject to very numerous forms 
of disease. They are liable to a disease called 'eileus'. 
Under this disease the animal trails its hind-legs under its 
belly so far forward as almost to fall back on its haunches ; 
if it goes without food for several days and turns rabid, 2 it 
may be of service to draw blood, or to castrate the male. 3 
The animal is subject also to tetanus : the veins get rigid, 
5 as also the head and neck, and the animal walks with its 
legs stretched out straight. The horse suffers also from 
abscesses. Another painful illness afflicts them called the 
'barley -surfeit'. The symptoms are a softening of the 
palate and heat of the breath ; * the animal may recover 
through the strength of its own constitution, but no formal 
remedies are of any avail. 

10 5 There is also a disease called nymphia, in which the 

1 op%is. Cf. Apsyrt. in Hippiatr. p. 164 01 rt op\ts avrov fvd\\ovrat 
(i>a\\a naff eva KCU 6 Kav\os TrpoTriVrft *cai evaipcrai. The casting of the 
hooves is a result of poisoning by ergot, as well as of various eruptive 
diseases of the feet. 

2 Schn. points out that this sentence is somehow corrupt. I think 
that ray t^npoadtv is interpolated by repetition from the line above ; 
and I imagine that the true reading was eav 8* do-tr^o-a? foe pas (TTTO. 
p(vr]. Possibly also furf^vovrts (qy. fKrer/^eVovs) may have been 
drawn in from the next clause ; in other words, the statement may 
have been that lockjaw sometimes follows castration, as is indeed the 
case. On tetanus in horses cf. Hippiatr. p. 119. 

3 (tXevs probably includes cases of ordinary colic ; but the descrip- 
tion further suggests the disease known as ' staggers ', or coma somno- 
lentitm, much commoner in the south of Europe than with us, in which 
disease the legs are contorted into curious positions. 

4 Cf. 14.2 ' Interdumet tumor palati cibos respuit crebrum- 
que suspirium facit ', &c. In the account of KptBidcns by Apsyrtus, in 
Hippiatr. i. c. 7, an ovpavio-Kos p.(T(u>pos is spoken of in connexion with 
it, apparently from a notion connected with the doctrine of signatures. 
According to Vegetius, iii.44, Kpidiacris is simply indigestion, or surfeit. 

5 The whole chapter is difficult, and this paragraph especially obscure. 
Scaliger translates Karexfo-dai f inhiberi\ Schneider, on the other hand, 
suggests (Cur. post. iv. p. 473) that KUTe'xeoAu = ndroxos elvai, i.e. 'to 
be demented, or possessed' ; cf. K. daipovi nvi, de Mirab. 166. 846 b 24. 
Dittm. cj. KaT(\((r6ai (a-rravfjLto) or ( 

BOOK VIII. 24 604* 

animal is said to stand still and droop its head on hearing 
flute-music ; if during this ailment the horse be mounted, 
it will run off at a gallop until it is pulled. 1 Even with 
this rabies in full force, it preserves a dejected spiritless 
appearance ; some of the symptoms are a throwing back of 
the ears followed by a projection of them, great languor, 
and heavy 2 breathing. Heart-ache 3 also is incurable, of 15 
which the symptom is a drawing in of the flanks; 4 and so 
is displacement of the bladder, 5 which is accompanied by 
a retention of urine and a drawing up of the hooves and 
haunches. Neither is there any cure if the animal swallow 
the grape-beetle, which is about the size of the sphondyle 
or knuckle-beetle. n The bite of the shrewmouse 7 is 
dangerous to horses and other draught animals as well ; 20 
it is followed by boils. The bite is all the more dangerous 
if the mouse be pregnant when she bites, for the boils then 
burst, but do not burst otherwise. The cicigna 8 called 
' chain's ' by some, and ' zignis ' by others either causes 
death by its bite or, at all events, intense pain ; it is like 
a small lizard, with the colour of the blind snake. In point 25 
of fact, according to experts, the horse and the sheep have 
pretty well as many ailments as the human species. The 
drug known under the name of ' sandarace ' or realgar, is 
extremely injurious 9 to a horse, and to all draught animals; 
it is given to the animal as a medicine in a solution of 
water, the liquid being filtered through a colander. The 
mare when pregnant is apt to miscarry when disturbed by 3 

1 Perhaps, if we may accept Piccolos' conjecture ea>? av n(\\y *nra- 
fait', 'runs round and round, and then starts off at a gallop.' 

2 PiCC. CJ. KCli (jTVKVOv} TTVfl. 

3 According to the usual interpretation of P. A. iv. 2. 677 b 4 (cf. iii. 
4. 667* 32) the heart is subject to no diseases (cf. Daremberg, Galien, 
i. 401 ; Ogle, ad loc.}. 

4 Reading, with A. and \V., ras \mrnpas ave\KCi for \mrapov a>i> d\y(l. 

5 Invagination or aversion of the bladder occurs in the mare and 
the cow. 6 Hippiatr. p. 266. 7 Diosc. Theriac. c. viii. 

s The name Cicigna, for a lizard, is said to survive in Sardinia. Cf. 
Schol. Nicand. Ther. 817 ; Oken, Isis, 1829, p. 623. 

The reading and the sense are very doubtful. If aai/dapuKtybe indeed 
a preparation of arsenic (Plin. xxxiv. 54, Diosc. v. 122), it was doubtless 
given, as at present, to improve the animal's coat. Hence I think that 
for dm(f)d(ip(Tai we should probably read Sin^opflrnt ; i.e. the drug is 
used as a 'diaphoretic ', the animal is ' sweated ' by it. 


the odour of an extinguished candle; 1 and a similar 
605* accident happens occasionally to women in their pregnancy. 
So much for the diseases of the horse. 

The so-called hippomanes 2 grows, as has been stated, 3 
on the foal, and the mare nibbles it off as she licks and 
cleans the foal. All the curious stories connected with the 
5 hippomanes are due to old wives and to the venders of 
charms. What is called the ' polium ' or foal's membrane, 
is, as all the accounts state, delivered by the mother before 
the foal appears. 

A horse will recognize the neighing of any other horse 
with which it may have fought at any previous period. 
The horse delights in meadows and marshes, and likes to 

10 drink muddy water ; in fact, if water be clear, the horse 4 
will trample in it to make it turbid, will then drink it, and 
afterwards will wallow in it. 5 The animal is fond of water 
in every way, whether for drinking or for bathing purposes ; 
and this explains the peculiar constitution of the hippo- 
potamus or river-horse. In regard to water the ox is the 
opposite of the horse ; for if the water be impure or cold, or 

15 mixed up with alien matter, it will refuse to drink it. 

The ass suffers chiefly from one particular disease 6 which 25 
they call ' melis '. It arises first in the head, and a clammy 
humour runs down the nostrils, thick and red ; if it stays in 
the head the animal may recover, but if it descends into 
the lungs the animal will die. Of all animals of its kind 
20 it is the least capable of enduring extreme cold, which 
circumstance will account for the fact that the animal is 
not found on the shores of the Euxine, nor in Scythia. 7 

1 Arist. ap. Ael. ix. 54 ; Hierocl. in Hippiatr. p. 58. 

! H. A. vi. 18. 572*21, 22. 577* 10 ; de Anim. Inv. ; Plin. 
viii. 66, xxviii. 49 ; Juv. vi. 132 ; Ael. xiii. 17, xiv. 18 ; Virg. Aen. iv. 515. 

3 MSS. Ae'yerai, but D a fipqrac. 

1 For of ITTTTOI Sylburg, Schn. and Dittm. cj. Triovrts. 

J ff. A. viii. 8. 595 b 30; Ael. xi. 36, xvi. 24. 

6 /zaXio-ra vovov piav strikes one as suspicious, and possibly the word 
iavfjiov lies hid therein. Suid. paXiaa-fjLos' voa-os rrepi TOVS ovovs 
)' os f'ori Kardppovs 8ia fjLVKrrjpatv. Cf. Hesych. pa\ir)' TO rrfpl TO. 
vno(uyia Trades, ore ^TJTTIJ : ibid. /iaXis' a<0a, (pXcy/j-ovrj. It appears in 

Vegetius, i. 10-20, in the form malleus, where it is a general term for 
the diseases of draught animals. As above described, the disease is 
probably 'glanders', which, however, is almost invariably fatal in the 
ass. 7 G. A. ii. 8. 748*22. 

BOOK VIII. 26 6os a 

26 Elephants suffer from flatulence and when thus afflicted 
can void neither solid nor liquid residuum. 1 If the elephant 
swallow earth-mould 2 it suffers from relaxation ; but if it 2 5 
go on taking it steadily, it will experience no harm. From 
time to time it takes to swallowing stones. It surfers also 
from diarrhoea : in this case they administer draughts of 
lukewarm water or dip its fodder in honey, and either one 
or the other prescription will prove a costive. When they 
suffer from insomnia, they will be restored to health if 
their shoulders be rubbed with salt, olive-oil, and warm 3 
water ; when they have aches in their shoulders they will 
derive great benefit from the application of roast pork. 3 6o5 b 
Some elephants like olive-oil, and others do not. If there 

is a bit of iron in the inside of an elephant it is said that it 
will pass out if the animal takes a drink of olive-oil ; 4 if 
the animal refuses olive-oil, they soak a root 5 in the oil and 
give it the root to swallow. 5 

So much, then, for quadrupeds. 

27 Insects, as a general rule, thrive best in the time of year 
in which they come into being, especially if the season be 
moist and warm, as in spring. 6 

1 Plin. viii. 10. 

2 A very dubious statement and text. A a C a have xav yiip fcrdirj, 
and if this be ripht ^nXnKi'^erot is wrong. We might suspect xav yap 
((rdirj iiaXdxiv (malic v), the laxative properties of which plant are men- 
tioned by Plin. xx. 21, Diosc. ii. 144, Mart. x. 48. 7, &c.; and I should 
then be further tempted to suggest d\6aias for the unlikely \idovs of the 
next clause. 

3 Arrian, Ind. xiv ; Ael. xiii. 7. 

4 Cuvier (ad Plin. viii. 10, cf. Ael. ii. 18) notes the unlikelihood of 
this cure, and suspects that the olive oil was actually given as an 
antidote to poison, and that in the original account drawn on by 
Aristotle and others there was a confusion between toy, a dart, and 
idy, venom. 

6 The MSS. are at variance, and our text is according to A. and W.'s 
conjecture. For TOV olvov piav of the MSS. Schn. cj. TOV olvov opvfos 
(cf. Ael. xiii. 8 ; Strabo xv. 53. 709) ; and this is highly probable, but 
the rest of the -sentence is not correspondingly clear. It was wine 
according to Arrian and Aelian that was the usual medicine for 
elephants. Camus cites a Paris MS. of Gaza which gives ' qui autem 
oleum non bibunt, iis radix tyrtami (Pdyctami) decocta in vina datur'. 

6 Gaza tr., in accordance with an identical text, ' Insectorum maxima 
pars eo tempore valet quo gignitur; videlicet cum annus talis, quale 
ver, humidus et tepidus.' The text is not merely, as Scaliger puts it, 
'paulo concisior' but, as A. and W. say, 'ganz ohne Sinn' ; moreover, 


In bee-hives are found creatures that do great damage to 
10 the combs ; for instance, the grub that spins a web and 
ruins the honey-comb : l it is called the ' cleros'. It engen- 
ders an insect like itself, 2 of a spider-shape, and brings 
disease into the swarm. There is another insect resembling 
the moth, called by some the ' pyraustes ', 3 that flies about 
a lighted candle : this creature engenders a brood full of 
15 a fine down. It is never stung by a bee, and can only be 
got out of a hive by fumigation. A caterpillar also is en- 
gendered in hives, of a species nicknamed the teredo, or 
' borer ', with which creature the bee never interferes. Bees 
suffer most when flowers are covered with mildew, or in 
seasons of drought. 

All insects, without exception, die if they be smeared 

20 over with oil ; 4 and they die all the more rapidly if you 

smear their head 5 with the oil and lay them out in the sun. 

6 Variety in animal life may be produced by variety of 28 

locality : thus in one place an animal will not be found 

at all, in another it will be small, or short-lived, or will not 

25 thrive. 7 Sometimes this sort of difference is observed in 

closely adjacent districts. Thus, in the territory of Miletus, 

it is not in spring that insects are most plentiful. The sentence appears 
to be parallel to the opening one of c. 19, and there is a somewhat 
similar one in /'. A. iv. 5. 68o a 28. I look with suspicion on (v y-rrfp 
wpq, and conjecture in place thereof ^(ron^pov ; i.e. 'insects especially 
flourish and abound in autumn, when the season is moist, mild, and 
spring-like ' ()/fro7ro>poi/ vypov nal VOTIOV, Probl. i. 10. 86o a 36). 

1 H. A. ix. 40. 626 b 15 ; Plin. xi. 16, 20, 21 ; Colum. ix. 7. 13. 

2 The words o/zoioz; eauro) are very doubtful, and Dittm. would omit 

3 Transferred, according to Schneider's suggestion, from its usual 
place in the text, where it is a synonym of K\rjpos. Cf. Suid. Uvpava-rov 

p.6pf)V' TTTTJVOV f(TTL o)U0lOJ', O 7T pOCriTTTtl p.fl>OV Tols Xl'^l'Olf KCUfTfll, KT\. 

Cf. also Ael. xii. 8, and Aesch. ibi cit. Schn. and Sundevall agree 
that *\f]pos is our Trichodes (Clerus) apiarius, a beetle; the 'moth' 
(papilio of Pliny, xi. 21, tinea of Vergil, G. iv. 246, and Colum. ix. 14) 
is the common ' wax-moth', Galleria cereana or mellonella ; the cater- 
pillars called Ttpr)86i*s are the larvae of the last-named (cf. Plin. /. c.). 
The ai/aTrXecot- n x^ov consists of the tubular galleries built by larvae of 
the moth out of grains of wax tied together \\ith silken threads. Cf. 
Kirby and Spence, i. p. 465. 4 Plin. xi. 21 ; Ael. iv. 18. 

6 So Pliny, Albertus Magnus, and recent commentators. Neverthe- 
less, there is evident ambiguity in -r^v Ke^oXr/v. 

6 Dittm. considers this chapter to be derived from Theophrastus, 
i TWV Kara TOTTOVS 8ia<pop5)i>. 7 Plin. viii. 83. 

BOOK VIII, 28 6os l 

in one district cicadas are found while there are none in 
the district close adjoining ; and in Cephalenia there is a 
river on one side of which the cicada is found and not 
on the other. 1 In Pordoselene there is a public road on 
one side of which the weasel is found but not on the other. 2 30 
In Boeotia the mole 3 is found in great abundance in 
the neighbourhood of Orchomenus, but there are none 
in Lebadia though it is in the immediate vicinity, and if 6o6 { 
a mole be transported from the one district to the other 
it will refuse to burrow in the soil. The hare cannot live in 
Ithaca if introduced there ; in fact it will be found dead, 
turned towards the point of the beach where it was landed. 
The horseman-ant 4 is not found in Sicily ; the croaking 5 
frog has only recently appeared in the neighbourhood of 
Cyrene. 5 In the whole of Libya 6 there is neither wild boar, 
nor stag, nor wild goat ; and in India, 7 according to 
Ctesias no very good authority, by the way there are 
no swine, wild or tame, but animals that are devoid of 
blood and such as go into hiding or go torpid 8 are all of 
immense size there. In the Euxine there are no small 10 
molluscs nor testaceans, except a few here and there ; but 
in the Red Sea all the testaceans are exceedingly large. 9 
In Syria 10 the sheep have tails a cubit in breadth ; the 
goats have ears a span and a palm long, and some have 
ears that flap down to the ground ; n and the cattle have 15 
humps 12 on their shoulders, like the camel. 13 In Lycia goats 

1 Plin. xi. 32 ; Ael. v. 9 ; Antig. Mirab. 3 : their absence, according 
to Pliny, being due to want of trees, cf. H. A. v. 30. 556* 21. 

2 So also rfjv 'Prjveiav rais ya\ais e^^pai/ tii/cu, fr 324. 1532^ 6. 

8 Ael. xvii. 10 ; Ps.-Arist. de Mirab. 124. 842 b 3 ; Antig. Mirab. 11. 

4 Med. of tTTTiets pvpp.r)Ks : forte vera scriptura (Schn.). Cf. Hesych. 
'limy?' Xeyovrni KOI p.vpp.T)Kcs ovrwy. Plin. xi. 36 has ' non sunt in Sicilia 
pennatae'; Karsch and Dittm. accordingly read 01 Trr/jvoi fj.vpp.r)Kcs, or 
oi TTTeptoTol nvpfirjKfs. 5 Ps.-Arist. de Mirab. 68. 835* 33. 

6 Herod, iv. 192; Ael. xvii. 10. 

7 Ael. xvi. 37 > cf. iii. 3 ; Ctes. ad Phot. xiii. 

8 $G>XotWa. A. and W. cj. <poXiSo>ra, i.e. scaly animals, reptiles; 
cf= Ctesias' account of the * Indian worm ', Ael. v. 3 ; Phot. xiii. But the 
mistake may have been as old as Aristotle. 

9 Ael. xvii. 10. 10 H. A. ix. 10. 596 b 4; Plin. viii. 75. 

11 Capra mambrica. 

12 Ka\as = v(3ov?. Some MSS. have ^an-ar. 

13 The zebu of India and S. W. Asia ; cf. Plin. viii. 70 * Syriacis non 
sunt palearia, sed gibber in dorso '. 

. H.A. 


are shorn for their fleece, just as sheep are in all other 
countries. 1 In Libya the long-horned ram 2 is born with 
horns, and not the ram only, as Homer 3 words it, but the 

20 ewe as well ; 4 in Pontus, on the confines of Scythia, the 
ram is without horns. 

In Egypt animals, as a rule, are larger than their 
congeners in Greece, 5 as the cow and the sheep ; but some 
are less, as the dog, the wolf, the hare, the fox, the raven, 
and the hawk ; others are of pretty much the same size, as 

2 5 the crow and the goat. The difference, where it exists, is 
attributed to the food, as being abundant in one case and 
insufficient in another, for instance for the wolf and the 
hawk ; for provision is scanty 6 for the carnivorous animals, 
6o6 b small birds being scarce ; food is scanty also for the hare 
and for all frugivorous animals, because neither the nuts nor 
the fruit last long. 7 

In many places the climate will account for peculiarities ; 

thus in Illyria, Thrace, and Epirus the ass is small, and in 

5 Gaul and in Scythia the ass is not found at all owing to the 

coldness of the climate of these countries. 8 In Arabia the 

lizard is more than a cubit in length, 9 and the mouse 10 is 

1 Callisth. ap. Ael. xvi. 30 ; Varro, R. R. ii. 1 1 ; Plin. viii. 76. 

2 MSS. Kpiw. Dittm. cj. KT^OOI/, from Herod, iv. 29. 

3 Od. iv. 85. Cf. Herod, iv. 29; Ael. ii. 53. 

4 MSS. have apptves for apves, and it is not certain whether we are to 
take xai raXXa for 'the ewes also', as Gaza and Alb. M. translate, perhaps 
reading ra 0f)\(a, or for * other horned animals ', which would be more 
in accord with Herodotus' account, who says in general (I. c.} tv TOIO-I 
0fp/ioio-i ra\v napayivto'dai ra Ktpea* ez> 6e rolari ur^vpourt -^v^tcri r) ov <pi>ei 
Ke'pea ra KTrjVfa apx^v f) <f)vovra ffrvei fioyis. See also MS. Anon. Clt. 
Schn. ad loc. 5 Herod. ^ii. 67. 

6 For 6\iyrj D a reads 17 vXq ; and Schn. cj. from Gaza oXiyrj r; 

(\p7rayfis v\rj. 

7 Sch. Cur. post, iv, p. 479, suggests rots oe a-rravia' KOI rols 
<rapKo(pdyois, oiov TO'IS \VKOIS KOI rois <Vpai>, 6\iyrj. I cannot but suspect 
a deeper confusion, because (i) the scarcity of small birds is unex- 
plained ; (2) Sao-uTToo-t is somewhat singular when the word \ayd>s is 
used immediately above ; and (3) the hare, which ought to flourish 
where the ox and sheep do, has no direct connexion with aKp68pva 
or oTrcupn, which latter are rather the food of the little birds, ^con- 
jecture some such statement in the original as the following: rois gev 
yap crap/c., olnv TO'IS \VKOIS /cm rots lfpat, oXiyrj' rols fie 8a^t\f)S, oaa 
/z>7 <rapKO(pdya. wnavla de TO fJUKpa opvea, on OUT' aKpodpva OVT OTrcopa 

8 H. A. iii. 21. $22 b , viii. 25. 605*20; G. A. ii. 8. 748*25. 

9 Cit. Ael. xvi. 41. 10 H. A. vi. 37. 58i a 3 ; Ael. xv. 26. 

BOOK VIII. 28 6o6 b 

much larger than our field-mouse, with its hind-legs a span 
long and its front legs the length of the first finger-joint. 1 
In Libya, according to all accounts, the length of the 
serpents is something appalling ; sailors spin a yarn to 10 
the effect that some crews once put ashore and saw the 
bones of a number of oxen, and that they were sure that 
the oxen had been devoured by serpents, for, just as they 
were putting out to sea, serpents came chasing their galleys 
at full speed and overturned one galley and set upon the 
crew. Again, lions are more numerous in Libya, 2 and in 
that district of Europe that lies between the Achelous and 15 
the Nessus ; 3 the leopard is more abundant in Asia Minor, 
and is not found in Europe at all. As a general rule, wild 
animals are at their wildest in Asia, at their boldest in 
Europe, and most diverse in form in Libya ; in fact, there 
is an old saying, ' Always something fresh in Libya.' 4 2 o 

It would appear that in that country animals of diverse 
species meet, on account of the rainless climate, at the 
watering-places, and there pair together ; and that such 
pairs will often breed if they be nearly of the same size 
and have periods of gestation of the same length. For 
it is said that they are tamed down in their behaviour to- 
wards each other by extremity of thirst. And, by the way, 
unlike animals elsewhere, they require to drink more in 
winter-time than in summer : for they acquire the habit 25 
of not drinking in summer, owing to the circumstance that 
there is usually no water then ; and the mice, if they drink, 
die. 5 Elsewhere also bastard-animals are born to hetero- 6o7 a 
geneous pairs ; thus in Cyrene the wolf and the bitch will 

1 The jerboa, Dipus aegyptiacus or allied species. The text is 
uncertain. We read onio-dia . . . Trpoadia, with A. and W., but MSS. 
have efMirpocrdtv (or Trpoadia) . . . cnri<T0ia. Schn. and Pice. cj. axpt rfjs 
rrpcoTi/f KafjLn^s offov TT^eeof, following Guil. ' quantum usque ad primam 
iuncturam cubitorum '. 

2 EvpuTTT], MSS. Dittm. cj. At/3t>/, from Polyb. xii. 3. 

3 The statement rests on the authority of Herodotus, vii. 126, but the 
word fi.a\\ov is new and inacceptable. Pice. cj. fvpacrroi /xaXXoi/, 
probably from Plin. viii. 17 Monge viribus praestantiores iis, quos 
Africa aut Syria gignant '. Cf. supra^ vi. 31. 579 b 5 ; Xen. Cyneg. n. 

4 G. A. ii. 7. 746 7 ; Plin. viii. 17. 

Cf. 6. 595* 8. But Dittm. takes the statement here to apply only 
to the Libyan mice. 

B b 2 


couple and breed ; l and the Laconian hound is a cross 
between the fox and the dog. 2 They say that the Indian 
dog is a cross between the tiger and the bitch, not the first 
5 cross, but a cross in the third generation ; for they say that 
the first cross is a savage creature. 3 They take the bitch to 
a lonely spot and tie her up : if the tiger be in an amorous 
mood he will pair with her ; if not he will eat her 1 up, and 
this casualty is of frequent occurrence. 

4 Locality will differentiate habits also: for instance, rugged 29 
10 highlands will not produce the same results as the soft low- 
lands. The animals of the highlands look fiercer and bolder, 


as is seen in the swine of Mount Athos ; for a lowland boar 
is no match even for a mountain sow. 

Again, locality is an important element in regard to the 
bite of an animal. Thus, in Pharos and other places, the 

15 bite of the scorpion is not dangerous; elsewhere in Caria, 5 
for instance, where scorpions are venomous as well as 
plentiful and of large size, the sting is fatal to man or 
beast, even to the pig, and especially to a black pig, 6 though 
the pig, by the way, is in general most singularly indifferent 
to the bite of any other creature. If a pig goes into water 

ao after being struck by the scorpion of Caria, 5 it will surely die. 
There is great variety in the effects produced by the 
bites of serpents. The asp is found in Libya ; the so-called 
* septic ' drug is made from the body of the animal, and is 
the only remedy known for the bite of the original. 7 Among 
the silphium, also, a snake is found, for the bite of which 
a certain stone is said to be a cure : a stone that is brought 

25 from the grave of an ancient king, which stone is put into 

1 Plin. viii. 61. 2 Ael. viii. i. Cf. C. A. ii. 7. 746* 33. 

8 We translate according to Plin. /. c. ' Primo et secundo fetu nimis 
feroces putant gigni ; tertio demum educant '. 

* In part from Theophr. ntpl TU>V KOTO. TOTTOVS ia<pop&>>, in part from 
rrtpl 8nKT&>i/ KOI /3ArpriKa>i/ (Dittm.). 

6 Some MSS. have SKV&'CI, which reading Pliny and Gaza follow : 
Nicand. Ther. 804 and Arist. fr. 562 (p. 1570 Rose) support Kopt'a. 

6 Pliny, xi. 30, likewise speaks of the black pig, but elsewhere it is 
the scorpion that is black ; cf. Nic. Ther. 775 (6 fie o(pdfiy), and Ael. 
Pronot. (cit. Schn. ad loc. Nicandrf). 

1 Sylburg cj. a\\o$i avitiTos, and suggests that the clause ran on, 
8e Vv\\ovs oiidev pXuTrrei : cf. Antig. Mirab. 19 ; Plin. xi. 30. 

BOOK VIII. 29 607* 

water and drunk off, In certain parts of Italy l the bite of 
the gecko is fatal. But the deadliest of all bites of 
venomous creatures is when one venomous animal has 
bitten another ; as, for instance, a viper's after it has bitten 
a scorpion. To the great majority of such creatures man's 
spittle is fatal. 2 There is a very little snake, by some 30 
entitled the * holy-snake ', which is dreaded by even the 
largest serpents. 3 It is about an ell long, and hairy- 
looking ; whenever it bites an animal, the flesh all round 
the wound will at once mortify. There is in India a small 
snake which is exceptional in this respect, that for its bite 
no specific whatever is known. 

30 Animals -also vary as to their condition of health in 6o7 b 
connexion with their pregnancy. 

Testaceans, such as scallops and all the oyster-family, 
and crustaceans, such as the lobster-family, are best when 
with spawn. Even in the case of the testacean we speak 4 
of spawning (or pregnancy) ; but whereas the crustaceans 
may be seen coupling and laying their spawn, this is never 
the case with testaceans. 5 Molluscs are best in the breeding 5 
time, as the calamary, the sepia, and the octopus. 

Fishes, when they begin to breed, are nearly all good for 
the table ; but after the female has gone long with spawn 
they are good in some cases, and in others are out of season. 
The maenis, for instance, is good at the breeding time. 
The female of this fish is round, the male longer and flatter ; 10 
6 when the female is beginning to breed the male turns 
black and mottled, 7 and is quite unfit for the table ; at this 
period he is nicknamed the ' goat '. 

1 According to Theophrastus ap. Plin. viii. 49, it is in Greece that 
the creature's bite is fatal. Cf. Ps.-Arist. de Mirab. 148. 845 b 4 ; Plin. 
xxix. 28. 

2 Plin. vii. 2 ; Nic. Ther. 86. 

3 Cf.deMira6.i$i.84$ b i6; Theophr. C^zr.xxviii(xvi). This snake is 
apparently the o-j/TTfS&x/ of Ael. xv. 18 and N ic. Ther. 320. As to Scurvy, 
Nicander makes the more intelligible statement, f) 8c vv XP ot) 7 I oujTrfp 
ddnidos Xaai'o) cmdedpofK re'p0et. 

4 For Xe-yfraj some MSS. have /3Xe7rfrm. 

5 G. A. iii. n. ;63 b 4. Cf. H. A. iv. 4. 529** I, v. 12. 544* 17. 

6 607 b 1 1-24, perhaps from Theophr. n(p\ T>V ray \poas /Afra/3aXXdi/ra>> 

7 Plin. ix. 42 ; Ael. xii. 28 ; Opp. Hal. i. 107 ; Ovid ap. Plin. xxxii. 54. 


'5 The wrasses called the owzel and the thrush, and the 
smaris l have different colours at different seasons, as is the 
case with the plumage of certain birds ; that is to say, they 
become black in the spring and after the spring get white 
again. The phycis also changes its hue : in general it is 
white, but in spring it is mottled ; it is the only sea-fish 

20 which is said to make a bed for itself, and the female lays 
her spawn in this bed or nest. 2 The maenis, as was 
observed, changes its colour as does the smaris, and in 
summer-time changes back from whitish to black, the 
change being especially marked about the fins and gills. 
The coracine, like the maenis, is in best condition at 

25 breeding time ; the mullet, the basse, and scaly 3 fishes in 
general are in bad condition at this period. 4 A few fish 
are in much the same condition at all times, whether with 
spawn or not, as the glaucus. Old fishes also are bad 
eating ; the old tunny is unfit even for pickling, as a great 
part of its flesh wastes away with age, and the same 

30 wasting is observed in all old fishes. The age of a scaly 
fish may be told by the size and the hardness of its scales. 
An old tunny has been caught weighing fifteen talents, 5 
with the span of its tail two 6 cubits and a palm broad. 

River-fish and lake-fish are best after they have dis- 
6o8 a charged the spawn in the case of the female and the milt 
in the case of the male : that is, when they have fully 
recovered from the exhaustion of such discharge. Some 
are good in the breeding time, as the saperdis, 7 and some 
bad, as the sheat-fish. As a general rule, the male fish 
is better eating than the female ; but the reverse holds 

5 good of the sheat-fish. The eels that are called females 
are the best for the table : they look as though they were 
female, but they really are not so. 8 

a shrimp, of the MSS. and edd., is probably corrupt, and is 
absent from the list in Ael. xii. 28. I conjecture a-papis, which is coupled 
with pawls, rptiyoy, &c., Opp. Hal. i. 109. Schn. suggests Kipis, s. Kippis. 
(7/zapif is probably Stnaris vulgaris, Mod. Gk. <rp.apl8a, /iapi'Sa. The 
alleged change of colour probably implies confusion between several 
allied species. 

2 Plin. ix. 42 ; Ovid, Hal. 122 ; Plut. Sol. Anim. p. 981. 

s For AeTriStoroi A a C a have AOITTOI TrXomn ; cf. H. A. ix. 37. 62I b 3. 

4 Cf. supra, vi. 13. s67 a 19. 5 Plin. ix. 17. 6 Some MSS. have rreWf. 

7 Unknown. According to Athen. vii. 308 =KopaKii>os, but the latter 
is a sea-fish. 8 H. A. iv. n. 538* 10. 


I OF the animals that are comparatively obscure and short- 6o8 { 
lived the characters or dispositions l are not so obvious to 
recognition as are those of animals that are longer-lived. 
These latter animals appear to have a natural capacity 
corresponding to each of the passions : to cunning or 15 
simplicity, courage or timidity, to good temper or to bad, 
and to other similar dispositions of mind. 2 

Some also are capable of giving or receiving instruction 
of receiving it from one another or from man : those that 
have the faculty of hearing, for instance ; and, not to limit 
the matter to audible sound, such as can differentiate the 20 
suggested meanings of word and gesture. 3 

In all genera in which the distinction of male and female 
is found, Nature makes a similar differentiation in the 
mental characteristics of the two sexes. This differentiation 

1 The fjOn are the natural dispositions or mental characters. On 
the fjtirj of different animals cf. H. A.\.i. 488** 12, viii. i. 588* 18, ix. 3. 
6io b 20, c. 

2 In the beginning of the eighth book the psychological characteristics 
of animals are treated in a simple and elementary way. In certain 
passages of the ethical works, e.g. Eth. Eudem. ii. 2. 1220, the same 
characteristics are discussed in a more technical way, with a freer use 
of philosophical terms of definition. While here, in the opening of the 
ninth book, the subject is more briefly and less lucidly treated than in 
the eighth, yet we may remark the employment of a more refined 
terminology, to explain which we must have recourse to the passage 
in the Eth. Eudem. referred to above. There we are taught the 
distinction between the Trddrj or Tratfj^mra r^ "^v^s, inherent 'accidents' 
of the mind, such as fear, shame, appetite, desire : next the 8vi>dfj.(is TUV 
TradrjfjLaTtov, by which the former are brought into action and one is 
hungry or thirsty, afraid or ashamed : and lastly the cfis- rrpbs TO. TTO^TJ, 
the mental dispositions or inclinations, such as sobriety or intemperance, 
cowardice or courage, which, according to Aristotle, cause these 8wdfj.f is 
to subsist in proper or improper degree, oo-at utria^elo-i roO ravra ?} Kara 
\6yov vfrapx e <-v /} cvavTius. On the fjdr), Tra^/iara, and f(is, cf. also 
Rhet. ii. 22. I39o b ; Eth. Nic. vii. I, &c. ; Polit. vii. 15. 1334, &c, &c. 

J (Trjfj.avrtKos yap 8r) TIS \jf6<pos eorii> rj (frayr), de An. ii. 8. 

A. and W.'s /^ oo-a p.6vov may be right. 


is the most obvious in the case of human kind and in that 
of the larger animals and the viviparous quadrupeds. In 

25 the case of these latter the female is softer in character, is 
the sooner tamed, admits more readily of caressing, is more 
apt in the way of learning ; as, for instance, in the Laconian 
breed of dogs the female is cleverer than the male. 1 Of 
the Molossian breed of dogs, 2 such as are employed in the 
chase are pretty much the same 3 as those elsewhere ; but 

30 the sheep-dogs of this breed are superior to the others in 
size, and in the courage with which they face the attacks 
of wild animals. 4 

Dogs that are born of a mixed breed between these two 
kinds are remarkable for courage and endurance of hard 

In all cases, excepting those of the bear and leopard, 5 
the female is less spirited than the male ; in regard to the 
two exceptional cases, the superiority in courage rests with 
the female. With all other animals the female is softer 
6o8 b in disposition than the male, is more mischievous, less 
simple, more impulsive, and more attentive to the nurture 
of the young ; the male, on the other hand, is more spirited 
than the female, more savage, more simple and less cunning. 
The traces of these differentiated characteristics are more 
or less visible everywhere, but they are especially visible 
5 where character is the more developed, and most of all 
in man. 

The fact is, the nature of man is the most rounded off 
and complete, and consequently in man the qualities or 
capacities above referred to are found in their perfection. 

1 Cf. H. A. vi. 20. 574* 16 ; Plin. x. 83 'propria in eo genere maribus 
laboris alacritas '. 

2 This passage is foreign to a context that deals with differences of 
sex and not of breed, and the phrase TO 5' dtoXovdov rots Trpoddrois, as 
A. and W. remark, is not Aristotelian. We do not read elsewhere in 
Greek, though occasionally in Latin (e.g. Lucan iv. 440), of the 
Molossian breed as hunting-dogs, but only (cf. Suid. s. v.) as sheep- 
dogs, nor of the cross between the Molossian and Laconian breeds. 

3 Scaliger has a singular note on ovdev dicxpepd irpos TO irapa rots- uXXoir : 
' Mira locutio philosophica. TO hie significat ^0or, irapd significat non 
substantiam sed accidens propnum inhaerens.' He is apparently 
unwilling to translate 8ia(pepci rrpoy, 'differs from,' which however 
occurs, e.g. H.A. iii. 19. 521* 21 TO 6e TUV 6rjKaG>v [nlp.a] npos TO T 
appfvtov 8ia<pepi. * Opp. Cyn. i. 373. 5 Plin. xi. no. 

BOOK IX. I 6o8 b 

Hence woman is more compassionate than man, more 
easily moved to tears, at the same time is more jealous, 
more querulous, more apt to scold and to strike. She is, 15 
furthermore, more prone to despondency and less hopeful 
than the man, more void of shame or self-respect, more false 
of speech, more deceptive, and of more retentive memory. 
She is also more wakeful, more shrinking, more difficult to 
rouse to action, and requires a smaller quantity of nutriment. 

As was previously stated, the male is more courageous 
than the female, and more sympathetic in the way of 
standing by to help. Even in the case of molluscs, when 
the cuttle-fish is struck with the trident the male stands by 
to help the female ; but when the male is struck the female 
runs away. 1 

There is enmity between such animals as dwell in the 
same localities or subsist on the same food. If the means 20 
of subsistence run short, creatures of like kind will fight 
together. Thus it is said that seals which inhabit one and 
the same district will fight, male with male, and female 
with female, until one combatant kills the other, or one 
is driven away by the other ; and their young do even 
in like manner. 25 

All creatures are at enmity with the carnivores, and the 
carnivores with all the rest, for they all subsist on living 
creatures. Soothsayers take notice of cases where animals 
keep apart from one another, and cases where they con- 
gregate together ; 2 calling those that live at war with one 
another * dissociates ', and those that dwell in peace with 
one another ' associates '. One may go so far as to say that 30 
if there were no lack or stint of food, then those animals 
that are now afraid of man or are wild by nature would 
be tame and familiar with him, and in like manner with 
one another. This is shown by the way animals are treated 

1 Arist. ap. Athen. vii. 323 c. 

2 We note again a similarity of language with the Eth. Eudem. v. 2. 
1236^ IO if ot (MVTfis ras (rvvfdpfias Kai diedpeias Xeyovaiv. Cf. Aesch. 
P. V. 488 yafjL^a>vv\fji)v re TTTfjcriv oletv&v (TKfOpws \ 6id>pr', oirtves re deiol 

(plHTlV | (VtoVVfJLOVS T6 . . . KOI TTpOS d\\r]\OVS TLVS | \6fJOl TC KCll CTTfpyTjdpa 

Kai crvvedpiat : Ael. iii. 9 * T fdpas opvidw KOI TTTTjcras irapa<pv\aTTOVT(S | 
Porph. de Abst. iii, p. 243, &c. 


in Egypt, for owing to the fact that food is constantly 
supplied to them the very fiercest creatures live peaceably 
together. The fact is they are tamed by kindness, and in 
6og a some places crocodiles are tame to their priestly keeper 
from being fed by him. And elsewhere also the same 
phenomenon is to be observed. 1 

The eagle and the snake are enemies, 2 for the eagle lives 
5 on snakes ; 3 so are the ichneumon 4 and the venom-spider, 
for the ichneumon preys upon the latter. In the case of 
birds, there is mutual enmity between the poecilis, the 
crested lark, the woodpecker (?), and the chloreus, for they 
devour one another's eggs ; so also between the crow and 
the owl ; 5 for, owing to the fact that the owl is dim- 

Kara /iopta TOUTWV. These words are not found in Gaza's version, 
and A. and W. omit them from their translation. They are unintelligible 
as they stand, but we might perhaps link them with the following sentence, 
translating 'And now, of these (friendly or hostile) animals in detail'. 
What follows is largely fabulous, partly mystical, and apparently from 
another hand. For similar accounts of the friendships or hostilities 
of animals see Ael. i. 32, iv. 5, v. 48, vi. 22 ; Plin. x. 95 ; Plut. de Od. 
et Inv. ; Phile, 675-730, &c. " 

2 Aristotle cites about forty instances of hostility between certain 
animals ; of these forty about one-half are mentioned elsewhere, 
fourteen or fifteen by Pliny, nine or ten by Phile, about as many by 
Aelian, and a few by Plutarch, Antoninus Liberalis, and other authors. 
From these authors together we may compile a list of nearly a hundred 
such instances. It is highly probable that these form a fragmentary 
catalogue of the SuS/nm *at o-weftpiai observed, as is stated above, by 
the soothsayers. In my Gl. ofGk. Birds and elsewhere I have attempted 
to trace in certain cases a correspondence between the animals referred 
to and the oppositions or juxtapositions of their stellar namesakes : if 
we are indeed dealing with a soothsayer's catalogue, it is all the more 
likely that such occasional astrological coincidences should exert their 
influence on it. In the Aristotelian list we have a very considerable 
number of names not mentioned elsewhere, of unknown meaning, and 
very possibly of foreign derivation. 

3 e. g. Circaetus gallicus. 

4 Not the Egyptian quadruped, but a species of wasp, e.g. Pompilus 
or Calicurgns', cf. Fabre, Soui 1 . Entom. 1882, p. .206 ; Plin. x. 95 (74) 
' ichneumones vespae et phalangia aranei [dissident] '. Cf. H. A, v. 20 ; 
Plin. xi. 24 (21). The name as applied to the insects (Sphegidae or 
Pompilidae)) which lay their eggs in the living bodies of other insects 
or of spiders, seems to be connected with an Egyptian fable of the true 
ichneumon 'told in Ael. x. 47, to the effect that the animal is at once 
male and female, and that in combat the victor compels his antagonist 
to bear and bring forth offspring to him : cf. Phile (98), 1739. On an 
ancient Chinese version, cf. Kumagnsu Minakatu in Nature, 1, p. 30, 

The fabled War of the Owls and Crows, of the Bird of Darkness 
and the Bird of Light, of Night and Day, of Sun and Moon, is one of 

BOOK IX. I 6o9 a 

sighted by day, the crow at midday preys upon the 10 
owl's eggs, and the owl at night upon the crow's, each 
having the whip-hand of the other, turn and turn about, 
night and day. 

There is enmity also between the owl and the wren ; l 
for the latter also devours the owl's eggs. In the daytime 
all other little birds flutter round the owl a practice which 
is popularly termed ' admiring him ' 2 buffet him, and 
pluck out his feathers; in consequence of this habit, bird- *5 
catchers use the owl as a decoy for catching little birds 
of all kinds. 

The so-called presbys or ' old man ' 3 is at war with the 
weasel and the crow, for they prey on her eggs and her 
brood ; and so the turtle-dove with the pyrallis, for they 
live in the same districts and on the same food ; and so 
with the green woodpecker and the libyus ; and so with 
the kite and the raven, 4 for, owing to his having the 20 
advantage from stronger talons and more rapid flight 
the former can steal whatever the latter is holding, so that 
it is food also that makes enemies of these. In like manner 
there is war between birds that get their living from the 

the chief tales of the Mahabharata ; cf. Ind. Antiquary, March, 1882, 
p. 87. Cf. also Ael. iii. 9, v. 48 ; Antig. Mirab. 57 (62) ; Plut. Od. et 
Inv. 4; Jul. Imp. Orat. iv. 149; Prov. ap. Suid. aXXo yXau aXXo 


1 Macb. iv. 2. 9 : ' The poor wren, the most diminutive of birds, will 
fight, her young ones in the nest, against the owl.' 

2 davpdCfiv. Cf. Sillogr. Gr., p. 117, ed. Wachsmuth, of fie' \nv rjvre 
yXauKa 7re'pi <r7rt'ai reparovvTo. It was the wisdom of the owl that the 
small birds wondered at ; cf. Acs. Fab. 106 (Halm), ex Dion. Chrys. 82 
y(vop.(vov fie TOU tou pafiuo? j/fijj VTTO TCOV avdpumw a\i(rK.op.tva. fj.t revoovv KOI 
rfjv yXaC/ca c0avfiaov eVi rfj ^vfj.j3ov\fj ... 17 p.(v yap ap^ala yXai| ra> OVTL 
<ppovip.r) rt TJV Kai vfj.(3ov\V(iv cbiivaro' al fie vvv povov TCI nrepa (xovviv 
fKtivrjs, KT\. Cf. also Aes. Fab. 105, ex Dion. Chrys. xii. But see also 
Servius ad Verg. G. i. 403 ' Nyctimene postquam cum patre concubuit . . . 
conversa in avem (noctuam), quae pro tanto facinore omnibus avibus est 
admiration! '. On bird-catching by help of the owl see Dion, de Avib. 
iii. 17; Dio Prus. Orat. 72 and 12 quoted in Schneider's Eel. Phys. i. 48; 
Ael. i. 29; Phile468; Diog. L. iv. 42 ; Timon ap. Hesych.; Horap. ii. 51. 

3 7rpe'o-/3ur, identical with rpo^iXo?, cf. H. A. ix. u. 6i5 a l9; Plin. viii.37. 
The text is probably faulty, a reference to the eagle having apparently 
dropped out ; cf. Plin. x. 95 ' aquilae et trochilus . . . noctuae et caeterae 
minores aves. Rursus cum terrestribus. mustela et comix, turtur et 

4 Cic. Nat. Deor. ii. 49 'Milvo est quoddam bellum quasi naturale 
cum corvo. Ergo alter alterius, ubicunque nactus est, ova frangit.' 


sea, as between the brenthus, the gull, and the harpe ; * 
and so between the buzzard on one side and the toad and 
snake on the other, for the buzzard preys upon the eggs of 

25 the two others ; and so between the turtle-dove and the 
chloreus ; the chloreus kills the dove, and the crow kills 
the so-called drummer-bird. 2 

The aegolius, and birds of prey in general, prey upon the 
calaris, and consequently there is war between it and them; 
and so is there war between the gecko-lizard and the 
spider, for the former preys upon the latter ; and so between 

30 the woodpecker and the heron, for the former preys upon 
the eggs and -brood of the latter. 3 And so between the 
aegithus and the ass, owing to the fact that the ass, in 
passing a furze-bush, rubs its sore and itching parts against 
the prickles ; by so doing, and all the more if it brays, 
it topples the eggs and the brood out of the nest, the young 
ones tumble out in fright, and the mother-bird, to avenge 
this wrong, flies at the beast and pecks at his sore places. 4 
6og b The wolf is at war with the ass, the bull, and the fox, for 
as being a carnivore, he attacks these other animals ; and 
so for the same reason with the fox and the circus, for the 
circus, being carnivorous and furnished with crooked talons, 
attacks and maims the animal. And so the raven is at 
5 war with the bull and the ass, for it flies at them, and 
strikes them, and pecks at their eyes ; 5 and so with the 
eagle and the heron, for the former, having crooked talons, 
attacks the latter, and the latter usually succumbs to the 
attack ; and so the merlin with the vulture ; and the crex 
with the eleus-owl, the blackbird, and the oriole (of this 

1 Plin. x. 95 ' Dissident aquaticae et gaviae ; harpe et triorches 
accipiter ' ; ibid. 96 ' Harpe et milvus contra triorchem '. ' Aristotelis 
locum vitio laborare praeposterae interpunctionis, ex Plinii contextu 
intelligimus ', Harduin ad loc. Possibly the text in Pliny's hands read 
fipevdos KOI \dpos' aprrrj KOI rptopx^s' rptopxrjs 8e KOI (frpvvos KCU o<f)is I cf. 
Schneider, iv, p. 8. According to Tzetzes, Chiliad, v. 413 IKTIVOS opvis 
ris (ffriv ovirfp *aX. apirr^v : cf. Hesych. Ael. v. 48 mentions apinj and 
lurlvos as friendly, fipevOos and ndypos [? \dpos] as hostile ; cf. also Phile. 

2 Phile 688 Kopa 8e purd rr)V yovfjv rail/ IKTIVWV | irdypov 8e ftpwOos, 
KCU rpvyvv TrupaXXt'Sa, | ^Xcopeu? Se rfjf rpvyova, KOI TOVTOV nopaj;. Cf. Ael. 
v. 48. 

3 Nicander a,p. Ant. Lib. xiv. 

4 Antig. Mirab. 58 (63) ; Ael. v. 48 ; Dion, de Avib. i. 12 ; Phile 696; 
Plin. x. 95. 5 Ael. v. 48 ; Phile 705. 

BOOK IX. I 609' 

latter bird, by the way, the story goes that he was originally 10 
born out of a funeral pyre) : the cause of warfare is that 
the crex injures both them and their young. The nuthatch 
and the wren are at war with the eagle ; the nuthatch 
breaks the eagle's eggs, so the eagle is at war with it on 
special grounds, though, as a bird of prey, it carries on 
a general war all round. The horse and the anthus are 
enemies, 1 and the horse will drive the bird out of the field 15 
where he is grazing : the bird feeds on grass, and sees too 
dimly to foresee an attack ; it mimics the whinnying of the 
horse, flies at him, and tries to frighten him away ; but the 
horse drives the bird away, and whenever he catches it he 
kills it : this bird lives beside rivers or on marsh ground ; 
it has pretty plumage, and finds its food without trouble. 
The ass is at enmity with the lizard, for the lizard sleeps in 20 
his manger, gets into his nostril, and prevents his eating. 

Of herons there are three kinds : the ash-coloured, the 
white, and the starry heron (or bittern). Of these the first 
mentioned submits with reluctance to the duties of incuba- 
tion, or to union of the sexes ; in fact, it screams during 
the union, and it is said drips blood from its eyes ; 2 it 
lays its eggs also in an awkward manner, not unattended 25 
with pain. It is at war with certain creatures that do it 
injury: with the eagle for robbing it, with the fox for 
worrying it at night, and with the lark for stealing its eggs. 3 

The snake is at war with the weasel and the pig ; with 
the weasel when they are both at home, for they live on 
the same food ; with the pig for preying on her kind. The 3 
merlin is at war with the fox ; 4 it strikes and claws it, and, 

1 With the above fabulous account cf. Ael. v. 48, vi. 19 !8idci 8c 

TU>V TOlOVTtoV O T avdos Kd\. . . . Ka\ 6 fJLfV UvBoS VTTOKpivfTdl 

tTTTrov, also Plin. x. 57. See also Boios a.p. Ant. Lib. vii, where 
Anthus is a son of Autonous and Hippodameia, killed by his father's 
horses and metamorphosed into the bird <it>6os. In Phile 705 it is the 
fish dvSias that is said to be hostile to the horse. On the relation 
between avdos and dxavBis, whose attributes are the converse of one 
another, cf. GL of Gr. Birds, p. 33. 

2 Plin. x. 79 ' hi in coitu anguntur '. Cf. Et. M. sub voce epwSio'r. 
irapu TO cap, 6 a^/zaiVei ro at/ia' cv yap rals p,i'e<7ii>, &s (pao~iv, 6 epvdios aipa 
tdpot . . . 

Plut. Sol. Anim. 98 i b . 
4 Ael. ii. 51 ; Antig. Mirab. 61 ; Plin. x. 95. 


as it has crooked talons, it kills the animal's young. The 
raven and the fox are good friends, for the raven is at 
enmity with the merlin ; and so when the merlin assails 
the fox the raven comes and helps the animal. The 
vulture and the merlin are mutual enemies, as being both 
furnished with crooked talons. The vulture fights with the 
6io a eagle, and so, by the way, does the swan ; and the swart is 
often victorious : moreover, of all birds swans are most 
prone to the killing of one another. 1 

In regard to wild creatures, some sets are at enmity with 
other sets at all times and under all circumstances ; others, 
as in the case of man and man, at special times and under 
incidental circumstances. The ass and the acanthis are 

5 enemies ; for the bird lives on thistles, and the ass browses 
on thistles when they are young and tender. The anthus, 
the acanthis, and the aegithus are at enmity with one 
another ; it is said that the blood of the anthus will not 
intercommingle with the blood of the aegithus. 2 The crow 
and the heron are friends, as also are the sedge-bird and 
lark, the laedus and the celeus or green woodpecker ; 3 the 
woodpecker lives on the banks of rivers and beside brakes, 

10 the laedus lives on rocks and hills, and is greatly attached 
to its nesting-place. The piphinx, 4 the harpe, and the kite 
are friends ; as are the fox and the snake, for both burrow 
underground ; so also are the blackbird and the turtle-dove. 6 
The lion and the thos or civet 6 are enemies, for both are 
carnivorous and live on the same food. 

15 Elephants fight fiercely with one another, and stab one 
another with their tusks ; of two combatants the beaten 
one gets completely cowed, and dreads the sound of his 
conqueror's voice. These animals differ from one another 

1 6io a 2 reads a\\r)\o<pdyoi. Plin. x. 32 ' iidem mutua carne vescuntur 
inter se', thus apparently reading dXXrjXor/xryoi. On the other hand Athen. 
ix, p. 393d a\\r)\oKTov(l ; Ael. V. H. i. 14 dXX^Xovs antK-rtivav. Sundevall 
CJ. dXXfjXo^i'Xof. 

2 Plin. x. 95; cf. Antig. Mirab. 114. Ael. x. 32 has anivGos and 
alyidaXos', Plut. Od. et Inv. 537 b tdyiffaXos and axav6v\\is. 

8 \atdos Ka\ K\e6s. In place of these words the corresponding passage 

in Aelian V. 48 gives Kal \apov TO> KaX. KoXoiai KOI IHT'IVO* apnrjv. 

4 7ri<piy' Kopv8a\os, Hesych. B Plin. x. 95, 96. 

6 See notes, ii. 17. 5O7 b 17, vi. 35. 580* 27. 

BOOK IX. I 6io a 

to an extraordinary extent in the way of courage. 1 Indians 
employ these animals for war purposes, irrespective of sex ; 
the females, however, are less in size and much inferior in 20 
point of spirit. 2 An elephant by pushing with his big 
tusks can batter down a wall, and will butt with his forehead 
at a palm until he brings it down, when he stamps on it 
and lays it in orderly fashion on the ground. 3 Men hunt 
the elephant in the following way : they mount tame 
elephants of approved spirit and proceed in quest of wild 25 
animals ; when they come up with these they bid the tame 
brutes to beat the wild ones until they tire the latter com- 
pletely. Hereupon the driver mounts a wild brute and 
guides him with the application of his metal prong ; 4 after 
this the creature soon becomes tame, and obeys guidance. 
Now when the driver is on their back they are all tractable, 30 
but after he has dismounted, some are tame and others 
vicious ; in the case of these latter, they tie their front-legs 
with ropes to keep them quiet. The animal is hunted 
whether young or full grown. 5 

Thus we see that in the case of the creatures above 
mentioned their mutual friendship or enmity is due to the 
food they feed on and the life they lead. 

2 Of fishes, such as swim in shoals together are friendly to 610 
one another ; such as do not so swim are enemies. Some 
fishes swarm during the spawning season ; others after 
they have spawned. To state the matter comprehensively, 
we may say that the following are shoaling fish: the tunny, 
the maenis, the sea-gudgeon, the bogue, 6 the horse-mackerel, 7 

1 Cf. Plin. vi. 24 ' Onesicritus elephantos ibi (in insula Taprobane) 
maiores bellicosioresque quam in India gigni scripsit ' ; Ael. xvi. 18. 
That the African elephants (which are mentioned by A., de Caelo, 
ii. 14. 298 a ) surpass the Indian in size and strength is stated by Plin. 
viii. 9; Liv. xxxvii. 39 ; Polyb. v. 84, &c. 2 Plin. viii. 8. 

3 Plin. viii. 8-10; Ael. v. 55 ; Ctes. a.p. Ael. xvii. 29. 

4 8pendvq> : the elephant goad or ankus ; apnrj, Ael. xiii. 9 and 22 ; 
ofmr), dyyopTrif, Hesych. 

6 On the capture and taming of elephants cf. Ael. x. 10, x. 17, xii. 44 ; 
Plin. viii. 8 ; Strabo xv. I. 42. 

6 pug: Mod.'Gk. /SoCrra, yirra; It. boga, bugu, c.; Boxboops, Bp. 
Cf. Arist. ap. Athen. vii. 286 b vuroypanra : it has three or four narrow 
golden lines down its sides. 

7 o-aCpor, the horse-mackerel, Caranx trachurus : Lat. lacerta, Juv. 
xiv. 131 ; Mart. x. 48 ; Cels. ii. 18, &c.; saurus, Plin. xxxii. 28 ; It. lacerta^ 
sauru ; Mod. Gk. a-avpidt. 


5 the coracine, the synodon or dentex, the red mullet, the 
sphyraena, the anthias, the eleginus, 1 the atherine, the 
sarginus, the gar-fish, 2 [the squid,] the rainbow-wrasse, 3 
the pelamyd, the mackerel, the coly-mackerel. Of these 
some not only swim in shoals, but go in pairs inside the 
shoal ; the rest without exception swim in pairs, and only 
swim in shoals at certain periods : that is, as has been said, 

10 when they are heavy with spawn or after they have 

The basse and the grey mullet are bitter enemies, but 
they swarm together at certain times ; for at times not 
only do fishes of the same species swarm together, but also 
those whose feeding-grounds are identical or adjacent, if the 
food-supply be abundant. The grey mullet is often found 

15 alive with its tail lopped off, and the conger with all that 
part of its body removed that lies to the rear of the vent ; 4 
in the case of the mullet the injury is wrought by the 
basse, in that of the conger-eel by the muraena. 6 There 
is war between the larger and the lesser fishes : for the big 
fishes prey on the little ones. So much on the subject of 
marine animals. 

20 The characters of animals, as has been observed, 6 differ 3 
in respect to timidity, to gentleness, to courage, to tame- 
ness, to intelligence, and to stupidity. 7 

The sheep is said to be naturally dull and stupid. 8 Of 
all quadrupeds it is the most foolish : it will saunter away 
to lonely places with no object in view ; oftentimes in 

1 \eylvos: unidentified. 

2 While fifXovrj in vi. 12, &c., is certainly the pipe-fish, Syngnathus, 
here it may be assumed to mean Belone acus, the garfish : Mod. Gk. 
ft(\ovi8i, crapydvvos, (rapyvvvos ; It. aguglia. aapyivos and iBcXovr) are 
probably synonymous, and one or other of them is interpolated. 

3 lovXis. Probably Cor is iulis ; Mod. Gk, t^Xoy, tuAoy, yvXos, &c. 
Cf. Opp. Hal. ii. 434, iii. 186 ; Ael. ii. 44; Marc. Sid. 15. 

4 Nigid. ap. Plin. ix. 88. 5 Ael. v. 48. 

6 H.A. ix. i. 6o8 a ii. 

7 The six qualities enumerated fall imperfectly into pairs, aypior^ra 
is suggested by Piccolos in place of i^porT/ra, and by A. and W. in 
place of TTpaorrjTa. Gaza translates ' fortitudine, ignavia, mansuetudine, 
ferocitate, mente, dementia ', and probably therefore read avdpiav K<H 
fifiXt'ai/, Kat f)p.fpoTT)Ta *cal aypior^ra. 

8 Plin. viii. 75 ' Quam stultissima animalium lanata. Qua timuere 
ingredi, unum cornu raptum sequuntur. ' 

BOOK IX. 3 6io b 

stormy weather it will stray from shelter ; if it be over- 25 
taken by a snowstorm, it will stand still unless the 
shepherd sets it in motion ; it will stay behind and perish 
unless the shepherd brings up the rams ; it will then follow 

1 If you catch hold of a goat's beard at the extremity 
the beard is of a substance resembling hair all the com- 30 
panion goats will stand stock still, staring at this particular 
goat in a kind of dumbfounderment. 

You will have a warmer bed in amongst the goats than 
among the sheep, because the goats will be quieter and 
will creep up towards you ; for the goat is more impatient 
of cold^ than the sheep. 2 

1 Read 6Vai> TIS /nar Xd/Sfl. This sentence is not a little obscure. The 
sense of the text is followed by Pliny, viii. 76 (50) ' Dependet omnium 
caprarum mento villus, quern aruncum vocant. Hoc si quis appre- 
hensam ex grege unam trahat, ceterae stupentes spectant. Id etiam 
evenire, cum quandam herbam aliqua ex eis momorderit.' Arnncus 
does not occur elsewhere in Latin (spirillum is given as a goat's beard 
ap. Festus, p. 330, Mull.), and in Greek fjpvyyos or rjpvyyiov is elsewhere 
always the herb Goat's-beard. The expression in the text, eon 6 olov 
Qpi%, would certainly seem to refer to the plant ; other writers who 
tell the story tell it without exception of the herb, e. g. Antig. Mirab. 
115 TU>V & alya>v orav p.i'u TIS Xd/3^ TO axpov TOV opvriov [epvyyiov], COTIV 
&' olov #pt', TCLS aXXny evTavai olov ftf/Kopatycevay, cpfiXfTrovo-as els (Keivrjv. 
Cf. Theophr. fr. clxxv, ap. Phot. Bibl. 278. 8 ; Plut. Syrnp. Q. 700 C, 
de Sera num. vind. 558 E ; Schol. ad Nicand. Ther. 645. Salmas. 
de Homonym, p. 77 concludes that Aristotle was speaking of the 
plant, as does Beckmann in loc. Antig. It is very likely that this is 
indeed the case, also that Antigonus preserves so far the correct 
reading, and that Pliny's two separate statements are merely two 
interpretations of Aristotle's one. We may translate one way or the other, 
according as we read orav TIS /uias Xa/3fl with Bekker, or p.ia TIS with 
Salmasius, Beckmann, and Dittmeyer. The version of Guil. de Moer- 
beke, ' Caprarum autem cum unius cepit quis summitatem inflexionis 
tybiae, est autem velut palus,' is interesting for Schneider's most 
ingenious elucidation of it ; after emending pilus for palus, Schn. 
shows that the reference to tibiae probably comes from a faulty gloss 
in Hesychius, fjpvyfjLev* m Knp.rrv\oTrjTes T&V o-KeXcoy, Km noas eifios. 

2 ~The above is simply an attempt to render a text that is almost 
certainly corrupt, and whose original meaning was in all probability 
widely different. Many different versions have been given by former 
editors. De Moerbeke* has, as in the present text, * in dormiendo 
frigidiores ' ; Gaza, apparently reading xaXen-corepni for ^t^porepnj, 
' cubant difficilius oves quam caprae, magis enim caprae quiescunt.' 
Scaliger, reading p.r]pvKiiov<ri for iJ0-t>xdfou<n, ' frigidioribus locis 
libentius cubant oves; caprae autem plus ruminant' et facilius 
accedunt ad hominem, et aegrius ferunt frigus.' -Albertus M. omits 
fynafovfteiv, 'oves tamen magis sunt quietae.' Schneider, comparing 
Pliny, viii. 76 ' ideo fortassis anima his quam ovibus ardentior, cali- 

AR. H.A. 


Shepherds train sheep to close in together at a clap of 
their hands, for if, when a thunderstorm comes on, 1 a ewe 
stays behind without closing in, the storm will kill it if it 
6n a be with young ; consequently if a sudden clap or noise is 
made, they close in together within the sheepfold by reason 
of their training. 

Even bulls, when they are roaming by themselves apart 
from the herd, are killed by wild animals. 2 

Sheep and goats lie crowded together, kin by kin. When 
5 the sun turns early towards its setting, the goats are said to 
lie no longer face to face, but back to back. 3 

Cattle at pasture keep together in their accustomed 4 
herds, and if one animal strays away the rest will follow ; 
consequently if the herdsmen lose one particular animal, 
they keep close watch on all the rest. 4 

dioresque concubitus ', and Varro, /?. R. ii. 2, 3 'ovium semen tardius 
esse, quo hae sunt placidiores ', would read o-vyKadevStiv for eyKaBcvfaiv. 
Piccolos imagines a lacuna, to be filled up somewhat as follows : 
at yap aiyes Xa-yi/torepni KOI aypwrrvorfpat, at 6' oie? /zaXXo> ty<ruxabv<ri KT\. 
The only passage which suggests itself for comparison is G. A. ii. 8. 
748* 22 ert de tyvxpbv TO &>oi> 6 ovos eort, diorrep tv rols \ L f l( P iVO ' ls 
ov 0\fi yivfadai TOTTOIS fiia TO ftvapiyov flvai rrjv (pvaiv. It will be 
noticed that here the same animal is ^uxpoV and dvapiyov, a further 
indication that the text above translated is corrupt. 

1 Plin. viii. 72 ' Tonitrua solitariis ovibus abortus inferunt. Reme- 
dium est congregare eas, ut coetu iuventur.' There is a cognate 
allusion in Ps. xxix. 9 ' The voice of the Lord maketh the hinds to 
calve '. 

2 aTip.ay\T](ravTfs. Cf. H. A. vi. 1 8. 572 b 1 8 TOV &( trporfpov \povov 
/LUT' aXXj?X<f flrriv [01 TaCpoi], 6 KaXtmu drifjiaye\flv. The sentence is 
omitted, as out of place here, by Gaza and Scaliger. 

1 But cf. Antig. Mirab. 65 TOVS alnoXovs de (frTjvl \eyfiv, on orav ra^tora 
6 rj\ios Tpcnri;, HvTiffofiFowrai nira) al aiyts KdraKavrai. That Pliny (viii. 
76) took this statement to apply to the setting of the sun rather than to 
the tropic does not prove that this interpretation is correct. The story 
is akin to the Egyptian fables of the goats and other animals that i alute 
the heliacal rising of the dog-star, as the oryx does undoubtedly salute 
the rising and setting sun ; cf. Ael. vii. 8 ; Pint. Soil. Anim. 974 F ; 
Antig. Mirab. c. 66. 

4 The passage is obscure. Seal, translates ' Idcirco bubulci, unam si 
amiserint, omnes praeterea continue pervestigant', adding the explana- 
tion 'fVt^ToCo-ii/' TO em' significat eir*aXXi/ rrjv anonXavrfdda-av'. Piccolos 
suggests eav fj.f) avtvpwi, which would merely mean ' when they lose 
them, look for them ' ; one might perhaps suggest (rrtfryaxriv, that is 
to say, ' when they have lost one, they make sure of the others.' The 
passage d/roAXurrm de KCU ot ravpoi, inserted in the preceding chapter, 
probably has its proper place here, as Scaliger suggests. 

BOOK IX. 4 6n J 

When mares with their colts pasture together in the 
same field, if one dam dies the others will take up the 10 
rearing of the colt. In point of fact, the mare appears to 
be singularly prone by nature to maternal fondness ; in 
proof whereof a barren mare will steal the foal from its 
dam, will tend it with all the solicitude of a mother, but, 
as it will be unprovided with mother's milk, its solicitude 
will prove fatal to its charge. 

5 Among wild quadrupeds the hind appears to be pre- 15 
eminently intelligent ; for example, in its habit of bringing 
forth its young on the sides of public roads, where the fear 
of man forbids the approach of wild animals. 1 Again, after 
parturition, it first swallows the afterbirth, 2 then goes in 
quest of the seseli shrub, 3 and after eating of it returns to 
its young. The mother takes its young betimes to her 
lair, so leading it to know its place of refuge in time of 20 
danger ; 4 this lair is a precipitous rock, with only one 
approach, and there it is said to hold its own against all 
comers. The male when it gets fat, which it does in 
a high degree in autumn, disappears, abandoning its usual 
resorts, apparently under an idea that its fatness facilitates 
its capture. 5 They shed their horns in places difficult of 25 
access or discovery, whence the proverbial expression of 
4 the place where the stag sheds his horns ' ; 6 the fact being 
that, as having parted with their weapons, they take care 

1 napa ras 68ouy. Cf. H. A. vi. 29. 5;8 b 17; Plin. viii. 50 'in 
pariendo semitas minus cavent, humanis vestigiis tritas, quam secreta 
ac feris opportuna'. Cf. Plut. Soil. Anim. 971 E; Antig. Mirab. 35 ; 
Opp. Cyn. ii. 207. A somewhat confused account is given in Ael. 
vi. ii. 

2 ^o/ji'oi/. Seal, secundas ; Gk. dfvrfpa, vorepa. 

3 o-ecreXi. Probably Tordylium officinale, Littre, ad Hipp. Acut. 387. 
On its medicinal properties cf. Hipp. Nat. mulier. 572, 587, Morb. 
mul. i. 6o3 g , 626 ; Diosc. iii. 60. Cf. Plin. viii. 50 ' feminae ante partum 
purgantur herba quadam, quae seselis dicitur, faciliore ita utentes 
utero. A partu duas, quae aros (cf. Plin. xxiv. 91) et seselis appellantur, 
pastae, redeunt ad fetum.' See also Ael. V. H. xiii. 35 (who speaks of 
o-e'Xu/oj/) ; Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 50; Plin. xx. 18, 87, xxv. 52. 

4 Plin. viii. 50 has ' ad praerupta ducunt, saltumque demonstrant', 
and Solin. xix * et assuescunt salire per abrupta'. Cf. H. A. vi. 29. 
578 b 21, Antig. Mirab. 35. 

6 Plin. I.e. ; Plut. Soil. Anim. 971 F ; Ael. vi. ii. 
Zenob. Cent. \. 52 ; Suid. 

C C 2 


not to be seen. The saying is that no man has ever seen 
the animal's left horn ; ] that the creature keeps it out of 
30 sight because it possesses some medicinal property. 

In their first year stags grow no horns, but only an 
excrescence indicating where horns will be, this excrescence 
being short and thick. In their second year they grow 
their horns for the first time, straight in shape, like pegs 
for hanging clothes on ; and on this account they have an 
appropriate nickname. 2 In the third year the antlers are 
bifurcate ; in the fourth year they grow trifurcate; 3 and so 
they go on increasing in complexity until the creature is six 
6n b years old : 4 after this they grow their horns without any 
specific differentiation, so that you cannot by observation 
of them tell the animal's age. But the patriarchs of the 
herd may be told chiefly by two signs ; in the first place 
they have few teeth or none at all, and, in the second 
5 place, they have ceased to grow the pointed tips to their 
antlers. The forward- pointing tips of the growing horns 
(that is to say the brow-antlers), with which the animal 
meets attack, are technically termed its 'defenders'; with 
these the patriarchs are unprovided, and their antlers 
merely grow straight upwards. Stags shed their horns an- 
nually, in or about the month of May ; after shedding, they 
10 conceal themselves, it is said, during the daytime, and, 
to avoid the flies, 5 hide in thick copses ; during this time, 
until they have grown their horns, they feed at night- 
time. The horns at first grow in a kind of skin envelope, 

1 The story is told by Plin. viii. 50; Theophr./r. 175 ; Ael. iii. 17 ; 
Arist. de Mirab. 75. 835 b 27; Antig. Mirab. 24, according to all of 
whom it is the right horn that is not to be obtained. They all also use 
the expression defodere or KaropvTTfiv, which latter word Schn. would 
therefore substitute in the text for anoKpinrTdv. Cf. also Ael. iv. 5. 
On the hart's horn and its virtues cf. //. A. iv. 8. 534 ; Nicand. Ther. 
36; Phile 1245; Lithiccii 242-56 ; Theophr./r. '/., &c. 

2 7raTTflAia = 0-7rn#i'7?, Eust. 711. 38 ; (nradiveia, Schol. ad Ap. Rhod. 
iv. 175 ; Anglice, a brocket. L. subulo t Plin. xi. 45, xxviii. 53 (67). 

3 rpaxvTfpov is, I think, obviously wrong. The word was probably 
rpiKopvOov, rpi\6a8iov, rpiKpooi', or the like. Gaza translates ' Trimis 
bifida exeunt, quadrimis trifida ', and A. and W. have already suggested 

Plin. viii. 50; cf. Solin. xix. 
' For fjivias Albertus M: has lupos. A. and W. suggest dywdf ; cf. 
napa ras 68oi'r, supra. Cf. Beckmann ad Arist. de Mirab. p. 21. 

BOOK IX. 5 6n b 

and get rough by degrees ; l when they reach their full size 
the animal basks in the sun, to mature and dry them. 15 
When they need no longer rub them against tree-trunks 
they quit their hiding-places, from a sense of security 
based upon the possession of arms defensive and offensive. 
An Achaeine stag has been caught with a quantity of 
green ivy grown over its horns, 2 it having grown appar- 
ently, as on fresh green wood, when the horns were young 20 
and tender. When a stag is stung by a venom-spider or 
similar insect, it gathers crabs and eats them ; 3 it is said to 
be a good thing for man to drink the juice, but the taste is 
disagreeable. The hinds after parturition at once swallow 
the afterbirth, and it is impossible to secure it, for the 
hind catches it before it falls to the ground : now this 2 5 
substance is supposed to have medicinal properties. When 
hunted the creatures are caught by singing or pipe-playing 
on the part of the hunters ; they are so pleased with the 
music that they lie down on the grass. 4 If there be two 

1 H. A. ii. I. 500* 9 ; cf. iii. 9. 517* 25 ; Plin. viii. 50 ; Ael. vi. 5 ; 
Arist. de Mini 1 ). 5 ; Theoph. Simoc. i. 5, &c. 

2 Cf. Athen. viii. p. 353; Theophr. C. P. ii. 17. The story is told more 
frequently than the interest of the simple fact would seem to warrant ; 
probably a stag or fawn with the Dionysiac plant about its horns would 
be looked on as something portentous. By Antig. Mirab. 35 it is related 
also of an dxaivr)V\a<poi'. On this word cf. Schneider, iv. p. 36, and Niclas 
ad Arist. de Mirab., ed. Beckmann, p. 20. It probably has neither 
geographical nor specific significance. Cf. Hesych. d^af* vtfipvv ( \a<fxv 
i'l\iK.iai : Eust. ad II. viii. p. 711. 38 (\d<j>d)i> TO. p.ev via, vfftpoi, at de dprtW 
e< j>f/3piz> eV f\d(f)ovs /Liera/SuXXoucrm Ke^iaSes' TCI 8e reXeia OVK aXXo rt ) 
\a<f>oi, ft apa [cpqo'iv] oi a^atVai KCU oi ariradivai Xe-yd/ifj/oi rjXiKi'a nvl 
dta<ptpov(Tiv, TI eld ft Kai Kpdro)v tfitorr/ri Kai pryc&f. The Scholiast on 
Apoll. Rhod. iv. 174 gives three discrepant interpretations, one geo- 
graphical, one specific, and one relating to a particular age or period 
of growth. See also H. A. ii. 15. 506* 23. 

3 The reading TOVS Kapxivovs seems dubious, though followed by 
Pliny viii. 41, Ael. V. H. xiii. 35: especially in view of the singular 
verb, which can scarcely refer to $aX<i-yytoi/, in the next clause. The 
allusion to dittany in the next chapter is told of the stag by Pliny, /. c. ; 
Solin. xix. 19; Apuleius, 72, c. Were we inclined to read here TO 
diKra^vov for TOVS KapKivovs we might find some little support in Pliny's 
description, xxv. 53 'fervens et acre gustu . . . minima portione accendit 
os '. Gaza has ' cancros edunt, quod idem homini etiam prodesse putatur'. 

4 Plin. viii. 50; Plut. Soll.Anim. 31; Xen. in Geopon. xix. 5; Antig. 
Mirab. 35. Antig. I.e. has dXurKeo-&u 8e (Xdfpovs KO.\ (rvpiTTovT<i>i> KOI 
aSoi/ro)*/, o5(TT Kai KuraAcXiWcr$ai virb TTJS 17801/1)?, and MS. Camot. has 
KaTciKXiVoi/Tm in the text, a reading apparently followed by Moerbeke, 
' et inclinantur a delectione.' For KaTa/cXiVovrcu A a has KuTaKr)\ovi>Tai, 
which Schn., Pice., and A. and W. accept ; cf. Plin. viii. 50' mulcentur 
fistula pastorali '. 


hunters, one before their eyes sings or plays the pipe, the 
other keeps out of sight and shoots, at a signal given by 
30 the confederate. 1 If the animal has its ears cocked, it can 
hear well and you cannot escape its ken ; if its ears are 
down, you can. 

When bears are running away from their pursuers they 6 
push their cubs in front of them, or take them up and 
carry them ; 2 when they are being overtaken they climb 
up a tree. When emerging from their winter-den, they at 
once take to eating cuckoo-pint, as has been said, 3 and 
6ia a chew sticks of wood as though they were cutting teeth. 

Many other quadrupeds help themselves in clever ways. 
Wild goats in Crete are said, when wounded by arrows, 
to go in search of dittany, which is supposed to have the 
5 property of ejecting arrows in the body. 4 Dogs, when they 
are ill, eat some kind of grass and produce vomiting. 5 
The panther, after eating panther's-bane, tries to find some 
human excrement, which is said to heal its pain. 6 This 
panther's-bane kills lions as well. Hunters hang up human 
10 excrement in a vessel attached to the boughs of a tree, 
to keep the animal from straying to any distance ; the 
animal meets its end in leaping up to the branch and 
trying to get at the medicine. They say that the panther 
has found out that wild animals are fond of the scent it 
emits; 7 that, when it goes a-hunting, it hides itself; that 
the other animals come nearer and nearer, and that by this 
15 stratagem it can catch even animals as swift of foot as 

The Egyptian ichneumon, when it sees the serpent called 
the asp, does not attack it until it has called in other 

1 Plin. viii. 50. 2 Ael. vi. 9. 

! H. A. viii. 17. 6oo b n ; Plin. viii. 54. 

4 Verg. Aen. xii. 415 ' non ilia feris incognita capris Gramina, cum 
tergo volucres haesere sagittae'. Cf. Theophr. H. P. ix. 16; Antig. 
Mirab. 30 (36) ; Ps.-Arist. Mirab. 4. 83o b 20 ; Pint. Soil. Anim. 974 D ; 
Ael. V. H. i. 10. Of deer, Plin. viii. 41, xxv. 53 ; Apul. Ixxiii. 3, &c. 

* H. A. viii. 5. 594 a 18 ; Ael. v. 46, viii. 9; Plin. xxv. 51. 

6 Plin. viii. 41, xx. 23, xxvii. 2; Ael. iv. 49 ; Ps.-Arist. Mirab. 6. 831*4; 
Cic. N. D. ii. 50; Xen. Cyneg. ii ; Schol. ad Nic. Alex. 38. 

1 Plin. viii. 23, xxi. 18; Theophr. C. P. vi. 5. 2; Ael. v. 40; Arist. 
Prvbl. xiii. 4 907^ 35. 

BOOK IX. 6 6ia a 

ichneumons to help ; to meet the blows and bites of their 
enemy the assailants beplaster themselves with mud, by 
first soaking in the river and then rolling on the ground. 1 

When the crocodile yawns, the trochilus 2 flies into his 20 
mouth and cleans his teeth. The trochilus gets his food 
thereby, and the crocodile gets ease and comfort ; it makes 
no attempt to injure its little friend, but, when it wants 
it to go, it shakes its neck 3 in warning, lest it should 
accidentally bite the bird. 

The tortoise, when it has partaken of a snake, eats 
marjoram ; this action has been actually observed. 4 A man 25 
saw a tortoise perform this operation over and over again, 
and every time it plucked up some marjoram go back 
to partake of its prey ; he thereupon pulled the marjoram 
up by the roots, and the consequence was the tortoise died. 
The weasel, when it fights with a snake, first eats 5 wild 
rue, the smell of which is noxious to the snake. 6 The 
dragon, when it eats fruit, swallows endive-juice; 7 it has 30 
been seen in the act. Dogs, when they suffer from worms, 
eat the standing corn. 8 Storks, and all other birds, when 
they get a wound fighting, apply marjoram to the place 
injured. 9 

1 Plin. viii. 36 ; Ael. iii. 22 ; Plut. Soil. Aniin. 966 D ; Nicand. Ther. 
190; Antig. Mirab. 38; Phile, 133; Opp. Cyneg. iii. 407; Strabo, 
xvii. i. 39, 2. 4. 

2 The Egyptian plover, Pluvianus aegyptiacus, s. Charadrius 
melanocephalus, first identified by G. St. Hilaire, Descr. de f Egypte 
(2), xxiv. p. 440, Mem. du Museum, xv. p. 466 ; a recent writer, 
however, states that the true crocodile-bird is a somewhat larger 
species, the spur-winged plover, Hoplopterus spinosus (Ibis, 1893, 
p. 277). Cf. Herod, ii. 68 ; Arist. Mirab. 7. 831* II ; Ammian. xxii. 
15, 19; Antig. Mirab. 33; Ael. iii. II, viii. 25; Plut. Soil. Anim. 
980 D ; Phile 97 (82) ; Plin. viii. 37. According to Ael. xii. 14, the 
name rpo^iXos is generic, ou rrpos itav TO T&V rpo^i'Ao)!/ yei/or eVri raiSe 
TO) $/7pi'a; fWrrovSa . . . p.6vov Se TOV KCL\. K\adafjopvy\ov fralpov K.OI (f)i\ou 
fX fl > SvvfiTai yap ovros nXvTrto? fjcXeyecp auTco raf /SSeXXnr. Plin. /. C. (cf. 
x. 95) confuses the bird with the wren, ' parva avis, quae trochilos ibi 
vocatur, rex avium in Italia.' 

3 For avxe'ra A. and W. would substitute aiayova ; cf. Plut. Soil. 
Anim. 980 F. 

4 Plin. viii. 41 ; Antig. Mirab. 40; Arist. de Mirab. 10. 83i a 27; 
Plut. Q.Nat. 918 c; Geop.xv.i; Basil. Hex. ix. p. 115; Ael. iii. 5, vi. 12; 
Nicand. Ther. 626. 

5 fTreo-dici, MSS. ; Scaliger cj. Trpofcrdiei from Antig. 41. 
Antig. Mirab. 41 ; Plin. viii. 41, xx. 51, xxix. 1 6. 

7 Plin. viii. 41 ; Ael. vi. 4. 8 Ael. v. 46. 9 Antig. Mirab. 42. 


Many have seen the locust, when fighting with the snake 
get a tight hold of the snake by the neck. 1 The weasel 
6i2 b has a clever way of getting the better of birds ; it tears 
their throats open, as wolves do with sheep. Weasels fight 
desperately with mice-catching snakes, as they both prey 
on the same animal. 2 

In regard to the instinct of hedgehogs, it has been 
5 observed in many places that, when the wind is shifting 
from north to south, and from south to north, they shift 
the outlook of their earth-holes, and those that are kept in 
domestication shift over from one wall to the other. 3 The 
story goes that a man in Byzantium got into high repute 
for foretelling a change of weather, all owing to his having 
noticed this habit of the hedgehog. 

10 The polecat or marten 4 is about as large as the smaller 
breed of Maltese dogs. 5 In the thickness of its fur, 
in its look, in the white of its belly, and in its love of 
mischief, it resembles the weasel ; it is easily tamed ; from 
its liking for honey it is a plague to bee-hives ; it preys on 

1 'Aldina, luntina, Camotiana da-Tridn nominant, Gazae vero versio et 
Thomae locustam. Scoti et Albert! hoc membrum totum omisit'(Schn.). 

For dupida A. and W. are inclined to substitute tKriSa ; Schneider on 
the other hand would justify the reading of the text from the following 
parallel passages : Plin. xi. 35 (29) (de locustis) 'serpentem, quum libuit, 
necant singulae, faucibus eius apprehensis mordicus ' ; Philo, de Ofiif. 
p_. 39 TOV o(^)ioyni\r]v erriKa\ovp.Vov' epTrerov 6' eWii/ f\ov dvwrcpo) TWV (TKeXcoi>, 
o'.s TrpVK(v anbyfjs Trr/davKal /xtr fwpoi'a.'ipco'dai, Kaddntp TO TMV aKpiduv yevos I 
Hesych. ofpio^dx^^' i\vvp.o)v KOI dupldw yevos, p.f) e\ov iirepov ; cf. Suid. 
It is the do-dpoKos of Diosc.ii.57. Bochart (ii. p.449) cites Simon Majolus, 
Dialog, x 'olitorem suum ex agro venientem, locustam conspexisse, 
quae serpentem gutture apprehenderit, atque ita citra pugnam intere- 

merit'. The Vulgate renders by ophiomachus the Heb. 713111, 
chargol (Levit. xi. 22), which, according to Levysohn, Zool. d. Talmud, 
p. 290, is Locusta tnridissima; the name, as Bochart points out, is 
apparently identical with dpyoXm, which Suidas interprets as a species 
of serpent taken by Alexander from Argos to Egypt for the purpose of 
destroying the asps: cf. Arist. de Mirab. 130. 844 b 23 e v "Apya 8f 
(fraiTi yivf<T0cu aKpi&os n ytvos 6 KaAetrai aKopTTiopzYo*', KT\. For my own 
part I suspect an ancient misunderstanding of an alien word in an 
oriental tale ; to wit, mnSa, i. e. chasida, HTDH, the stork ! 
! H.A.\\. 37. 58o b 26. ' 

Plut. Soil. Anim. 979 A ; Plin. viii. 56 and (of squirrels) 58. Basil. 
Hex. ix. p. 115. 

Plin. xxix. 4; Eust. ad 11.*. 355 ; Nic. Ther. 196. Probably Mus- 
tela ioccamela, Cetti ; cf. Martens, Arch.f. Nature., 1858, p. 121. 
B Cf.Pro6/.x. 12.892*11,21. 

BOOK IX. 6 6i2 b 

birds like the cat. Its genital organ, as has been said, 15 
consists of bone : l the organ of the male is supposed to be 
a cure for strangury ; doctors scrape it into powder, and 
administer it in that form. 

7 In a general way in the lives of animals many resem- 
blances to human life may be observed. Pre-eminent 
intelligence will be seen more in small creatures than in 20 
large ones, as is exemplified in the case of birds by the 
nest-building of the swallow. 2 In the same way as men 
do, 3 the bird mixes mud and chaff 4 together; if it runs short 
of mud, it souses its body in water and rolls about in the 
dry dust with wet feathers ; furthermore, just as man does, 25 
it makes a bed of straw, putting hard material below for 
a foundation, and adapting all to suit its own size. Both 
parents co-operate in the rearing of the young ; each of 
the parents will detect, with practised eye, the young one 
that has had a helping, and will take care it is not helped 
twice over ; 5 at first the parents will rid the nest of excre- 
ment, but, when the young are grown, they will teach their 30 
young to shift their position and let their excrement fall 
over the side of the nest. 6 

Pigeons exhibit other phenomena with a similar likeness 
to the ways of humankind. In pairing the same male and 
the same female keep together ; and the union is only 
broken by the death of one of the two parties. 7 At the 
time of parturition in the female the sympathetic attentions 

1 H. A. ii. i. 5oo b 24 ; Plin. xi. 109; Antig. Mirab. 73 and 116; 
Ps.-Arist. de Mirab. 12. 83 i b i. 

2 Cf. Ael. iii. 24, 25 ; Antig. Mirab. 43 ; Pint. Soil. Anini. 996 D ; 
Ovid, F. i. 157; Basil. Hex. viii, p. 104. These descriptions all apply 
to the house-martin, Hirundo urbica ; in Plin. x. 49 (33) the nest 
of that species and those of the swallow and the sand-martin are 
all described. 

3 Cf. Plin. vii. 57. 

4 dxvptoo-is seems to be technical for the admixture of chaff with 
bricks or with the fabric of a mud-wall, and is so used by Vitruv. 
ii. i; cf. lutum paleatuui, Colum. v. 6, xii. 43, Plin. xv. 18; and 
lutiim aceratum, Fest. ad Non. 5. 97. 

6 Plin. x. 49 ; Ael. iii. 25 ; Antig. Mirab. 37, &c. 

6 Plut. Soil. Aniui. 962 F ; Symp. viii. 7. 

7 Plin. x. 52 ; Ael. iii. 44 ; Antig. 38 (44) ; Athen. ix. 394 ; Horap. i. 
57, ii. 33, &.c. 


of the male are extraordinary ; if the female is afraid on 
account of the impending parturition to enter the nest, the 
male will beat her and force her to come in. When the 
young are born, he will take and masticate pieces of 
suitable food, 1 will open the beaks of the fledglings, and 
inject these pieces, thus preparing them betimes to take 
5 food. [When the male bird is about to expel the young 
ones from the nest, he cohabits with them all. 2 ] As a 
general rule these birds show this conjugal fidelity, but 
occasionally a female will cohabit with other than her mate. :; 
These birds are combative, and quarrel with one another. 
and enter each other's nests, though this occurs but seldom ; 

10 at a distance from their nests this quarrelsomeness is less 
marked, but in the close neighbourhood of their nests they 
will fight desperately. A peculiarity common to the tame 
pigeon, the ring-dove and the turtle-dove is that they do 
not lean the head back when they are in the act of drink- 
ing, 4 but only when they have fully quenched their thirst. 
The turtle-dove and the ring-dove both have but one mate, 

15 and let no other come nigh ; both sexes co-operate in the 
process of incubation. It is difficult to distinguish between 
the sexes except by an examination of their interiors. 
Ring-doves are long-lived ; cases have been known where 
such birds were twenty-five years old, thirty years old, and 
in some cases forty. 5 As they grow old their claws increase 

20 in size, and pigeon-fanciers cut the claws ; as far as one can 
see, the birds suffer no other perceptible disfigurement 
by their increase in age. Turtle-doves and pigeons that 

Read V^OTTOJV (ppovri^fi T/yy apfjLOTTOV(rr]s Tpofyrjs TJS diap.a(TT](rdfj.vos. 
Most MSS. and edd. have a\nvpi(ova-r]s yi)$, 'saltish clay', which was 
also Pliny's reading: Guil. de Moerbeke has, with us, ' sollicitatur de 
opportune alimento, quod cum masticavit, inspexit.' As an explana- 
tion of flcrrrTveiv, Athen. /. c. and Ael. V. H.\. 15 add a>y pf) fiao-Kaitdwo-i. 
- A fable told of the partridge, cf. vi. 8. 564** 24 ; alien to all accounts 
of the pigeon. For KMTUS A. and W. would substitute TraXiv, for the 
bird's reputation's sake. 

3 No such exception to the pigeon's habitual chastity is mentioned 
elsewhere ; unless indeed the phenomenon alluded to be that described 
by Ael. l.C. Trpoa-riOrjori de TOVTOIS /cat fKelvo, on *al ai ^Xetui d 
avaftaivov(riV) ornv rfjs rrpos appeva /K^eco? aru^^o'coo'i. 

4 Alex. Mynd. afi. Athen. I.e. 

H. A. vi. 4. 503* 2 ; Plin. x. 52 ; Athen. ix. 394. 

BOOK IX. 7 6ia a 

are blinded by fanciers for use as decoys, live for eight 
years. Partridges live for about fifteen years. Ring-doves 
and turtle-doves always build their nests in the same 25 
place year after year. The male, as a general rule, is more 
long-lived than the female ; but in the case of pigeons some 
assert that the male dies before the female, taking their 
inference from the statements of persons who keep decoy- 
birds in captivity. Some declare that the male sparrow 
lives only for a year, pointing to the fact that early in 3 
spring the male sparrow has no black beard, but has one 
later on, as though the black-bearded birds of the last year 
had all died out ; they also say that the females are the 
longer lived, on the grounds that they are caught in 
amongst the young birds and that their age is rendered 6i3 b 
manifest by the hardness about their beaks. Turtle-doves 
in summer live in cold places, (and in warm places during 
the winter) -, 1 chaffinches affect warm habitations in summer, 5 
and cold ones in winter. 

8 Birds of a heavy build, such as quails, partridges, and the 
like, build no nests ; 2 indeed, where they are incapable of 
flight, it would be of no use if they could do so. After 
scraping a hole on a level piece of ground and it is only 
in such a place that they lay their eggs they cover it over 
with thorns and sticks 3 for security against hawks and 10 
eagles, and there lay their eggs and hatch them ; after the 
hatching is over, 4 they at once lead the young out from 
the nest, as they are not able to fly afield for food for 
them. Quails and partridges, like barn-door hens, when 
they go to rest, gather their brood under their wings. Not 15 
to be discovered, as might be the case if they stayed long 
in one spot, they do not hatch the eggs where they laid 

1 (TOV 8e xeipuivos lv rot? dAfayot?), absent from the MSS., inserted 
in the Aldine. Gaza 'hieme tepidrs'. 

2 H. A. vi. i. 558*31. 

Plin. x. 51 ; Ael. iii. 16, x. 35 ; Ov. Met. viii. 258. 

K\f \lravres. Aquinas translate syV/nmfej, reading K\tyavT(s (J.G. S.). 
That the partridge stole the eggs or young of its neighbours was 
a common belief; see, for many refif., patristic, Arabic, &c., Bochart, 
Micros, ii. p. 84, c. 


them. 1 When a man comes by chance upon a young 
brood, and tries to catch them, the hen-bird rolls in front 
of the hunter, pretending to be lame : 2 the man every 
moment thinks he is on the point of catching her, and so 

20 she draws him on and on, until every one of her brood 
has had time to escape ; hereupon she returns to the nest 
and calls the young back. The partridge lays not less 
than ten eggs, and often lays as many as sixteen. As has 
been observed, the bird has mischievous and deceitful 
habits. In the spring-time, a noisy 3 scrimmage takes place, 

25 out of which the male-birds emerge each with a hen. 
Owing to the lecherous nature of the bird, and from 
a dislike to the hen sitting, the males, if they find any 
eggs, roll them over and over until they break them in 
pieces ; to provide against this the female goes to a distance 
and lays the eggs, and often, under the stress of parturition, 
lays them in any chance spot that offers ; 4 if the male bird 

30 be near at hand, 5 then to keep the eggs intact she refrains 
from visiting them. If she be seen by a man, then, just as with 
her fledged brood, she entices him off by showing herself 
close at his feet until she has drawn him to a distance. When 
the females have run away and taken to sitting, the males 
614* in a pack take to screaming and fighting; when thus engaged, 
they have the nickname of ' widowers '. G The bird who is 
beaten follows his victor, and submits to be covered by him 
only ; and the beaten bird is covered by a second one or by 
any other, only clandestinely without the victor's knowledge ; 
this is so, not at all times, but at a particular season of the 
5 year, and with quails as well as with partridges. 7 A similar 

1 Cf. Plin. I.e. Alb. M. gives a loose, but possibly correct inter- 
pretation : ' Non habet nidum certum et stabilem per annos multos, 
sicut gallina, sed uno anno ovant in loco uno et in alio loco in alio, et 
hoc ideo faciunt ne venator cognoscat nidum eius.' The same story is 
told of $u0-<ra, East. Hex. p. 24. 

2 Plut. Soil. Anim. 971 c. Cf. Ar. Av. 768 and Schol. 

1 8t' &>5}r. Aquinas, reading 6Y a>6u>or, translates propter partum. 

4 A different account in H. A. vi. 8. 564* 20. 

5 Read <av Trapfj 6 appj'jv, OTTCOS. 

6 There are traces of Egyptian influence in this and other stories 
about the partridge. Cf. Horap. ii. 95 naiStpavTiav ftuv\6p.voi 

dvo ne'pdiKas faypafpaixTiv' e<('ivoi yap (nav ^r/ptuVcoaiv, carrots 

7 Ael. iv. 16. 

BOOK IX. 8 614' 

proceeding takes place occasionally with barn-door cocks : 
for in temples, where cocks are set apart as dedicate 
without hens, 1 they all as a matter of course tread any 
new-comer. Tame partridges tread wild birds, peck at 
their heads, 2 and treat them with every possible outrage. 
The leader of the wild birds, with a counter-note of 10 
challenge, 3 pushes forward to attack the decoy-bird, 4 and 
after he has been netted, 5 another advances with a similar 
note. 6 This is what is done if the decoy be a male ; but 
if it be a female that is the decoy and gives the note, and 
the leader of the wild birds give a counter one, the rest of 
the males set upon him and chase him away from the 15 
female for making advances to her instead of to them ; 
in consequence of this the male often advances without 
uttering any cry, so that no other may hear him and come 
and give him battle ; and experienced fowlers assert that 
sometimes the male bird, when he approaches the female, 
makes her keep silence, to avoid having to give battle to 20 
other males who might have heard him. The partridge 
has not only the note here referred to, but also a thin 
shrill cry and other notes. 7 Oftentimes the hen-bird rises 
from off her brood when she sees the male showing atten- 
tions to the female decoy ; she will give the counter-note 
and remain still, so as to be trodden by him and divert him 25 
from the decoy. The quail and the partridge are so intent 
upon sexual union that they often come right in the way 

1 As in the temple of Hercules and Hebe, tv rr/ EvpuTry, Mnas. ap. 
Ael. xvii. 46 ; or to this day on Mount Athos. Cf. Plut. Quaest. Symp. 
696 E ; Paus. ii. 148. 

2 We read, with Bochart (ii. col. 89), f7rtKoppiov<n, i.e. eVi Kopprjs 
rvTTTova-i. The usual reading is enutopi^ovcn, which also does not occur 
elsewhere, and which might be taken as equivalent to {moKopifrwi, i.e. 
< pet ' or ' fondle '. 

8 avrqaas, Schn. for di>Ttd<ras, codd. Cf. Ael. iv. l6 o df) TO>V dyplav 
Kopv<palos dvTiq<ras irpb TTJS dycXrjs o>r na)(ovp.cvos ep^crat. 

4 6rjpcvTf)v. Bripfvovra a.p. Athen. ix. 389; cf. Plin. x. 51. On decoy 
partridges see also Xen. Mem. ii. 1.4; they are said to be still used in 

8 TOVTOV 6* dXdVror. Guil. has hoc autem cantante, i. e. aSojTo? : but 
Athen. /. C. &\6vros 6 TOVTOV, erepos cpxcrat pcixovpfvos ; Plin. /. c. 'capto 
eo procedit alter'. Tnj/mus-, Seal, cavea iriminea ; cf. Ar. Av. 528, Schol. 
fl8os diKTvov. Cf. also Dion, de Avib. iii. 7 ; Hesych. s.v. napraXov, &c. 

6 A different, but somewhat more intelligible account in Ael. iv. 6. 

7 H. A. iv. 9. 536 b 14; Athen. ix. 390; Plut. Quaest. Symp. 727 D. 


of the decoy-birds, and not seldom alight upon their 
heads. 1 So much for the sexual proclivities of the par- 
tridge, for the way in which it is hunted, and the general 
30 nasty habits of the bird. 

As has been said, quails and partridges build their nests 
upon the ground, and so also do some of the birds that are 
capable of sustained flight. 2 Further, for instance, of such 
birds, the lark and the woodcock, as well as the quail, do 
not perch on a branch, but squat upon the ground. 

6i4 b The woodpecker does not squat on the ground, but 9 
pecks at the bark of trees to drive out from under it 
maggots and gnats ; 3 when they emerge, it licks them up 
with its tongue, which is large and flat. 4 It can run up and 
down a tree in any way, even with the head downwards, 
like the gecko-lizard. 5 For secure hold upon a tree, its 
5 claws are better adapted than those of the daw ; 6 it makes 
its way by sticking these claws into the bark. One species 
of woodpecker 7 is smaller than a blackbird, and has small 
reddish speckles ; a second species is larger than the black- 
bird, and a third is not much smaller than a barn-door 

10 hen. 8 It builds a nest on trees, 9 as has been said, on 
olive trees amongst others. It feeds on the maggots and 
ants that are under the bark: it is so eager in the search 
for maggots that it is said sometimes to hollow a tree out 
to its downfall. A woodpecker once, in course of domesti- 

15 cation, was seen to insert an almond into a hole in a piece 
of timber, so that it might remain steady under its 

1 Ka6tdvov<riv eVi ras K.c(pa\as. Athen. /. C. eVi rtoj/ Kepafiwv. Plin. 
understands by rovs QrjpevovTas, not the decoy-birds, but the sportsmen, 
*ut in capite aucupantium saepe caecae metu sedeant.' 

2 Dittm. CJ.TWJ/ </ij?) TTTIJTIKWJ/; cf. H. A. vi. i. 558 b 31, ix. 8. 6i3 b 7. 
1 Plin. x. 20; Ps.-Arist. Mirab. 13. 83i b 5 ; Plut. Q. R. 269 A. 

4 n\aTtlav is inapplicable to the long, sharp tongue of the wood- 
pecker : either the word is corrupt (? Ta^eiav) or a phrase has dropped 

5 Plin. /. c. has * in subreptum [s. subrectumj felium modo '. 

6 Schn. suggests KO\I&V, s. KeXewy. 

7 H. A. viii. 3. 593 a 5. 

8 Probably (i) the lesser and greater spotted woodpeckers, (2) the 
green woodpecker, and (3) the great black woodpecker. 

9 Schn. proposes cv TOIS Sevdpfviv, which more accurate statement 
Gaza and de Moerbeke appear to follow. There is no passage to 
which oxrnep ("iprjTm is clearly referable. 

BOOK IX. 9 6i 4 b 

pecking ; at the third peck it split the shell of the fruit, 
and then ate the kernel. 

10 Many indications of high intelligence are given by 
cranes. They will fly to a great distance and high up 
in the air, to command an extensive view ; if they see 20 
clouds and signs of bad weather they fly down again and 
remain still. 1 They, furthermore, have a leader in their 
flight, and patrols that scream on the confines of the 
flock so as to be heard by all. When they settle down, 
the main body go to sleep with their heads under their 
wing, standing first on one leg and then on the other, 25 
while their leader, with his head uncovered, keeps a sharp 
look out, and when he sees anything of importance signals 

it with a cry. 

Pelicans that live beside rivers 2 swallow the large smooth 
mussel-shells : after cooking them inside the crop that pre- 
cedes the stomach, they spit them out, so that, now when 
their shells are open, they may pick the flesh out and 
eat it. 3 ao 

11 Of wild birds, the nests are fashioned to meet the exigencies 
of existence and ensure the security of the young. Some 
of these birds are fond of their young and take great care 
of them, others are quite the reverse ; some are clever in 
procuring subsistence, others are not so. Some of these 
birds build in ravines and clefts, 4 and on cliffs, as, for 
instance, the so-called charadrius, or stone-curlew ; this bird 6i5 a 
is in no way noteworthy for plumage or voice ; it makes an 
appearance at night, but in the daytime keeps out of sight. 

The hawk also builds in inaccessible places. Although 
a ravenous bird, it will never eat the heart of any bird it 
catches ; "' this has been observed in the case of the quail, 5 

1 H. A. viii. 12. 597 a 4 ; Eurip. Hel. 1478 ; Plin. x. 30; Ael. iii. 14, 
vii. 7 ; Cic. TV. D, ii. 49 ; Horap. ii. 49, &c. 

2 i.e. the TrfXixai/e?, as distinguished from the TTfAfKazrey, the wood 
peckers ; cf. Ar. Av. 1155, &c. 

3 Ael. iii. 23, v. 35 ; Ps.-Arist. Mirab. 14. 83i a 10; Antig. 47 ; Dion. 
de Ai>ib. ii. 6 ; Plin. x. 56 ; Cic. N. D. ii. 49. 

1 Read xapaSpa? Km ^pa/iotr. 

5 Plin. x. 10 ; Ael. ii. 42 ; an Egyptian myth. 


the thrush, and other birds. They modify betimes their 
method of hunting, 1 for in summer they do not grab their 
prey as they do at other seasons. 2 

Of the vulture, it is said that no one has ever seen either its 
young or its nest ; 3 on this account and on the ground that 
all of a sudden great numbers of them will appear without 
any one being able to tell from whence they come, Hero- 

ic dorus, the father of Bryson the sophist, says that it belongs 
to some distant and elevated 4 land. The reason is that the 
bird has its nest on inaccessible crags, and is found only 
in a few localities. The female lays one egg as a rule, 
and two at the most. 

15 Some birds live, on mountains or in forests, as the 
hoopoe and the brenthus ; 5 this latter bird finds his food 
with ease and has a musical voice. The wren lives in 
brakes and crevices ; it is difficult of capture, keeps out of 
sight, is gentle of disposition, finds its food with ease, and 
is something of a mechanic. It goes by the nickname of 
' old man ' or ' king ' ; 6 and the story goes that for this 
reason the eagle is at war with him. 7 

20 Some birds live on the sea-shore, as the wagtail ; the 12 
bird is of a mischievous nature, hard to capture, but when 

is often used of the hawk, but always of its supposed 
metamorphosis with the cuckoo. The expression here is a singular 
one, and from the analogy of H. A. vi. 7. 563 b 24 we might suspect 
the true reading to be pera TO depos. 

2 Albertus M. 'aliam praedam capiimt in aestate et aliam in 

That the vulture laid no eggs, but was impregnated by the east 
wind and brought forth her young alive and feathered, was an Egyp- 
tian myth, connected with the association of the bird with Maut, the 
goddess of maternity. For reff. see Gl. of Gk. Birds^ p. 48. The rest 
of the paragraph is an inaccurate transcript of H. A. vi. 5. 563* 6. 

4 fTpas p.Tfu>pov yrjs. A very suspicious phrase, especially inasmuch 
as what seems to be the parent passage (vi. 5) has simply a<' ere pas 
yrjs. I should be inclined to conjecture ^TOIKOV, and perhaps to 
compare Aesch. Ag. 57. 

5 /SpeVflor. Hesych. *oVcrr(/>or. Cf. H. A. ix. I. 609* 23, where 
I suspect /3p. to be an interpolation. 

c In my Gl. of Gk. Birds (pp. 126, 171) I have hazarded the 
conjecture that rpo\i\os is Egyptian, and further that in the likeness 
between Copt, oura, avis, and ouro, rex, may lie the connexion between 
the bird and its appellation ' king '. 

7 Cf. Plin. x. 95. It is to the owl that op^tXo? is said to be hostile, 
H. A. ix. i. 6o9 a 12. 


BOOK IX. 12 615 

caught capable of complete domestication ; it is a cripple, 
as being weak in its hinder quarters. 1 

Web-footed birds without exception live near the sea 
or rivers or pools, as they naturally resort to places 25 
adapted to their structure. 2 Several birds, however, with 
cloven toes live near pools or marshes, as, for instance, the 
anthus 3 lives by the side of rivers ; the plumage of this 
bird is pretty, and it finds its food with ease. The 
catarrhactes 4 lives near the sea ; when it makes a dive, it 
will keep under water for as long as it would take a man 30 
to walk a furlong ; it is less than the common hawk. 
Swans are web-footed, and live near pools and marshes ; 
they find their food with ease, are good-tempered, are fond 
of their young, 5 and live to a green old age. If the eagle 
attacks them they will repel the attack and get the better 6i5 b 
of their assailant, but they are never the first to attack. 6 
They are musical, and sing chiefly at the approach of 
death ; 7 at this time they fly out to sea, and men, when 
sailing past the coast of Libya, have fallen in with many 
of them out at sea singing in mournful strains, and have 5 
actually seen some of them dying. 8 

The cymindis 9 is seldom seen, as it lives on mountains ; 
it is black in colour, and about the size of the hawk called 
the ' dove-killer ' ; it is long and slender 10 in form. The 

1 avdnrjpos KrX., cf. Ael. xii. 9 dadevfs TO KCLTVJTIV, statements not 
very consonant with (e.g.) Hesych. iciyK\os' opveov TIVKV&S KIVOVV T^V 
ovpdv' d<p' ou Ka\ TO KiyK\ietv, o eon Sia<7fi<r0ai. Cf. Prov. Trrw^orepos 
KiyK\ov, Menand. ap. Suid., and Ael. /. c., &c. It is not clear whether 
KiyK\os was a wagtail, or, as Sundevall and others take it, a sand- 
piper (cf. supra, viii. 4. 593 b 5). There is a lurking unpleasantness in 
the allusions, in the Comic Frr. and elsewhere, to Ki'y/cXor, o-eiowrvytV, &c. 

2 Cf. Theophr. C. P. vi. 4. 6 Via {<j>a} *t aura cavrots cvpio-Kd ra 
npoo-<popa. 3 H. A. viii. 3. 5Q2 b 25, ix. I. 6o9 b 14. 

4 H. A. ii. 17. 509* 4 ; Aristoph. H. A. Epit. i. 24 ; Dion, de Avid. 
ii. 2 ; Plin. x. 61. 

5 evTfKvoi. The meaning is not very clear : cf. Ael. V. H. i. 14 
Xt'-yet 'Ap. TOV K.VK.VOV JcaXXiVaiSa elvai Kal iro\vrrai$a. 

6 Ael. v. 34, xvii. 24 ; Athen. ix. p. 393 ; Dion, de Avib. ii. 19, &c. 

7 For the very numerous references to the swan's song see 67. of 
Gk. Birds, pp. 106, 107. 8 Cit. ap. Ael. x. 56. 

9 Kvnivfas, in many MSS. Ku/3<i>8i?, Aid. xaXnci'r. For many reff. and 
Scholia see Schneider's note and my Gl. of Gk. Birds, p. 108. The 
word is possibly akin to the Indian govinda, a kite. 

10 XeTTTo's. MSS. \CVKOS. Schn. and Pice, add, from Eustath. ad 11. 
xiv. 291 \a\Kifav Tyv xpoidi*' oQtv \a\Kis Xe' 

AR. H.A. J) d 


lonians call the bird by this name ; Homer in the Iliad 
mentions it in the line T : 

10 Chalcis its name with those of heav'nly birth, 

But called Cymindis by the sons of earth. 

The hybris, said by some to be the same as the eagle- 
owl, is never seen by daylight, as it is dim- sighted, but 
during the night it hunts like the eagle ; 2 it will fight the 
eagle 2 with such desperation that the two combatants are 
15 often captured alive by shepherds ; it lays two eggs, and, 
like others we have mentioned, it builds on rocks and in 
caverns. Cranes also fight so desperately among them- 
selves as to be caught when fighting, for they will not leave 
ofT ; 3 the crane lays two eggs. 

The jay has a great variety of notes : indeed, one might 13 
20 almost say it had a different note for every day in the 
year. 4 It lays about nine eggs ; builds its nest on trees, 
out of hair and tags of wool ; when acorns are getting 
scarce, 3 it lays up a store of them in hiding. 

It is a common story of the stork that the old birds are 
fed by their grateful progeny. 6 Some tell a similar story 
25 of the bee-eater, and declare that the parents are fed by 
their young not only when growing old, but at an early 
period, as soon as the young are capable of feeding them ; 
and the parent-birds stay inside the nest. 7 The under part 
of the bird's wing is pale yellow ; the upper part is dark 

1 //. xiv. 291. 

2 For aero/, deroV Dittm. reads omx, ooro;-, the eared owl; cf. viii. 
12. 597 b 18, 22. 

3 vTrop.ei'ov(n yap. An obscure and dubious reading ; according to Gaza, 
'hominem enim exspectare potius quam pugna desistere patiuntur': 
Seal. ' resistunt enim ' : Guil. ' ut et ambae capiantur viventes et ipsae 
a pastoribus pugnantes'. Hence Schneider conjectures that Guil. 

read COOT* KI a/n^>a> Aa/z3ofecr$ai co<ra? xai avras vno TU>V vofifatv fJ-a\o- 
ji?Vay, a statement similar to that made immediately above regarding 
the eagle. 

4 Ael. vi. 19; Plut. Soil. An. 973 c ; Dion, de Avib. i. 18; Porphi 
de Abstin. iii. 4. 

5 OTCIV vTroAiTraxri. Gaza 'cum deficiant'; Alb. M. 'cum cadunt 
glandes ', as though reading icroTriTrroxrt. 

6 Soph. El. 1058; Ar. Av. 1355; Plut. Alcib. i. I35 J ; Ael. iii. 23 ; 
Acs. 100, ioo b ; Babr. 13; Horap. ii. 55, c. 

7 Plin. x. 51 ; Ael. xi. 30. 

BOOK IX. 13 6i 5 b 

blue, like that of the halcyon ; the tips of the wings are 
red. 1 About autumn-time 2 it lays six or seven eggs, in 30 
overhanging banks where the soil is soft ; there it burrows 
into the ground to a depth of six feet. 

The greenfinch, so called from the colour of its belly, 
is as large as a lark ; it lays four or five eggs, builds 
its nest out of the plant called comfrey, pulling it up 6i6 { 
by the roots, and makes an under-mattress to lie on of hair 
and wool. 3 The blackbird and the jay build their nests after 
the same fashion. The nest of the penduline tit shows 
great mechanical skill ; it has the appearance of a ball of 5 
flax, and the hole for entry is very small. 4 

People who live where the bird comes from say that 
there exists a cinnamon bird which brings the cinnamon 
from some unknown localities, and builds its nest out of it ; 5 
it builds on high trees on the slender top branches. They 10 
say that the inhabitants attach leaden weights to the tips 
of their arrows and therewith bring down the nests, and 
from the intertexture collect the cinnamon sticks. 

14 The halcyon is not much larger than the sparrow. Its 
colour is dark blue, green, and light purple ; the whole 15 
body and wings, and especially parts about the neck, show 
these colours in a mixed way, without any colour being 
sharply defined ; the beak is light green, long and slender: 6 
such, then, is the look of the bird. Its nest 7 is like sea- 

1 TO. 6' eV aKp<i)V TO>V Trrepvyiw epvdpu. Plin. X. $8 ' primori (?)